Ammonium sulfate (American English and international scientific usage; ammonium sulphate in British English); (NH4)2SO4, is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses. The most common use is as a soil fertilizer. It contains 21% nitrogen and 24% sulfur.
Ammonium tetraoxosulfate (VI)
Ammonium sulfate (2:1)
Sulfuric acid diammonium salt
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E517 (acidity regulators, ...)|
|Molar mass||132.14 g/mol|
|Appearance||Fine white hygroscopic granules or crystals.|
|Melting point||235 to 280 °C (455 to 536 °F; 508 to 553 K) (decomposes)|
|70.6 g per 100 g water (0 °C)|
74.4 g per 100 g water (20 °C)
103.8 g per 100 g water (100 °C)
|Solubility||Insoluble in acetone, alcohol and ether|
|79.2% (30 °C)|
|GHS signal word||Warning|
|H315, H319, H335|
|P261, P264, P270, P271, P273, P280, P301+312, P302+352, P304+340, P305+351+338, P312, P321, P330, P332+313, P337+313, P362, P391, P403+233, P405, P501|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|2840 mg/kg, rat (oral)|
|Ammonium iron(II) sulfate|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
The primary use of ammonium sulfate is as a fertilizer for alkaline soils. In the soil the ammonium ion is released and forms a small amount of acid, lowering the pH balance of the soil, while contributing essential nitrogen for plant growth. The main disadvantage to the use of ammonium sulfate is its low nitrogen content relative to ammonium nitrate, which elevates transportation costs.
It is also used as an agricultural spray adjuvant for water-soluble insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. There, it functions to bind iron and calcium cations that are present in both well water and plant cells. It is particularly effective as an adjuvant for 2,4-D (amine), glyphosate, and glufosinate herbicides.
Ammonium sulfate precipitation is a common method for protein purification by precipitation. As the ionic strength of a solution increases, the solubility of proteins in that solution decreases. Ammonium sulfate is extremely soluble in water due to its ionic nature, therefore it can "salt out" proteins by precipitation. Due to the high dielectric constant of water, the dissociated salt ions being cationic ammonium and anionic sulfate are readily solvated within hydration shells of water molecules. The significance of this substance in the purification of compounds stems from its ability to become more so hydrated compared to relatively more nonpolar molecules and so the desirable non-polar molecules coalesce and precipitate out of the solution in a concentrated form. This method is called salting out and necessitates the use of high salt concentrations that can reliably dissolve in the aqueous mixture. The percentage of the salt used is in comparison to the maximal concentration of the salt in the mixture can dissolve. As such, although high concentrations are needed for the method to work adding an abundance of the salt, over 100%, can also oversaturate the solution, therefore, contaminating the non-polar precipitate with salt precipitate. A high salt concentration, which can be achieved by adding or increasing the concentration of ammonium sulfate in a solution, enables protein separation based on a decrease in protein solubility; this separation may be achieved by centrifugation. Precipitation by ammonium sulfate is a result of a reduction in solubility rather than protein denaturation, thus the precipitated protein can be solubilized through the use of standard buffers. Ammonium sulfate precipitation provides a convenient and simple means to fractionate complex protein mixtures.
In the analysis of rubber lattices, volatile fatty acids are analyzed by precipitating rubber with a 35% ammonium sulfate solution, which leaves a clear liquid from which volatile fatty acids are regenerated with sulfuric acid and then distilled with steam. Selective precipitation with ammonium sulfate, opposite to the usual precipitation technique which uses acetic acid, does not interfere with the determination of volatile fatty acids.
As a food additive, ammonium sulfate is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and in the European Union it is designated by the E number E517. It is used as an acidity regulator in flours and breads.
Ammonium sulfate is used on a small scale in the preparation of other ammonium salts, especially ammonium persulfate.
Ammonium sulfate is listed as an ingredient for many United States vaccines per the Center for Disease Control.
Ammonium sulfate has also been used in flame retardant compositions acting much like diammonium phosphate. As a flame retardant, it increases the combustion temperature of the material, decreases maximum weight loss rates, and causes an increase in the production of residue or char. Its flame retardant efficacy can be enhanced by blending it with ammonium sulfamate. It has been used in aerial firefighting.
