Americans

Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America.[47][48] Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens, expatriates, and permanent residents, may also claim American nationality.[49][50] The United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance.[51][52][53]

English-speakers, and even speakers of many other languages, typically use the term "American" to exclusively mean people of the United States; this developed from its original use to differentiate English people of the American colonies from English people of England.[54] The word "American" can also refer to people from the Americas in general[55] (see names for United States citizens).

Americans
Flag of the United States
Total population
c. 308 million[1]
2010 United States Census
c. 329 million[2]
2018 estimate
Regions with significant populations
Mexico738,100–1,000,000[3][4]
Canada316,350–1,000,000[5][6]
Philippines220,000–600,000[7][8]
Germany324,000[9]
Israel200,000[10][11]
United Kingdom139,000–197,143[12][13]
South Korea120,000–158,000[14]
Costa Rica130,000[15]
France100,000[16]
China71,493[17]
Brazil28,000–70,000[18][19]
Colombia60,000[20]
Hong Kong60,000[21]
India60,000[22]
Australia56,276[23]
Pakistan52,486[24]
Japan51,321[25]
Italy50,000[26]
United Arab Emirates50,000[27]
Haiti45,000[28]
Saudi Arabia40,000[29]
Argentina37,000[30]
Norway33,509[31]
Bahamas30,000[32]
Russia30,000[33]
Lebanon25,000[34]
Panama25,000[35]
Spain22,082[36]
Chile19,161[37]
El Salvador19,000[38]
New Zealand17,751[39]
Honduras15,000[40]
Taiwan10,645[41]
Austria10,175[42]
Czech Republic8,763[43]
Bermuda8,000[44]
Kuwait8,000[45]
Languages
Primarily American English, but also Spanish and others
Religion
Primarily Christian (Protestantism, Catholicism, and Mormonism)[46]
Various non-Christian religions (Judaism and others)[46]

Overview

The majority of Americans or their ancestors immigrated to America or are descended from people who were brought as slaves within the past five centuries, with the exception of the Native American population and people from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine Islands,[56] who became American through expansion of the country in the 19th century,[57] additionally America expanded into American Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century.[58][48]

Despite its multi-ethnic composition,[59][60] the culture of the United States held in common by most Americans can also be referred to as mainstream American culture, a Western culture largely derived from the traditions of Northern and Western European colonists, settlers, and immigrants.[59] It also includes influences of African-American culture.[61] Westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements. Immigration from Asia, Africa, and Latin America has also had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics.[59]

In addition to the United States, Americans and people of American descent can be found internationally. As many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, and make up the American diaspora.[62][63][64]

Racial and ethnic groups

The United States of America is a diverse country, racially, and ethnically.[68] Six races are officially recognized by the U.S. Census Bureau for statistical purposes: White, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races. "Some other race" is also an option in the census and other surveys.[69][70][71]

The United States Census Bureau also classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that comprises the largest minority group in the nation.[69][70][72]

White and European Americans

People of European descent, or White Americans (also referred to as Caucasian Americans), constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72.4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census.[a][65][74] They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.[65] Of those reporting to be White American, 7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial; with largest combination being white and black.[74] Additionally, there are 29,184,290 White Hispanics or Latinos.[74] Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states. There are four minority-majority states: California, Texas, New Mexico, and Hawaii.[65] In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority.[65] The state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine.[75]

The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of Europe. This includes people via African, North American, Caribbean, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European descended population.[76]

The Spanish were some of the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States in 1565.[77] Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida then a part of New Spain, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States.[78] Twenty-one years later, Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the original Thirteen Colonies to English parents.

In the 2017 American Community Survey, German Americans (13.2%), Irish Americans (9.7%), English Americans (7.1%) and Italian Americans (5.1%) were the four largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming 35.1% of the total population.[79] However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as they tend to self-report and identify as simply "Americans" (since the introduction of a new "American" category in the 1990 census) due to the length of time they have inhabited America. This is highly over-represented in the Upland South, a region that was settled historically by the British.[80][81][82][83][84][85]

Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate[86] and the second highest educational attainment levels, median household income,[87] and median personal income[88] of any racial demographic in the nation.

