Amon of Judah

Amon of Judah[a] was a 7th-century BC King of Judah who, according to the biblical account, succeeded his father Manasseh of Judah. Amon is most remembered for his idolatrous practices while king, which led to a revolt against him and eventually his assassination in c. 641 BC.

Amon
Amon rex
King of Judah
Reign643/642 – 641/640 BC[1][2]
PredecessorManasseh
SuccessorJosiah
Bornc. 664 BC
Judah
Diedc. 641 BC
Jerusalem
Burial641 BC
Garden of Uzza[3]
ConsortJedidah[4]
IssueJosiah
Hebrewאָמוֹן
HouseHouse of David
FatherManasseh
MotherMeshullemeth[5]
ReligionIdolatry

Life

Amon was the son of King Manasseh of Judah and Meshullemeth, a daughter of Haruz of Jotbah.[5] Although the date is unknown, the Hebrew Bible records that he married Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. Amon began his reign of Judah at the age of 22, and reigned for two years.[6] Biblical scholar and archeologist William F. Albright has dated his reign to 642–640, while professor E. R. Thiele offers the dates 643/642 – 641/640.[1] Thiele's dates are tied to the reign of Amon's son Josiah, whose death at the hands of Pharaoh Necho II occurred in the summer of 609. The battle in which Josiah is said to have died, which is independently confirmed in Egyptian history,[7] places the end of Amon's reign, 31 years earlier, in 641 or 640 and the beginning of his rule in 643 or 642.[1]

The Hebrew Bible records that Amon continued his father Manasseh's practice of idolatry and set up pagan images as his father had done.[3] II Kings states that Amon "did that which was evil in the sight of Yahweh, as did Manasseh his father. And he walked in all the way that his father walked in, and served the idols that his father served, and worshipped them."[6] Similarly, II Chronicles records that "…he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, as did Manasseh his father; and Amon sacrificed unto all the graven images which Manasseh his father had made, and served them."[8] The Talmudic tradition recounts that "Amon burnt the Torah, and allowed spider webs to cover the altar [through complete disuse] ... Amon sinned very much."[9] [10][11]Like other textual sources, Flavius Josephus too criticizes the reign of Amon, describing his reign similarly to the Bible.[12]

After reigning two years, Amon was assassinated by his servants, who conspired against him, and was succeeded by his son Josiah, who at the time was eight years old.[13] After Amon's assassination his murderers became unpopular with the people, and were ultimately killed.[14] Some scholars, such as Abraham Malamat, assert that Amon was assassinated because people disliked the heavy influence that Assyria, an age-old enemy of Judah responsible for the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel, had upon him.[15]

Era

Amon's reign was in the midst of a transitional time for the Levant and the entire Mesopotamian region. To the east of Judah, the Assyrian Empire was beginning to disintegrate while the Babylonian Empire had not yet risen to replace it. To the west, Egypt was still recovering under Psamtik I from its Assyrian occupation,[16] transforming from a vassal state to an autonomous ally.[17] In this power vacuum, many smaller states such as Judah were able to govern themselves without foreign intervention from larger empires.[18]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hebrew: אָמוֹן’Āmōn; Greek: Αμων; Latin: Amon

References

  1. ^ a b c Edwin R. Thiele (1983). "9". The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings (3rd ed.). Grand Rapids, Michigan: Kregel Publications. ISBN 978-0-8254-3825-7.
  2. ^ Leslie McFall (1991). "A Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in Kings and Chronicles" (PDF). Bibliotheca Sacra. Dallas Theological Seminary. 148: 3–45. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 21, 2011.
  3. ^ a b Charles J. Mendelsohn; Kaufmann Kohler; Morris Jastrow (1906). "Amon, King of Judah". Jewish Encyclopedia. I (1st ed.). Funk & Wagnalls. pp. 526–527.
  4. ^ Andrew Wood (1896). "The Kingdom of Judah". The Hebrew Monarchy: A Commentary, with a Harmony of the Parallel Texts and Extracts from the Prophetical Books. Eyre and Spottiswoode. ISBN 978-1-149-80041-6.
  5. ^ a b Flavius Josephus (c. 93 CE). Antiquities of the Jews. Book X, Chapter 3, Section 2. Translated from the Latin by William Whiston from The Christian Classics Ethereal Library.
  6. ^ a b 2 Kings 21:18-26
  7. ^ D.J. Wiseman (1956). Chronicles of Chaldean Kings. Trustees of the British Museum. pp. 94–95.
  8. ^ 2 Chronicles 33:22
  9. ^ Tractate Sanhedrin, Folio 103a. 1902 Translation by Rabbi Isisdore Epstein.
  10. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia Amon King of Judah
  11. ^ [According to Louis Ginzburg's Legends of the Jews "..For repentance he was given no time, for death cut him off in the fullness of his sinful ways...That the full measure of punishment was not meted out to Amon-his evil deeds were such that he should have forfeited his share in the World to come-was due to the circumstance of his having a pious and righteous son..". See Legends of the Jews p.281
  12. ^ Christopher Begg (1996). "Jotham and Amon: Two Minor Kings of Judah According to Josephus" (PDF). Bulletin for Biblical Research. Institute for Biblical Research. 6 (1): 13.
  13. ^ 2 Kings 22:1
  14. ^ Henry Fowler (1920). Great Leaders of Hebrew History: From Manasseh to John the Baptist. The Macmillan Company. p. 11.
  15. ^ Nili S. Fox; Malamat (2002). "History of Biblical Israel: Major Problems and Minor Issues". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. American Schools of Oriental Research. II (327): 90–92. doi:10.2307/1357868. ISSN 0003-097X. JSTOR 1357868.
  16. ^ Kenneth Kitchen (1986). The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt, 1100-650 B.C. (2nd ed.). Aris & Phillips Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85668-298-8.
  17. ^ James Allen and Marsha Hill (2004). "Egypt in the Late Period (ca. 712–332 B.C.)". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  18. ^ Bernd Schipper (2010). "Egypt and the Kingdom of Judah under Josiah and Jehoiakim". Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. Maney Publishing. 37 (2): 200–226. doi:10.1179/033443510x12760074470865.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSinger, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Amon, King of Judah". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls.