Ammonium sulfate has been used as a wood preservative, but due to its hygroscopic nature, this use has been largely discontinued because of associated problems with metal fastener corrosion, dimensional instability, and finish failures.
A mixture of ammonia gas and water vapor is introduced into a reactor that contains a saturated solution of ammonium sulfate and about 2 to 4% of free sulfuric acid at 60 °C. Concentrated sulfuric acid is added to keep the solution acidic, and to retain its level of free acid. The heat of reaction keeps reactor temperature at 60 °C. Dry, powdered ammonium sulfate may be formed by spraying sulfuric acid into a reaction chamber filled with ammonia gas. The heat of reaction evaporates all water present in the system, forming a powdery salt. Approximately 6000M tons were produced in 1981.
Ammonium sulfate also is manufactured from gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). Finely divided gypsum is added to an ammonium carbonate solution. Calcium carbonate precipitates as a solid, leaving ammonium sulfate in the solution.
Ammonium sulfate becomes ferroelectric at temperatures below -49.5 °C. At room temperature it crystallises in the orthorhombic system, with cell sizes of a = 7.729 Å, b = 10.560 Å, c = 5.951 Å. When chilled into the ferrorelectric state, the symmetry of the crystal changes to space group Pna21.
As a salt of a strong acid (H2SO4) and weak base (NH3), its solution is acidic; pH of 0.1 M solution is 5.5. In aqueous solution the reactions are those of NH4+ and SO4−2 ions. For example, addition of barium chloride, precipitates out barium sulfate. The filtrate on evaporation yields ammonium chloride.
Ammonium sulfate forms many double salts (ammonium metal sulfates) when its solution is mixed with equimolar solutions of metal sulfates and the solution is slowly evaporated. With trivalent metal ions, alums such as ferric ammonium sulfate are formed. Double metal sulfates include ammonium cobaltous sulfate, ferrous diammonium sulfate, ammonium nickel sulfate which are known as Tutton's salts and ammonium ceric sulfate. Anhydrous double sulfates of ammonium also occur in the Langbeinites family.
Airborne particles of evaoporated ammonium sulfate comprise approximately 30% of fine particulate pollution worldwide.
In November 2009, a ban on ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilizers was imposed in the former Malakand Division—comprising the Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Swat, Chitral and Malakand districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, by the NWFP government, following reports that they were used by militants to make explosives. In January 2010, these substances were also banned in Afghanistan for the same reason.
AdvanSix is an American chemical company that comprised Honeywell's Resins and Chemicals division, and it traces its lineage to the H. W. Jayne Company, established 1884 in Frankford, Pennsylvania. It was spun-off from Honeywell in 2016.AdvanSix has plants in Chesterfield and Hopewell, Virginia, and Frankford and Pottsville, Pennsylvania. The Hopewell plant is one of the world's largest single-site producers of caprolactam. It reports an annual production capacity of 600,000 tons of ammonia and 400,000 tons of caprolactam. For context, global annual demand for caprolactam is estimated at 5 million tons.AdvanSix is an integrated chemical manufacturer. It produces phenol in Frankford through the cumene process, where it is converted to caprolactam in Hopewell, polymerized to nylon 6 in Chesterfield and made into film at Pottsville. In addition to internal use, AdvanSix sells acetone, phenol, and alpha-methylstyrene from the cumene process. They sell cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone made from phenol, caprolactam, as well as ammonium sulfate generated by the Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime.Ammonium aluminium sulfate
Ammonium aluminium sulfate, also known as ammonium alum or just alum (though there are many different substances also called "alum"), is a white crystalline double sulfate usually encountered as the dodecahydrate, formula (NH4)Al(SO4)2·12H2O. It is used in small amounts in a variety of niche applications. The dodecahydrate occurs naturally as the rare mineral tschermigite.Ammonium cerium(IV) sulfate
Ammonium cerium(IV) sulfate is an inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)4Ce(SO4)4.2 H2O. It is an orange-colored solid. It is a strong oxidant, the potential for reduction is about +1.44V. Cerium(IV) sulfate is a related compound.Ammonium chlorate
Ammonium chlorate is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4ClO3.