White and European Americans by ancestry group
Rank Ancestry group % of total population Pop. estimates Ref(s)
1 German 13.2% 43,093,766 [79]
2 Irish 9.7% 31,479,232 [79]
3 English 7.1% 23,074,947 [79]
4 American 6.1% 20,024,830 [79]
5 Italian 5.1% 16,650,674 [79]
6 Mexican 5.4% 16,794,111 [89]
7 Polish 2.8% 9,012,085 [79]
8 French (except Basque)
French Canadian
2.4%
0.6%
7,673,619
2,110,014
[79]
9 Scottish 1.7% 5,399,371 [79]
10 Norwegian 1.3% 4,295,981 [79]
11 Dutch 1.2% 3,906,193 [79]
Total White and European American 59.34% 231,040,398 [74]
Source:[90][91] 2010 census & 2017 ACS

Middle Easterners and North Africans

According to the American Jewish Archives and the Arab American National Museum, some of the first Middle Easterners and North Africans (viz. Jews and Berbers) arrived in the Americas between the late 15th and mid-16th centuries.[92][93][94][95] Many were fleeing ethnic or ethnoreligious persecution during the Spanish Inquisition,[96][97] and a few were also taken to the Americas as slaves.[93]

In 2014, The United States Census Bureau began finalizing the ethnic classification of MENA populations.[98] According to the Arab American Institute (AAI), Arab Americans have family origins in each of the 22 member states of the Arab League.[99] Following consultations with MENA organizations, the Census Bureau announced in 2014 that it would establish a new MENA ethnic category for populations from the Middle East, North Africa and the Arab world, separate from the "white" classification that these populations had previously sought in 1909. The expert groups, felt that the earlier "white" designation no longer accurately represents MENA identity, so they successfully lobbied for a distinct categorization.[100] This new category would also include Jewish Americans.[101] The Census Bureau does not currently ask about whether one is Sikh, because it views them as followers of a religion rather than members of an ethnic group, and it does combine questions concerning religion with race or ethnicity.[102] As of December 2015, the sampling strata for the new MENA category includes the Census Bureau's working classification of 19 MENA groups, as well as Turkish, Sudanese, Djiboutian, Somali, Mauritanian, Armenian, Cypriot, Afghan, Azerbaijani and Georgian groups.[103] In January 2018, it was announced that the Census Bureau would not include the grouping in the 2020 Census.[104]

Middle Eastern Americans in the 2000[105] - 2010 U.S. Census,[106] the Mandell L. Berman Institute, and the North American Jewish Data Bank[107]
Ancestry 2000 2000 (% of US population) 2010 2010 (% of US population)
Arab 1,160,729 0.4125% 1,697,570 0.5498%
Armenian 385,488 0.1370% 474,559 0.1537%
Iranian 338,266 0.1202% 463,552 0.1501%
Jewish 6,155,000 2.1810% 6,543,820 2.1157%
Total 8,568,772 3.036418% 9,981,332 3.227071%

Hispanic and Latino Americans

Hispanic or Latino Americans (of any race) constitute the largest ethnic minority in the United States. They form the second largest group after non-Hispanic Whites in the United States, comprising 16.3% of the population according to the 2010 United States Census.[b][108][109]

Hispanic/Latino Americans are very racially diverse, and as a result form an ethnic category, rather than a race.[110][111][112][113]

People of Spanish or Hispanic descent have lived in what is now the United States since the founding of St. Augustine, Florida in 1565 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés. In the State of Texas, Spaniards first settled the region in the late 1600s and formed a unique cultural group known as Tejanos (Texanos).

