Amnon Rubinstein (Hebrew: אמנון רובינשטיין, born 5 September 1931) is an Israeli legal scholar, politician, and columnist. A member of the Knesset between 1977 and 2002, he served in several ministerial positions. He is currently dean of the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya and a patron of Liberal International.
|Date of birth||5 September 1931|
|Place of birth||Tel Aviv, Mandatory Palestine|
|Knessets||9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15|
|Faction represented in Knesset|
|1977–1978||Democratic Movement for Change|
|1984–1987||Minister of Communications|
|1992||Minister of Science & Technology|
|1992–1993||Minister of Energy & Infrastructure|
|1993–1996||Minister of Education, Culture & Sport|
Rubinstein was born in Tel Aviv during the Mandate era. His family belonged to the Revisionist Zionist movement. Rubinstein would later split from Revisionism but remain impacted by the classical liberalism that influenced Revisionist founder Ze'ev Jabotinsky.
After serving as a captain in the IDF, he studied economics, international relations, and law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and was called to the bar in 1963. He received a PhD in law from the London School of Economics in 1966. Between 1961 and 1975 he worked as a professor of law at Tel Aviv University, serving as faculty dean from 1968 until 1973.
Rubinstein's political career began when he founded Shinui after the Yom Kippur War. Shinui joined Yigael Yadin's Democratic Movement to form Dash. In the 1977 elections, Dash won 15 seats in the Knesset. Dash's victory came at the expense of the Alignment; for the first time in the 29 years since the founding of the modern state of Israel, the right-wing formed the government. However, Rubinstein opposed Dash's participation in Menachem Begin's Likud government coalition, and Shinui broke away from Dash. Rubinstein retained his seat in the 1981 elections, though Shinui was reduced to two seats. After winning three seats in the 1984 elections Shinui were invited into the governing coalition, and Rubinstein was appointed Minister of Communications. Rubinstein was re-elected again in 1988, but Shinui were left out of the government.
Prior to the 1992 elections Shinui merged with Shulamit Aloni's Ratz and Zionist-socialist Mapam to form Meretz, a dovish, social-democratic liberal party. Meretz joined Yitzhak Rabin's government in 1992, and Rubinstein was chosen as Minister of Energy and Infrastructure. However, early into his term he became Minister of Education instead, replacing Shulamit Aloni. As a legislator Rubinstein initiated and legislated the two basic laws that guarantee human rights in Israel (Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty, Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation).
As an Education Minister, Rubinstein lowered the bar for high school graduates to enter higher education and developed a system whereby high school students would be required to take fewer matriculation exams: the subjects for the exams would be chosen each year by lottery. He also spoke out against the standardized tests which are required of Israeli university applicants (roughly equivalent to the SAT exams), claiming that if he had been required to pass these exams, he would not have been accepted to Law school.
Rubinstein lived to hear his own obituary read in 2000, when due to a practical joke, Knesset speaker Avraham Burg was led to believe that he had died. Rubinstein, who was hospitalized at the time for a minor complaint, saw his eulogy broadcast on television.
After retiring from politics Rubinstein returned to academia. He regularly writes opinion pieces for Israeli newspapers.
Rubinstein's scholarship is highly respected. His articles and books in the sphere of law in general, and especially Israeli law, have enjoyed wide acclaim. His collection A Single Voice (2002) outlined his "moderate, humanistic liberalism", according to a review in Haaretz.
Amnon Rubinstein is "the founding father of Israeli constitutional law. In both his profound academic writings and his diverse public activities, he advances the values of democracy, equality and human rights. In the legal and public arena in Israel, there are few who can equal Prof. Amnon Rubinstein’s contribution to the State of Israel, as a public figure, a member of the legislative and executive branches of government, and as a brilliant researcher and legal expert."
Elections for the 12th Knesset were held in Israel on 1 November 1988. Voter turnout was 79.7%.Alexander Yakobson
Alexander Yakobson (Hebrew: אלכסנדר יעקובסון) is an Israeli historian, professor of Ancient history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, political activist, and commentator.Amnon (given name)
In the Bible, Amnon is the eldest son of King David.
