For the Syrian town Amouda, see: Amuda

The castle of Amouda (Turkish: Hemite Kalesi or Amuda Kalesi) is a Crusader castle, formerly in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, and today in the Turkish Province of Osmaniye.[1] The castle was deeded by the Armenian king Levon I to the Teutonic Knights in 1212 (Barber 2008) and rebuilt by them in the 13th century. It earned revenue for the Teutonic Order from the surrounding land. According to contemporary sources, the castle provided shelter for 2,200 people during the invasion by the Mamluks in 1266.[1]



In 1987 an archaeological and historical assessment of the site, as well as a surveyed plan, were published.[1] From atop the outcrop this castle has clear inter-visibility with at least five others forts. Based on an analysis of the masonry, there were at least three major periods of construction and/or repair, with the most prominent contribution from the Crusader occupation. Unlike Armenian designs, it has a simple rectangular plan dominated at the southwest by a four-story keep with cisterns in the lowest level.

The design of Amouda is similar to the Teutonic Knights's castle at Montfort with a keep guarding the entrance (Molin 2001).


  1. ^ a b c Edwards, Robert W. (1987). The Fortifications of Armenian Cilicia: Dumbarton Oaks Studies XXIII. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University. pp. 58–62, 281, pls.3a–5b. ISBN 0-88402-163-7.
  • Unknown crusader castles by Kristian Molin, Hambledon Continuum, 2001
  • The Military Orders: History and heritage By Malcolm Barber, Victor Mallia-Milanes. 2008

Coordinates: 37°11′19″N 36°05′40″E / 37.18861°N 36.09444°E

Amouda cinema

Amouda Cinema was a movie theater in Amuda town in Al-Hasakah Governorate of Syria. This cinema burned down in a fire in November 1960 and more than 200 children died inside it.


Amuda (Arabic: عامودا‎, romanized: 'Āmūdā, Kurdish: Amûdê‎, Classical Syriac: ܥܐܡܘܕܐ‎) is a town in Al Hasakah Governorate in northeastern Syria close to the border with Turkey. As a preliminary result of the ongoing Syrian Civil War, Amuda today is situated in Jazira Region within the autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria framework.


Anazarbus (Ancient Greek: Ἀναζαρβός, medieval Ain Zarba; modern Anavarza; Arabic: عَيْنُ زَرْبَة‎) was an ancient Cilician city. Under the late Roman Empire, it was the capital of Cilicia Secunda. It was destroyed in 1374.

April 2017 Turkish airstrikes in Syria and Iraq

In the morning of 25 April 2017, the Turkish Air Force conducted multiple bombing raids against media centers and headquarters of the People's Protection Units (YPG) and the Women's Protection Units (YPJ) in northeastern Syria, while simultaneously launching airstrikes against positions of the Sinjar Resistance Units (YBS) on Mount Sinjar, northwestern Iraq. The airstrikes killed 20 YPG and YPJ fighters in Syria in addition to 5 Peshmerga soldiers in Iraq.

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (Middle Armenian: Կիլիկիոյ Հայոց Թագաւորութիւն, Giligio Hayoc’ T’akavorut’yun), also known as the Cilician Armenia (Armenian: Կիլիկյան Հայաստան, Giligyan Hayastan), Lesser Armenia, or New Armenia, was an independent principality formed during the High Middle Ages by Armenian refugees fleeing the Seljuq invasion of Armenia. Located outside the Armenian Highland and distinct from the Armenian Kingdom of antiquity, it was centered in the Cilicia region northwest of the Gulf of Alexandretta.

The kingdom had its origins in the principality founded c. 1080 by the Rubenid dynasty, an alleged offshoot of the larger Bagratid family, which at various times had held the thrones of Armenia and Georgia. Their capital was originally at Tarsus, and later became Sis. Cilicia was a strong ally of the European Crusaders, and saw itself as a bastion of Christendom in the East. It also served as a focus for Armenian nationalism and culture, since Armenia proper was under foreign occupation at the time. Cilicia's significance in Armenian history and statehood is also attested by the transfer of the seat of the Catholicos of the Armenian Apostolic Church, spiritual leader of the Armenian people, to the region.