Hispanic and Latino American population by national origin[114][115]
Rank National origin % of total population Pop.
1 Mexican 10.29% 31,798,258
2 Puerto Rican 1.49% 4,623,716
3 Cuban 0.57% 1,785,547
4 Salvadoran 0.53% 1,648,968
5 Dominican 0.45% 1,414,703
6 Guatemalan 0.33% 1,044,209
7 Colombian 0.3% 908,734
8 Spanish 0.2% 635,253
9 Honduran 0.2% 633,401
10 Ecuadorian 0.1% 564,631
All other 2.64% 8,162,193
Hispanic and Latino American (total) 16.34% 50,477,594
2010 United States Census

Black and African Americans

Black and African Americans are citizens and residents of the United States with origins in Sub-Saharan Africa.[116] According to the Office of Management and Budget, the grouping includes individuals who self-identify as African American, as well as persons who emigrated from nations in the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa.[117] The grouping is thus based on geography, and may contradict or misrepresent an individual's self-identification since not all immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa are "Black". Among these racial outliers are persons from Cape Verde, Madagascar, various Arab states and Hamito-Semitic populations in East Africa and the Sahel, and the Afrikaners of Southern Africa.[116]

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans, and formerly as American Negroes) are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa.[118] According to the 2009 American Community Survey, there were 38,093,725 Black and African Americans in the United States, representing 12.4% of the population. In addition, there were 37,144,530 non-Hispanic blacks, which comprised 12.1% of the population.[119] This number increased to 42 million according to the 2010 United States Census, when including Multiracial African Americans,[117] making up 14% of the total U.S. population.[c][120] Black and African Americans make up the second largest group in the United States, but the third largest group after White Americans and Hispanic or Latino Americans (of any race).[108] The majority of the population (55%) lives in the South; compared to the 2000 Census, there has also been a decrease of African Americans in the Northeast and Midwest.[120]

Most African Americans are the direct descendants of captives from West Africa, who survived the slavery era within the boundaries of the present United States.[121] As an adjective, the term is usually spelled African-American.[122] The first West African slaves were brought to Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. The English settlers treated these captives as indentured servants and released them after a number of years. This practice was gradually replaced by the system of race-based slavery used in the Caribbean.[123] All the American colonies had slavery, but it was usually the form of personal servants in the North (where 2% of the people were slaves), and field hands in plantations in the South (where 25% were slaves);[124] by the beginning of the American Revolutionary War 1/5th of the total population was enslaved.[125] During the revolution, some would serve in the Continental Army or Continental Navy,[126][127] while others would serve the British Empire in Lord Dunmore's Ethiopian Regiment, and other units.[128] By 1804, the northern states (north of the Mason–Dixon line) had abolished slavery.[129] However, slavery would persist in the southern states until the end of the American Civil War and the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment.[130] Following the end of the Reconstruction Era, which saw the first African American representation in Congress,[131] African Americans became disenfranchised and subject to Jim Crow laws,[132] legislation that would persist until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act due to the Civil Rights Movement.[133]

According to US Census Bureau data, very few African immigrants self-identify as African American. On average, less than 5% of African residents self-reported as "African American" or "Afro-American" on the 2000 US Census. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants (~95%) identified instead with their own respective ethnicities. Self-designation as "African American" or "Afro-American" was highest among individuals from West Africa (4%-9%), and lowest among individuals from Cape Verde, East Africa and Southern Africa (0%-4%).[134] African immigrants may also experience conflict with African Americans.[135]

Black and African American population by ancestry group[90][117]
Rank Ancestry group Percentage
of total est. population
Pop. estimates
1 Jamaican 0.31% 986,897
2 Haitian 0.28% 873,003
3 Nigerian 0.08% 259,934
4 Trinidadian and Tobagonian 0.06% 193,233
5 Ghanaian 0.03% 94,405
6 Barbadian 0.01% 59,236
Sub-Saharan African (total) 0.92% 2,864,067
West Indian (total) (except Hispanic groups) 0.85% 2,633,149
Black and African American (total) 13.6% 42,020,743
2010 United States Census & 2009–2011 American Community Survey