Amon of Judah
Preceded by
Manasseh
King of Judah
643–641 BC
Succeeded by
Josiah
Book of Deuteronomy

The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law" from Greek deuteros + nomos) is the fifth book of the Christian Old Testament and of the Jewish Torah, where it is called "Devarim" (Heb. דברים).

Chapters 1–30 of the book consist of three sermons or speeches delivered to the Israelites by Moses on the plains of Moab, shortly before they enter the Promised Land. The first sermon recounts the forty years of wilderness wanderings which had led to that moment, and ends with an exhortation to observe the law (or teachings), later referred to as the Law of Moses; the second reminds the Israelites of the need to follow Yahweh and the laws (or teachings) he has given them, on which their possession of the land depends; and the third offers the comfort that even should Israel prove unfaithful and so lose the land, with repentance all can be restored. The final four chapters (31–34) contain the Song of Moses, the Blessing of Moses, and narratives recounting the passing of the mantle of leadership from Moses to Joshua and, finally, the death of Moses on Mount Nebo.

Presented as the words of Moses delivered before the conquest of Canaan, virtually all modern scholars reject its attribution to Moses and date the book much later, between the 7th and 5th centuries BC. Furthermore, scholars have identified multiple literary strata in Deuteronomy, written by different authors at different times. Chapters 12-26, containing the Deuteronomic Code, are the earliest, followed by the second prologue (Ch. 5-11), and then the first prologue (Ch. 1-4); the chapters following 26 are similarly layered. Most scholars believe that the Deuteronomic Code was composed during the late monarchic period, around the time of King Josiah (late 7th century BC), although some scholars have argued for a later date, either during the Babylonian captivity (597-539 BC) or during the Persian period (539-332 BC). Many scholars see the book as reflecting the economic needs and social status of the Levite caste, who are believed to have provided its authors; those likely authors are collectively referred to as the Deuteronomist.

One of its most significant verses is Deuteronomy 6:4, the Shema Yisrael, which has become the definitive statement of Jewish identity: "Hear, O Israel: the LORD our God, the LORD is one." Verses 6:4–5 were also quoted by Jesus in Mark 12:28–34 as part of the Great Commandment.

Book of Zephaniah

The Book of Zephaniah (Hebrew: צְפַנְיָה, Tsfanya) is the ninth of the Twelve Minor Prophets, preceded by the Book of Habakkuk and followed by the Book of Haggai. Zephaniah means "Yahweh has hidden/protected," or "Yahweh hides".

Bozkath

Bozkath (Hebrew בצקת; boṣqaṯ) is a town in the Kingdom of Judah mentioned in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. The town was located in the lowland hills of Judah, otherwise known as the Shephelah, and its location is unknown.

Jedidah

In the Hebrew Bible, Jedidah was the mother of Josiah, the King of Judah. (2 Kings 22:1) She was the wife of King Amon of Judah and a daughter of Adaiah of Boscath, a town in the Kingdom of Judah.

Alternate spellings for this Bible character are "Jedida" or "Jeddida".

Josiah

Josiah ( or ) or Yoshiyahu was a seventh-century BCE king of Judah (c. 649–609) who, according to the Hebrew Bible, instituted major religious reforms. Josiah is credited by most biblical scholars with having established or compiled important Hebrew Scriptures during the "Deuteronomic reform" which probably occurred during his rule. Josiah became king of Judah at the age of eight, after the assassination of his father, King Amon, and reigned for thirty-one years, from 641/640 to 610/609 BCE. Josiah is known only from biblical texts; no reference to him exists in other surviving texts of the period from Egypt or Babylon, and no clear archaeological evidence, such as inscriptions bearing his name, has ever been found. Nevertheless, most scholars believe that he existed historically and that the absence of documents is due to few documents of any sort surviving from this very early period, and to Jerusalem having been occupied, conquered, and rebuilt for thousands of years.

List of minor Old Testament figures, L–Z

This list contains persons named in the Bible of minor notability, about whom either nothing or very little is known, aside from any family connections.

Regicide

The broad definition of regicide (Latin: regis "of king" + cida "killer" or cidium "killing") is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty.

In the British tradition, it refers to the judicial execution of a king after a trial, reflecting the historical precedent of the trial and execution of Charles I of England. More broadly, it can also refer to the killing of an emperor or any other reigning sovereign.

Zephaniah

Zephaniah (, Hebrew: צְפַנְיָה, Modern: Tsfanya, Tiberian: Ṣəp̄anyāh, "Concealed of/is YHWH") is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible and Jewish Tanakh; the most prominent one being the prophet who prophesied in the days of Josiah, king of Judah (640-609 BCE) and is attributed a book bearing his name among the Twelve Minor Prophets. His name is commonly transliterated Sophonias in Bibles translated from the Vulgate or Septuagint. The name might mean "YHWH (YH), phonetically (IAH), has concealed", "[he whom] YH has hidden", or "YH lies in wait".

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