In 1198, with the crowning of Leo the Magnificent of the Rubenid dynasty, Cilician Armenia became a kingdom.In 1226, the crown was passed to rival Hethumids through Leo's daughter Isabella's second husband, Hethum I. As the Mongols conquered vast regions of Central Asia and the Middle East, Hethum and succeeding Hethumid rulers sought to create an Armeno-Mongol alliance against common Muslim foes, most notably the Mamluks. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Crusader states and the Mongol Ilkhanate disintegrated, leaving the Armenian Kingdom without any regional allies. After relentless attacks by the Mamluks in Egypt in the fourteenth century, the Cilician Armenia of the Lusignan dynasty, mired in an internal religious conflict, finally fell in 1375.Commercial and military interactions with Europeans brought new Western influences to the Cilician Armenian society. Many aspects of Western European life were adopted by the nobility including chivalry, fashions in clothing, and the use of French titles, names, and language. Moreover, the organization of the Cilician society shifted from its traditional system to become closer to Western feudalism. The European Crusaders themselves borrowed know-how, such as elements of Armenian castle-building and church architecture. Cilician Armenia thrived economically, with the port of Ayas serving as a center for East-West trade.


In antiquity, Cilicia () was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire. Extending inland from the southeastern coast of modern Turkey, Cilicia is due north and northeast of the island of Cyprus and corresponds to the modern region of Çukurova in Turkey.

Constantine of Baberon

Constantine of Baberon (died c. 1263) was a powerful Armenian noble of the Het‛umid family. He was the son of Vassag and the father of King Het‛um I, who ruled the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia from 1226 to 1270. Constantine played a pivotal role in placing his son on the throne by engineering the murder of Philip, the husband of Isabella, Queen of Armenia. He tricked Philip’s father, Bohemond IV of Antioch, to search for his son at Amouda rather than at Sis, where he was being tortured and poisoned. He then took his army to the gates of Silifke Castle, forced its Frankish lords to surrender Isabella, and arranged the marriage, making his son the first Het‛umid ruler of the Armenian Kingdom.Constantine began construction on the elaborate baronial apartments at Baberon (Çandır Castle), which were still standing in 1979. Nearby, at a site known today as Kız Kilisesi near Gösne, he built a monastic retreat with an ornate chapel whose dedicatory inscription is dated to 1241.Constantine, also known as the Grand Baron Constantine, was married to Alix Pahlavouni (a third-cousin of Leo II), with whom he fathered:

Sempad the Constable 1208-1276

Hethum I of Armenia 1213-1270

John the Bishop of Sis

Ochine of Korykos, father of the historian Hayton of Corycus

Maria, who married John of Ibelin, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon, the famous jurist

Stephanie of Lampron, married in 1237 to King Henry I of Cyprus

Hemite relief

The Hemite relief is a Hittite rock relief at Gökçedam (formerly Hemite) in the central district of Osmaniye Province in Turkey, about 20 km northwest of the provincial capital of Osmaniye. Rock reliefs are a prominent aspect of Hittite art.

Ibrahim Biro

Ibrahim biro (Kurdish: Ibrahîm Biro), (Arabic: إبراهيم برو) head of the Yekiti Kurdistan Party - Syria, from March 2013 to late December 2018. Born in the city of Amouda July 7, 1965 of the Syrian province of Hasakah. He received his high school diploma from the city's high school and continued his studies at the Intermediate Institute of Railways in Aleppo in 1985. To work as a civil servant at the Syrian Railways Corporation one year after graduating.

List of Crusader castles

This is a list of castles in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, founded or occupied during the Crusades. For crusader castles in Poland and the Baltic states, see Ordensburg.

Mahmoud Jalal

Mahmoud Jalal (Arabic: محمود جلال‎), (1911 - 1975), was a Libyan-born Syrian artist, painter, sculptor, medalist, and one of the early leaders of modern art movement in Syria.