Asian Americans

Another significant population is the Asian American population, comprising 17.3 million in 2010, or 5.6% of the U.S. population.[d][136][137] California is home to 5.6 million Asian Americans, the greatest number in any state.[138] In Hawaii, Asian Americans make up the highest proportion of the population (57 percent).[138] Asian Americans live across the country, yet are heavily urbanized, with significant populations in the Greater Los Angeles Area, New York metropolitan area, and the San Francisco Bay Area.[139]

They are by no means a monolithic group. The largest sub-groups are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from Cambodia, Mainland China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Pakistan, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Asians overall have higher income levels than all other racial groups in the United States, including whites, and the trend appears to be increasing in relation to those groups.[140] Additionally, Asians have a higher education attainment level than all other racial groups in the United States.[141][142] For better or worse, the group has been called a model minority.[143][144][145]

While Asian Americans have been in what is now the United States since before the Revolutionary War,[146][147][148] relatively large waves of Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese immigration did not begin until the mid-to-late 19th century.[148] Immigration and significant population growth continue to this day.[149] Due to a number of factors, Asian Americans have been stereotyped as "perpetual foreigners".[150][151]

Asian American ancestries[136]
Rank Ancestry Percentage
of total population
Pop.
1 Chinese 1.2% 3,797,379
2 Filipino 1.1% 3,417,285
3 Indian 1.0% 3,183,063
4 Vietnamese 0.5% 1,737,665
5 Korean 0.5% 1,707,027
6 Japanese 0.4% 1,304,599
Other Asian 0.9% 2,799,448
Asian American (total) 5.6% 17,320,856
2010 United States Census

American Indians and Alaska Natives

According to the 2010 Census, there are 5.2 million people who are Native Americans or Alaska Native alone, or in combination with one or more races; they make up 1.7% of the total population.[e][152] According to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), an "American Indian or Alaska Native" is a person whose ancestry have origins in any of the original peoples of North, Central, or South America.[152] 2.3 million individuals who are American Indian or Alaskan Native are multiracial;[152] additionally the plurality of American Indians reside in the Western United States (40.7%).[152] Collectively and historically this race has been known by several names;[153] as of 1995, 50% of those who fall within the OMB definition prefer the term "American Indian", 37% prefer "Native American" and the remainder have no preference or prefer a different term altogether.[154]

Native Americans, whose ancestry is indigenous to the Americas, originally migrated to the two continents between 10,000-45,000 years ago.[155] These Paleoamericans spread throughout the two continents and evolved into hundreds of distinct cultures during the pre-Columbian era.[156] Following the first voyage of Christopher Columbus,[157] the European colonization of the Americas began, with St. Augustine, Florida becoming the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States.[158] From the 16th through the 19th centuries, the population of Native Americans declined in the following ways: epidemic diseases brought from Europe;[159] genocide and warfare at the hands of European explorers and colonists,[160][161] as well as between tribes;[162][163] displacement from their lands;[164] internal warfare,[165] enslavement;[166] and intermarriage.[167][168]

American Indian and Alaska Native population by selected tribal groups[152][169]
Rank National origin Percentage
of total population
Pop.
1 Cherokee 0.26% 819,105
2 Navajo 0.1% 332,129
3 Choctaw 0.06% 195,764
4 Mexican American Indian 0.05% 175,494
5 Chippewa 0.05% 170,742
6 Sioux 0.05% 170,110
All other 1.08% 3,357,235
American Indian (total) 1.69% 5,220,579
2010 United States Census

Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders

As defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Office of Management and Budget, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders are "persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands".[170] Previously called Asian Pacific American, along with Asian Americans beginning in 1976, this was changed in 1997.[171] As of the 2010 United States Census there are 1.2 million who reside in the United States, and make up 0.4% of the nation's total population, of whom 56% are multiracial.[f][172] 14% of the population have at least a bachelor's degree,[172] and 15.1% live in poverty, below the poverty threshold.[172] As compared to the 2000 United States Census this population grew by 40%;[170] and 71% live in the West; of those over half (52%) live in either Hawaii or California, with no other states having populations greater than 100,000.[170] The largest concentration of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, is Honolulu County in Hawaii,[172] and Los Angeles County in the continental United States.[170]