Amnon is also the given name of:
Amnon of Mainz, a medieval German rabbi and the subject of a popular legend
Amnon David Ar (born 1973), Israeli painter
Amnon Barzel (born 1935), Israeli curator and author
Amnon Cohen (born 1960), Israeli politician
Amnon Dankner (born 1946), Israeli newspaper editor and author
Amnon Filippi (born 1969), American professional poker player
Amnon Jackont (born 1948), Israeli author of thrillers, historian and literary editor
Amnon Kapeliouk (1930-2009), Israeli journalist and author
Amnon Krauz (born 1952), Israeli Olympic swimmer
Amnon Linn (born 1924), Israeli retired politician
Amnon Lipkin-Shahak (1944-2012), Israeli military officer and Chief of Staff and politician
Amnon Lord (born 1952), Israeli journalist
Amnon Netzer (1934–2008), Iranian-Jewish historian, researcher, professor and journalist
Amnon Niv (1930–2011), Israeli architect and urban designer
Amnon Rubinstein (born 1931), Israeli law scholar, politician, and columnist
Amnon Salomon (1940–2011), Israeli film cinematographer
Amnon Sella (born 1934), academic and author
Amnon Straschnov (born 1947), Israeli former judge
Amnon Weiss, Israeli businessman and former Paralympic champion
Amnon Wolman (born 1955), music composer
Amnon Yariv (born 1930), Israeli-American professor of applied physics and electrical engineering at Caltech
Amnon Yitzhak (born 1953), Haredi Israeli rabbiAntisemitism (authors)
This is a list of authors in the field of antisemitism in alphabetical order.Azure (magazine)
Azure: Ideas for the Jewish Nation (Hebrew: תכלת) (Tchelet) was a quarterly journal published by the Shalem Center in Jerusalem, Israel. Azure published new writing on issues relating to Jewish thought and identity, Zionism, and the State of Israel. It was published in both Hebrew and English, allowing for the exchange of ideas between Israelis and Jews worldwide.Azure was established in 1996 and was originally published twice a year, but grew into a quarterly. The journal's first editor-in-chief was Ofir Haivry, followed by Daniel Polisar and David Hazony. Assaf Sagiv was editor in chief from 2007 to 2012.
Notable contributors have included Michael Oren, Yoram Hazony, Yossi Klein Halevi, A. B. Yehoshua, Ruth Gavison, Amnon Rubinstein, Natan Sharansky, Alain Finkielkraut, Amotz Asa-El, David Hazony, Meir Soloveichik, Claire Berlinski, Robert Bork, and Moshe Ya'alon.
The journal published Hebrew translations of classic essays by authors such as Immanuel Kant, David Hume, William James, G. K. Chesterton, Martin Luther King, Jr., C. S. Lewis, Alasdair MacIntyre, Winston Churchill, Matthew Arnold, and Leo Strauss.
The emphasis of the journal was on strengthening Jewish and Zionist values. It was highly critical of post-national and radical trends in academia, opposed judicial activism in the Israeli legal system, and supported free-market reforms in the Israeli economy.