Pondicherry Science Forum

Pondicherry Science Forum (PSF) was founded in 1985. PSF believes that science placed before humanity tools which transform society, tools that banish poverty, disease and social backwardness. But for it to be used for such purposes, awareness of potential of science and technology, and a scientific temperament should become an integral part of the life process of the people. It describes itself as "a non profit, voluntary, public-interest organization" which is based in Puducherry, India. It works primarily on issues related to science policy and science popularization.

Syrian cultural caravan

The Syrian Cultural Caravan is an artistic and cultural movement led by Syrian artists. Started in 2014 as a project called "Freedom for the Syrian People", it took the form of a road trip, taking off from France and continuing across Europe.

In face of the success met in 2014, the project became a movement entitled the "Syrian Cultural Caravan".

The project aims at bringing a wide diversity of artists together around a multi-format exhibition mixing paintings, photographs, dance, music, film screenings, as well as debates and the sharing of food.

The goal of the project is "to promote Syrian civil society and contemporary Syrian art and culture" by debunking the public’s expectations. Artists create a platform for debate on which they can offer their own narrative to counterweight the mainstream narrative of the media.

Teutonic Order

The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.

The Teutonic Order was formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals. Its members have commonly been known as the Teutonic Knights, having a small voluntary and mercenary military membership, serving as a crusading military order for protection of Christians in the Holy Land and the Baltics during the Middle Ages.

Purely religious since 1929, the Teutonic Order still confers limited honorary knighthoods. The Bailiwick of Utrecht of the Teutonic Order, a Protestant chivalric order, is descended from the same medieval military order and also continues to award knighthoods and perform charitable work.

Thoros II, Prince of Armenia

Toros II the Great (Armenian: Թորոս Բ), also Thoros II, (unknown – February 6, 1169) was the sixth lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains” (1144/1145–1169).

Thoros (together with his father, Leo I and his brother, Roupen) was taken captive and imprisoned in Constantinople in 1137 after the Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus, during his campaign against Cilicia and the Principality of Antioch, successfully had laid siege to Gaban and Vahka (today Feke in Turkey). All Cilicia remained under Byzantine rule for eight years.Unlike his father and brother, Thoros survived his incarceration in Constantinople and was able to escape in 1143. Whatever the conditions in which Thoros entered Cilicia, he found it occupied by many Greek garrisons. He rallied around him the Armenians in the eastern parts of Cilicia and after a persistent and relentless pursuit of the Greeks, he successfully ousted the Byzantine garrisons from Pardzerpert (now Andırın in Turkey), Vahka, Sis (today Kozan in Turkey), Anazarbus, Adana, Mamistra and eventually Tarsus. His victories were aided by the lack of Muslim attacks in Cilicia and from the setbacks the Greeks and the Crusaders suffered on the heels of the loss of Edessa.Emperor Manuel I Comnenus, unhappy with Thoros's progress in the areas still claimed by the Byzantine Empire, sought peaceful means to settle his conflict with Thoros, but his attempts bore him no fruits. The recovery before 1150 of the Taurus fortresses by Thoros had not seriously affected Greek power, but his conquest of Mamistra in 1151 and the rest of Cilicia in 1152 had necessitated a great expedition. As a result, during the course of the next 20 years there were no less than three separate military campaigns launched by the emperor against Thoros, but each campaign was only able to produce a limited success.Thoros's accomplishments during his reign placed Armenian Cilicia on a firm footing.

Thoros was of a tall figure and of a strong mind: his compassion was universal; like the light of the sun he shone by his good works, and flourished by his faith; he was the shield of truth and the crown of righteousness; he was well versed in the Holy Scriptures and in the profane sciences. It is said that he was of such profound understanding, as to be able to explain the difficult expressions of the prophets – his explanations even still exist.

Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (May–August 2011)

The following is a timeline of the Syrian Civil War from May to August 2011, including the escalation of violence in many Syrian cities.

Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (September–December 2011)

The following is a timeline of the Syrian uprising from September to December 2011. This period saw the uprising take on many of the characteristics of a civil war, according to several outside observers, including the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, as armed elements became better organized and began carrying out successful attacks in retaliation for the ongoing crackdown by the Syrian government on demonstrators and defectors.

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