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander by ancestries[170]
Rank Ancestry Percentage Pop.
1 Hawaiian 0.17% 527,077
2 Samoan 0.05% 184,440
3 Chamorro 0.04% 147,798
4 Tongan 0.01% 57,183
Other Pacific Islanders 0.09% 308,697
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (total) 0.39% 1,225,195
2010 United States Census

Two or more races

The United States has a growing multiracial identity movement.[173] Multiracial Americans numbered 7.0 million in 2008, or 2.3% of the population;[137] by the 2010 census the Multiracial increased to 9,009,073, or 2.9% of the total population.[174] They can be any combination of races (White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, "some other race") and ethnicities.[175] The largest population of Multiracial Americans were those of White and African American descent, with a total of 1,834,212 self-identifying individuals.[174] Barack Obama, 44th President of the United States, is biracial with his mother being of English and Irish descent and his father being of Kenyan birth;[176][177] however, Obama only self-identifies as being African American.[178][179]

Population by selected Two or More Races Population[180]
Rank Specific Combinations Percentage
of total population
Pop.
1 White; Black 0.59% 1,834,212
2 White; Some Other Race 0.56% 1,740,924
3 White; Asian 0.52% 1,623,234
4 White; Native American 0.46% 1,432,309
5 African American; Some Other Race 0.1% 314,571
6 African American; Native American 0.08% 269,421
All other specific combinations 0.58% 1,794,402
Multiracial American (total) 2.9% 9,009,073
2010 United States Census

Some other race

According to the 2010 United States Census, 6.2% or 19,107,368 Americans chose to self-identify with the "some other race" category, the third most popular option. Also, 36.7% or 18,503,103 Hispanic/Latino Americans chose to identify as some other race as these Hispanic/Latinos may feel the U.S. Census does not describe their European and American Indian ancestry as they understand it to be.[181] A significant portion of the Hispanic and Latino population self-identifies as Mestizo, particularly the Mexican and Central American community. Mestizo is not a racial category in the U.S. Census, but signifies someone who has both European and American Indian ancestry.

National personification

"Uncle Sam" is a national personification of the United States. The image bears resemblance to the real Samuel Wilson. The female personification, primarily popular during the 18th and 19th centuries, is "Columbia".

Uncle Sam (pointing finger)
ColumbiaStahrArtwork

A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people; it can appear in both editorial cartoons and propaganda.

Uncle Sam is a national personification of the United States and sometimes more specifically of the American government, with the first usage of the term dating from the War of 1812. He is depicted as a stern elderly white man with white hair and a goatee beard, and dressed in clothing that recalls the design elements of the flag of the United States – for example, typically a top hat with red and white stripes and white stars on a blue band, and red and white striped trousers.

Columbia is a poetic name for the Americas and the feminine personification of the United States of America, made famous by African-American poet Phillis Wheatley during the American Revolutionary War in 1776. It has inspired the names of many persons, places, objects, institutions, and companies in the Western Hemisphere and beyond, including the District of Columbia, the seat of government of the United States.

Language

Languages spoken at home by more than 1 million persons in 2010[182]
Language Percent of
population
Number of
speakers
English 80.38% 233,780,338
Combined total of all languages
other than English
19.62% 57,048,617
Spanish
(excluding Puerto Rico and Spanish Creole)
12.19% 35,437,985
Chinese
(including Cantonese and Mandarin)
0.9% 2,567,779
Tagalog 0.53% 1,542,118
Vietnamese 0.44% 1,292,448
French 0.44% 1,288,833
Korean 0.38% 1,108,408
German 0.38% 1,107,869
Hindustani
(includes Hindi and Urdu)
0.32% 942,794

English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.S. naturalization requirements—standardize English. In 2007, about 226 million, or 80% of the population aged five years and older, spoke only English at home. Spanish, spoken by 12% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught second language.[183][184] Some Americans advocate making English the country's official language, as it is in at least twenty-eight states.[185] Both English and Hawaiian are official languages in Hawaii by state law.[186]

While neither has an official language, New Mexico has laws providing for the use of both English and Spanish, as Louisiana does for English and French.[187] Other states, such as California, mandate the publication of Spanish versions of certain government documents. The latter include court forms.[188] Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan and Chamorro are recognized by American Samoa and Guam, respectively; Carolinian and Chamorro are recognized by the Northern Mariana Islands; Spanish is an official language of Puerto Rico.