The publication ceased operations with the Autumn issue, no. 46, alerting its subscribers to this fact mid-2012. According to the letter sent to its subscribers, "circumstances and resources no longer enable [the magazine] to continue publication."Democratic Movement for Change
The Democratic Movement for Change (Hebrew: תנועה דמוקרטית לשינוי, Tnu'a Demokratit LeShinui), commonly known by its Hebrew acronym Dash (Hebrew: ד"ש) was a short-lived and initially highly successful centrist political party in Israel. Formed in 1976 by numerous well-known non-politicians, following a spectacular breakup, it had ceased to exist within less than two years.Hiddush
Hiddush (Hebrew: חִדּוּשׁ) meaning innovation, renewal, full name "Hiddush – For Religious Freedom and Equality", is a trans-denominational nonprofit organization founded in 2009 which is aimed at promoting religious freedom and equality in Israel. The organization, a partnership between Israeli Jews and world Jewry, is headed by Jerusalem-based attorney and rabbi Uri Regev, former President of the World Union for Progressive Judaism as its president and CEO, and American businessman Stanley P. Gold, member of the Reform Wilshire Boulevard Temple and former Chairman of the Board of the Jewish Federation of Greater Los Angeles.Hiddush is supported by a number of prominent Jews, among them businessman Charles Bronfman, Harvard professor Alan Dershowitz, producer Norman Lear, authors Amos Oz and Letty Cottin Pogrebin, professor Amnon Rubinstein, and Gili Zivan of the Religious Kibbutz Movement.List of Israeli films of 1986
A list of films produced by the Israeli film industry in 1986.List of Israeli films of 1988
A list of films produced by the Israeli film industry in 1988.List of Israeli films of 1993
A list of films produced by the Israeli film industry in 1993.List of members of the fifteenth Knesset
The 120 members of the fifteenth Knesset were elected on 17 May 1999. The breakdown by party was as follows:
One Israel: 26
Yisrael BaAliyah: 6
Centre Party: 6
National Religious Party: 5
United Torah Judaism: 5
United Arab List: 5
National Union: 4
Yisrael Beiteinu: 4
One Nation: 2List of members of the tenth Knesset
The 120 members of the tenth Knesset were elected on 30 June 1981. The breakdown by party was as follows:
National Religious Party: 6
Agudat Yisrael: 4
Meretz (Hebrew: מֶרֶצ, lit. "Vigour") is a left-wing, social-democratic, and green political party in Israel.
The party was originally formed in 1992 with the union of Ratz, Mapam, and Shinui, and was at its peak in the 13th Knesset between 1992 and 1996, during which it held 12 seats. In the 2019 legislative elections, the party won four seats.
Meretz is a secular party emphasising a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, social justice, human rights (especially for religious, ethnic, and sexual minorities), religious freedom, and environmentalism.The party is a member of the Progressive Alliance and Socialist International, and is an observer member of the Party of European Socialists.Ministry of Communications (Israel)
The Ministry of Communications (Hebrew: מִשְׂרָד הַתִּקְשֹׁרֶת, Misrad HaTikshoret) is the Israeli government ministry responsible for Communications in Israel. It is a relatively minor position in the cabinet. The ministry was established in 1952, and until 1970 was known as the Ministry of Postal Services (Hebrew: משרד הדואר, Misrad HaDo'ar).Rubinstein
Famous persons named Rubinstein include:
Akiba Rubinstein (1880–1961), Polish chess grandmaster
Amnon Rubinstein (born 1931), Israeli scholar, politician and columnist
Anton Rubinstein (1829–1894), Russian pianist, composer and conductor, brother of Nikolai Rubinstein
Ariel Rubinstein (born 1951), game theorist at Tel Aviv University and New York University
Arthur Rubinstein (1887–1982), Polish-American pianist
Arthur B. Rubinstein (born 1938), American drama / film score composer and conductor
Benjamin B. Rubinstein (1905–1989), Finnish-born American psychoanalyst
Dave Rubinstein (1964–1993), singer in the band Reagan Youth
David Rubinstein (pianist) (born 1949)
David Rubinstein (social historian) (born 1932), American-born social historian living in England, specializing in the 19th and 20th centuries
Elyakim Rubinstein (born 1947), Israeli diplomat, former Attorney General of Israel and vice president of the Supreme Court of Israel
Gillian Rubinstein (born 1942), English-born Australian author of children's books and for adults as Lian Hearn
Hadar Rubinstein (born 1967), Israeli Olympic swimmer
Helena Rubinstein (1872–1965), Polish-born American cosmetics entrepreneur and art collector
Hilary Rubinstein (1926-2012), British literary agent and publisher
Ida Rubinstein (1885–1960), Russian dancer with the Ballet Russe in Paris
John Rubinstein (born 1946), American actor, singer, composer, & director, and son of pianist Arthur Rubinstein
Jon Rubinstein (born 1956), American computer scientist and electrical engineer instrumental in the creation of the iPod
J. Hyam Rubinstein (born 1948), Australian mathematician primarily interested in topology
Lev Rubinstein, Russian poet and essayist
Marcos Rubinstein, Swiss engineer
Mark Rubinstein, American financial economist and financial engineer
Michael Rubinstein (born 1973), American television and film actor and son of John Rubinstein and Judi West. Now known as Michael Weston.