It is obtained by neutralizing chloric acid with either ammonia or ammonium carbonate, or by precipitating barium, strontium or calcium chlorates with ammonium carbonate or ammonium sulfate, producing the respective carbonate or sulfate precipitate and an ammonium chlorate solution. Ammonium chlorate crystallizes in small needles, readily soluble in water.
The bitartrate method candidate be used if exotic chlorate are inaccessible or need to be synthesized. Warm solutions of potassium chlorate and ammonium bitartrate are needed need warm solutions. The latter can be synthesized by adding aqueous ammonia to an excess of tartric acid. Then, a double displacement reaction will result in precipitation of potassium bitartrate.
On heating, ammonium chlorate decomposes at about 102 °C, with liberation of nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen. It is soluble in dilute aqueous alcohol, but insoluble in strong alcohol. This compound is a strong oxidizer and should never be stored with flammable materials.
Ammonium chlorate is a very unstable oxidizer and will decompose, sometimes violently, at room temperature. This results from the mixture of the reducing ammonium cation and the oxidizing chlorate anion. Even solutions are known to be unstable. Because of the dangerous nature of this salt it should only be kept in solution when needed, and never be allowed to crystallize.Ammonium iron(II) sulfate
Ammonium iron(II) sulfate, or Mohr's salt, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2·6H2O. Containing two different cations, Fe2+ and NH4+, it is classified as a double salt of ferrous sulfate and ammonium sulfate. It is a common laboratory reagent because it is readily crystallized, and crystals resist oxidation by air. Like the other ferrous sulfate salts, ferrous ammonium sulfate dissolves in water to give the aquo complex [Fe(H2O)6]2+, which has octahedral molecular geometry.Ammonium iron(III) sulfate
Ammonium iron(III) sulfate, NH4Fe(SO4)2·12 H2O, or NH4[Fe(H2O)6](SO4)2·6 H2O, also known as ferric ammonium sulfate (FAS) or iron alum, is a double salt in the class of alums, which consists of compounds with the general formula AB(SO4)2 · 12 H2O. It has the appearance of weakly violet, octahedrical crystals. There has been some discussion regarding the origin of the crystals' colour, with some ascribing it to impurities in the compound, and others claiming it to be a property of the crystal itself.FAS is paramagnetic, acidic and toxic towards microorganisms. It is a weak oxidizing agent, capable of being reduced to Mohr's salt, ferrous ammonium sulfate.Ammonium sulfate precipitation
Ammonium sulfate precipitation is one of the most commonly used methods for large and laboratory scale protein purification and fractionation that can be used to separate proteins by altering their solubility in the presence of a high salt concentration.Beckmann rearrangement
The Beckmann rearrangement, named after the German chemist Ernst Otto Beckmann (1853–1923), is a rearrangement of an oxime functional group to substituted amides. The rearrangement has also been successful performed on haloimines and nitrones. Cyclic oximes and haloimines yield lactams.
The Beckmann rearrangement is often catalyzed by acid, however other reagents have been known to promote the rearrangement. These include tosyl chloride, thionyl chloride, phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus pentoxide, triethylamine, sodium hydroxide, trimethylsilyl iodide among others. The Beckmann fragmentation is another reaction that often competes with the rearrangement, though careful selection of promoting reagent and solvent conditions can favor the formation of one over the other, sometimes giving almost exclusively one product. The rearrangement occurs stereospecifically for ketoximes and N-chloro/N-fluoro imines, with the migrating group being anti-periplanar to the leaving group on the nitrogen. Certain conditions have been known to racemize the oxime geometry, leading to the formation of both regioisomers. The rearrangement of aldoximes occurs with stereospecificity in the gas phase and without stereospecificity in the solution phase. A few methodologies allow for the rearrangement of aldoximes to primary amides, but fragmentation commonly competes in these systems. Nitrone rearrangement also occurs without stereospecificity; the regioisomer formed has the amide nitrogen substituted with the group possessing the greatest migratory aptitude.