Religion

Religious affiliation in the U.S. (2014)[189]
Affiliation % of U.S. population
Christian 70.6
 
Protestant 46.5
 
Evangelical Protestant 25.4
 
Mainline Protestant 14.7
 
Black church 6.5
 
Catholic 20.8
 
Mormon 1.6
 
Jehovah's Witnesses 0.8
 
Eastern Orthodox 0.5
 
Other Christian 0.4
 
Non-Christian faiths 5.9
 
Jewish 1.9
 
Muslim 0.9
 
Buddhist 0.7
 
Hindu 0.7
 
Other Non-Christian faiths 1.8
 
Unaffiliated 22.8
 
Nothing in particular 15.8
 
Agnostic 4.0
 
Atheist 3.1
 
Don't know/refused answer 0.6
 
Total 100
 

Religion in the United States has a high adherence level compared to other developed countries, as well as a diversity in beliefs. The First Amendment to the country's Constitution prevents the Federal government from making any "law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof". The U.S. Supreme Court has interpreted this as preventing the government from having any authority in religion. A majority of Americans report that religion plays a "very important" role in their lives, a proportion unusual among developed countries, although similar to the other nations of the Americas.[190] Many faiths have flourished in the United States, including both later imports spanning the country's multicultural immigrant heritage, as well as those founded within the country; these have led the United States to become the most religiously diverse country in the world.[191]

The majority of Americans (76%) are Christians, mostly within Protestant and Catholic denominations; these adherents constitute 51% and 25% of the population, respectively.[192] Other religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism, which collectively make up about 4% to 5% of the adult population.[192][193][194] Another 15% of the adult population identifies as having no religious belief or no religious affiliation.[192] According to the American Religious Identification Survey, religious belief varies considerably across the country: 59% of Americans living in Western states (the "Unchurched Belt") report a belief in God, yet in the South (the "Bible Belt") the figure is as high as 86%.[192][195]

Several of the original Thirteen Colonies were established by settlers who wished to practice their own religion without discrimination: the Massachusetts Bay Colony was established by English Puritans, Pennsylvania by Irish and English Quakers, Maryland by English and Irish Catholics, and Virginia by English Anglicans. Although some individual states retained established religious confessions well into the 19th century, the United States was the first nation to have no official state-endorsed religion.[196] Modeling the provisions concerning religion within the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, the framers of the Constitution rejected any religious test for office, and the First Amendment specifically denied the federal government any power to enact any law respecting either an establishment of religion or prohibiting its free exercise, thus protecting any religious organization, institution, or denomination from government interference. The decision was mainly influenced by European Rationalist and Protestant ideals, but was also a consequence of the pragmatic concerns of minority religious groups and small states that did not want to be under the power or influence of a national religion that did not represent them.[197]

Touro Synagogue, Newport, RI

Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island is America's oldest surviving synagogue.

Islamic Center of America

The Islamic Center of America in Dearborn, Michigan is the largest mosque in North America.

Lightmatter Hsi Lai Temple 4

Hsi Lai Temple in Hacienda Heights, California is one of the largest Buddhist temples in the Western Hemisphere.

Malibu Hindu Temple 11

Hindu Temple in Malibu, California.

Culture

Motherhood and apple pie
Apple pie and baseball are icons of American culture.

The American culture is primarily a Western culture, but is influenced by Native American, West African, Asian, Polynesian, and Latino cultures.