Nikolai Rubinstein (1835–1881), Russian pianist and composer, brother of Anton Rubinstein
Pablo Rubinstein, Chilean doctor who pioneered the preservation and medical use of placenta blood as a form of stem cell technology
Robert A. Rubinstein (born 1951), Anthropologist and professor at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University, known for his work on peacekeeping and medical anthropology
Robert J. Rubinstein (born 1952), Social entrepreneur and founder of the TBLI group
Sergei Rubinstein, Soviet psychologist, critic to Lev Vygotsky
Seymour I. Rubinstein (born 1934), pioneer of the PC software industry, made WordStar
Susanna Rubinstein (1847-1914), Austrian psychologist
William Rubinstein (born 1946), Professor of British History at the University of Wales
Yaakov Rubinstein, Israeli violinist
Zdenka Rubinstein (1911–1961), Croatian operatic soprano
Zelda Rubinstein (1933–2010), American actressRubinstein may also refer to:
The Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome, a genetic disorderShinui
Shinui (Hebrew: שִׁינּוּי, lit. Change) was a Zionist, secular, and anti-clerical free market liberal party and political movement in Israel. The party twice became the third-largest in the Knesset, but both occasions were followed by a split and collapse; in 1977, the party won 15 seats as part of the Democratic Movement for Change, but the alliance split in 1978, and Shinui was reduced to two seats at the next elections. In 2003, the party won 15 seats alone, but lost them all three years later after most of its MKs left to form new parties. The party was a member of Liberal International until 2009.
Though it had been the standard-bearer of liberal economic policy and secular values in Israel for 30 years, the formation of Kadima robbed Shinui of its natural constituency, and in January 2006, the party split into small factions, none of which managed to overcome the 2% threshold needed to enter the Knesset.Twenty-fifth government of Israel
The twenty-fifth government of Israel was formed by Yitzhak Rabin of the Labor Party on 13 July 1992, after the party's victory in the June elections. The coalition also contained the new Meretz party (an alliance of Ratz, Mapam and Shinui) and Shas, and held 62 of the 120 seats in the Knesset. The government was also supported, but not joined, by Hadash and the Arab Democratic Party, which held an additional five seats between them.
Shas left the government on 14 September 1993, but the coalition was joined by the new Yiud faction (a three-member breakaway from Tzomet) on 9 January 1995.
Rabin was assassinated on 4 November 1995, with Shimon Peres taking over as Interim Prime Minister until forming the twenty-sixth government on 22 November.Twenty-second government of Israel
The twenty-second government of Israel was formed by Yitzhak Shamir of Likud on 20 October 1986. Shamir replaced Shimon Peres of the Alignment as Prime Minister as part of a rotation deal within the national unity coalition between the two parties. The only other change to the coalition was that the one-seat Morasha faction was not included, with the National Religious Party, Agudat Yisrael, Shas, Shinui and Ometz remaining part of the government, although Shinui left on 26 May 1987.
The government held office until 22 December 1988, when the twenty-third government was formed, following the November 1988 elections.Twenty-sixth government of Israel
The twenty-sixth government of Israel was formed by Shimon Peres of the Labor Party on 22 November 1995, following the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin on 4 November. Peres kept the same coalition as previously, namely the Labor Party, Meretz and Yiud, which together held only 58 of the 120 seats in the Knesset. However, they government was also supported, but not joined, by Hadash and the Arab Democratic Party, which held an additional five seats between them.Although the Labor Party won the May 1996 Knesset elections, Peres was narrowly defeated by Binyamin Netanyahu in the country's first election for Prime Minister, meaning that the Likud leader formed the twenty-seventh government, which he completed on 18 June.