The dominant application of the Beckmann rearrangement is the conversion of cyclohexanone to caprolactam via the oxime. Caprolactam is the feedstock in the production of Nylon 6.The Beckmann solution consists of acetic acid, hydrochloric acid and acetic anhydride, and was widely used to catalyze the rearrangement. Other acids, such as sulfuric acid, polyphosphoric acid, and hydrogen fluoride have all been used. Sulfuric acid is the most commonly used acid for commercial lactam production due to its formation of an ammonium sulfate by-product when neutralized with ammonia. Ammonium sulfate is a common agricultural fertilizer providing nitrogen and sulfur.Fellmonger
A fellmonger was a dealer in hides or skins, particularly sheepskins, who might also prepare skins for tanning. The name is derived from the Old English ‘fell’ meaning skins and ‘monger’ meaning dealer. Fellmongery is one of the oldest professions in the world and since ancient times, humans have used the skins of animals to clothe themselves, and for making domestic articles.Today the term has become restricted to the person or the operator of the machinery which removes sheep's wool or the hair of other animals from hides in preparation for tanning.
The process of fellmongering has to be done quickly after the animal is slaughtered to prevent the hides from decaying before tanning can begin. First they are trimmed of all unwanted pieces like legs, neck and tail then soaked in water to allow the skin tissues to distend. Next, a sodium sulfide solution is applied to the skin side of the fleece. The sodium sulphide soaks through the skin and destroys the follicles of the wool roots so that the fellmonger can then separate the wool from the skins. The wool is washed and dried. The skins are then soaked in a stronger solution of sodium sulphide and lime for 21 hours to remove small clumps of wool missed by the puller and to break down some internal proteins within the skin. The next process is called deliming: the skins are soaked in a solution of water and ammonium sulfate. This is to remove all the sodium sulphide from the skin and degraded proteins. The next process is the bating which is to remove any remaining protein from the surface.
Historically, fellmongers belonged to a guild or company which had their own rites and by-laws to regulate the quality of the skins, workmanship, treatment of apprentices and trading rights.Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals
Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GSFC) is an Indian manufacturer of fertilizers and Industrial Chemicals. GSFC was founded in 1962. Oil and gas discoveries in Bombay High and South Basin triggered the birth of 8 new generation fertilizer plants to fulfill the growing food needs of India.
The company is listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange with the Security Code 500690, and as at Monday 28 September 2014 it had a market capitalisation of Rs 3,030.42 crore. GSFC maintains its headquarters in Vadodara in the state of Gujarat, on the Vadodara-Ahmedabad National Highway. It manufacturers plastics, nylons, fibers, industrial gases and varied chemicals including urea, ammonia, ammonium sulfate, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid & diammonium phosphate, Caprolactam, Malemine, Methanol.In 1976, GSFC entered into a joint venture with the State Government of Gujarat by setting up a plant in Bharuch which trades as Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited.(From 1981)Letovicite
Letovicite () is an ammonium sulfate mineral with composition (NH4)3H(SO4)2 (IUPAC: triammonium sulfate hydrogensulfate, Nickel–Strunz classification 07.AD.20).
It is a rare colorless or white monoclinic secondary mineral formed during the burning of waste coal heaps and as a deposit in hot springs. It was first described from the Letovice region of Moravia in 1932.List of vaccine ingredients
This list of vaccine ingredients indicates the culture media used in the production of common vaccines and the excipients they contain, as published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Food and Drug Administration. Vaccine ingredients and production in other nations are substantially the same. Also listed are substances used in the manufacturing process.To read the prescribing information for each individual vaccine, see List of Licensed VaccinesMascagnite
Mascagnite is a rare ammonium sulfate mineral (NH4)2SO4. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system typically forming as stalactitic masses exhibiting good cleavage. It is soft (not higher than 2.5 on the Mohs Scale) and water-soluble. Optical properties are variable; the purest form is transparent and colorless, but opaque gray or yellow deposits are also known.