The United States of America has its own unique social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect, music, arts, social habits, cuisine and folklore.[60]

Its chief early European influences came from English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers of colonial America during British rule. British culture, due to colonial ties with Britain that spread the English language, legal system and other cultural inheritances, had a formative influence.[198] Other important influences came from other parts of Europe, especially Germany,[199] France,[200] and Italy.[201]

Original elements also play a strong role, such as Jeffersonian democracy.[202] Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia was perhaps the first influential domestic cultural critique by an American and a reactionary piece to the prevailing European consensus that America's domestic originality was degenerate.[202] Prevalent ideas and ideals that evolved domestically, such as national holidays, uniquely American sports, military tradition,[203] and innovations in the arts and entertainment give a strong sense of national pride among the population as a whole.[204]

American culture includes both conservative and liberal elements, scientific and religious competitiveness, political structures, risk taking and free expression, materialist and moral elements. Despite certain consistent ideological principles (e.g. individualism, egalitarianism, faith in freedom and democracy), the American culture has a variety of expressions due to its geographical scale and demographic diversity.

Diaspora

Americans have migrated to many places around the world, including Australia, Britain, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand and the Philippines. As of 2016, there were approximately 9 million U.S citizens living outside of the United States.[205]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Europe (4,817 thousand), in 2010, 61.8% were naturalized.[73]
  2. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Latin America and the Caribbean (21,224 thousand), in 2010, 32.1% were naturalized.[73]
  3. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Africa (1,607 thousand), in 2010, 46.1% were naturalized.[73]
  4. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Asia (11,284 thousand), in 2010, 57.7% were naturalized.[73]
  5. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Northern America (807 thousand), in 2010, 44.3% were naturalized.[73]
  6. ^ Of the foreign-born population from Oceania (217 thousand), in 2010, 36.9% were naturalized.[73]