It occurs in fumaroles, as at Mount Vesuvius and associated with coal seam fires. It was named for Italian anatomist Paolo Mascagni (1752–1815) who first described the mineral.Oppau explosion
The Oppau explosion occurred on September 21, 1921, when a tower silo storing 4,500 tonnes of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate fertilizer exploded at a BASF plant in Oppau, now part of Ludwigshafen, Germany, killing 500–600 people and injuring about 2,000 more.Precipitation (disambiguation)
Precipitation may refer to:
Precipitation, the meteorological phenomenon consisting of rain, sleet, hail, snow, and other forms of water falling from the sky.
Basic precipitation, a type of meteorological precipitation characterized by high alkalinity
Precipitation (chemistry), the condensation of a solid from a solution during a chemical reaction:
Ammonium sulfate precipitation, a method of purifying proteins
Precipitation hardening, a method used to strengthen malleable materials
Protein precipitation, a method of separating contaminants from biological products
Ethanol precipitation, a method of concentrating DNA
Precipitation (horse), a racehorseSpent shale
Spent shale or spent oil shale (also known as retorted shale) is a solid residue from the shale oil extraction process of producing synthetic shale oil from oil shale. It consists of inorganic compounds (minerals) and remaining organic matter known as char—a carbonaceous residue formed from kerogen. Depending on the extraction process and the amount of remaining organic matter, spent shale may be classified as oil shale coke, semi-coke or coke-ash residue, known also as oil shale ash. According to the European Union waste list all these types of spent shale are classified as hazardous waste.Oil shale coke was created by chamber ovens which were used for oil shale gas production. Vertical retorts create mainly semi-coke. Most of solid heat carrier processes creates coke-ash residue as the semi-coke created during the process is combusted for the process energy needs.Spent shale can be used as ingredients in cement or brick manufacture. In Jordan, usage of spent shale for the production of sodium carbonate, ammonium sulfate, and potassium sulfate has been studied.Tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate
Tetraamminecopper(II) sulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)n]SO4. This dark blue solid is a metal complex with faint odour of ammonia. It is closely related to Schweizer's reagent, which is used for the production of cellulose fibers in the production of rayon. It is used to print fabrics, used as a pesticide and to make other copper compounds like copper nano-powder.Tutton's salt
Tutton's salts are a family of salts with the formula M2M'(SO4)2(H2O)6 (sulfates) or M2M'(SeO4)2(H2O)6 (selenates). These materials are double salts, which means that they contain two different cations, M+ and M'2+ crystallized in the same regular ionic lattice. The univalent cation can be potassium, rubidium, cesium, ammonium (NH4), deuterated ammonium (ND4) or thallium. Sodium or lithium ions are too small. The divalent cation can be magnesium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc or cadmium. In addition to sulfate and selenate, the divalent anion can be chromate (CrO42−), tetrafluoroberyllate (BeF42−), hydrogenphosphate (HPO42−) or monofluorophosphate (PO3F2−). Tutton's salts crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/a. The robustness is the result of the complementary hydrogen-bonding between the tetrahedral anions and cations as well their interactions with the metal aquo complex [M(H2O)6]2+.Vanadium(II) sulfate
Vanadium(II) sulfate describes a family of inorganic compounds with the formula VSO4(H2O)x where 0 ≤ x ≤ 7. The hexahydrate is most commonly encountered. It is a violet solid that dissolves in water to give air-sensitive solutions of the aquo complex. The salt is isomorphous with [Mg(H2O)6]SO4. Compared to the V–O bond length of 191 pm in [V(H2O)6]3+, the V–O distance is 212 pm in the [V(H2O)6]SO4. This nearly 10% elongation reflects the effect of the lower charge, hence weakened electrostatic attraction.The heptahydrate has also been crystallized. The compound is prepared by electrolysis in sulfuric acid. The crystals also feature [V(H2O)6]2+ centers but with an extra water of crystallization. The salt is isomorphous with ferrous sulfate heptahydrate. A related salt is vanadous ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2V(SO4)2·6H2O, a Tutton's salt isomorphous with ferrous ammonium sulfate.