References

  1. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau Announces 2010 Census Population Counts – Apportionment Counts Delivered to President" (Press release). United States Census Bureau. December 21, 2010. Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
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  4. ^ Smith, Dr. Claire M. (August 2010). "These are our Numbers: Civilian Americans Overseas and Voter Turnout" (PDF). OVF Research Newsletter. Overseas Vote Foundation. Retrieved December 11, 2012. Previous research indicates that the number of U.S. Americans living in Mexico is around 1 million, with 600,000 of those living in Mexico City.
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  7. ^ Evan S. Medeiros; Keith Crane; Eric Heginbotham; Norman D. Levin; Julia F. Lowell (November 7, 2008). Pacific Currents: The Responses of U.S. Allies and Security Partners in East Asia to Chinaâ€TMs Rise. Rand Corporation. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-8330-4708-3. An estimated 4 million Filipino-Americans, most of whom are U.S. citizens or dual citizens, live in the United States, and over 250,000 U.S. citizens live in the Philippines.
    "New U.S. ambassador to PH aims to 'strengthen' ties". CNN Philippines. Metro Manila. December 2, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2017. According to his figures, there are about 4 million Filipino-Americans residing in the U.S., and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines.
    Lozada, Aaron (December 2, 2016). "New U.S. envoy: Relationship with PH 'most important'". ABS-CBN News. Manila. Retrieved March 20, 2017. According to Kim, the special relations between the U.S. and the Philippines is evident in the "four million Filipino-Americans who are residing in the United States and 250,000 Americans living and working in the Philippines."
    International Business Publications, USA (August 1, 2013). Philippines Business Law Handbook: Strategic Information and Laws. Int'l Business Publications. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-4387-7078-9. An estimated 600,000 Americans visit the Philippines each year, while an estimated 300,000 reside in-country.
    Kapoor, Kanupriya; Dela Cruz, Enrico (17 October 2016). "Americans in Philippines jittery as Duterte rails against United States". Reuters. Olongapo. Retrieved 20 April 2018. About four million people of Philippine ancestry live in the United States, one of its largest minorities, and about 220,000 Americans, many of them military veterans, live in the Philippines. An additional 650,000 visit each year, according to U.S. State Department figures.
    "FACT SHEET: United States-Philippines Bilateral Relations". U.S. Embassy in the Philippines. United States Department of State. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2018. Around 350,000 Americans reside in the Philippines, and approximately 600,000 U.S. citizens visit the country each year.
  8. ^ Cooper, Matthew (November 15, 2013). "Why the Philippines Is America's Forgotten Colony". National Journal. Retrieved January 28, 2015. c. At the same time, person-to-person contacts are widespread: Some 600,000 Americans live in the Philippines and there are 3 million Filipino-Americans, many of whom are devoting themselves to typhoon relief.
  9. ^ "BiB - Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung - Pressemitteilungen - Zuwanderung aus außereuropäischen Ländern fast verdoppelt". www.bib-demografie.de. Archived from the original on December 9, 2017. Retrieved March 2, 2017.
  10. ^ Daphna Berman (January 23, 2008). "Need an appointment at the U.S. Embassy? Get on line!". Haaretz. Retrieved December 11, 2012. According to estimates, some 200,000 American citizens live in Israel and the Palestinian territories.
  11. ^ Michele Chabin (March 19, 2012). "In vitro babies denied U.S. citizenship". USA Today. Jerusalem. Retrieved December 11, 2012. Most of the 200,000 U.S. citizens in Israel have dual citizenship, and fertility treatments are common because they are free.
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    "North Korea propganda video depicts invasion of South Korea, US hostage taking". Advertiser. Agence France-Presse. March 22, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2013. According to official immigration figures, South Korea has an American population of more than 130,000 civilians and 28,000 troops.
  15. ^ "Background Note: Costa Rica". Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. United States Department of State. April 9, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. Over 130,000 private American citizens, including many retirees, reside in the country and more than 700,000 American citizens visit Costa Rica annually.
  16. ^ "Americans in France". Embassy of the United States, Paris. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on April 18, 2015. Retrieved April 26, 2015. Today, although no official figure is available it is estimated that over 100,000 American citizens reside in France, making France one of the top 10 destinations for American expatriates.
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  18. ^ "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination". Migration Policy Institute. 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2017. Migrants from the United States in Brazil Number of migrants: 28,000
  19. ^ "Brazil (11/30/11)". Previous Editions of Brazil Background Note. United States Department of State. November 30, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. The consular section of the embassy, the consulates, and the consular agents provide vital services to the estimated 70,000 U.S. citizens residing in Brazil.
  20. ^ "Colombia (03/28/13)". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. Retrieved February 27, 2014. Based on Colombian statistics, an estimated 60,000 U.S. citizens reside in Colombia and 280,000 U.S. citizens travel, study and do business in Colombia each year.
  21. ^ "Hong Kong (10/11/11)". Previous Editions of Hong Kong Background Note. United States Department of State. October 11, 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2012. There are some 1,400 U.S. firms, including 817 regional operations (288 regional headquarters and 529 regional offices), and over 60,000 American residents in Hong Kong.
  22. ^ Barry Bearak; Seth Mydans (June 8, 2002). "Many Americans, Unfazed, Go On Doing Business in India". The New York Times. Retrieved December 17, 2012. The number of Americans living in India is often estimated at 60,000.
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  32. ^ "Bahamas, The (01/25/12)". Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. January 25, 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2012. The countries share ethnic and cultural ties, especially in education, and The Bahamas is home to approximately 30,000 American residents.
  33. ^ Bertrand, Eva (December 20, 2012). "US citizens moving to Russia". Voice of Russia. Russia. Archived from the original on November 6, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2017. There are about 6.32 million American citizens living abroad, of those about 30,000 chose Russia, according to the Association of Americans Resident Overseas.
  34. ^ Kate King (July 18, 2006). "U.S. family: Get us out of Lebanon". CNN. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012. About 350 of the estimated 25,000 American citizens in Lebanon had been flown to Cyprus from the U.S. Embassy in Beirut by nightfall Tuesday, Maura Harty, the assistant secretary of state for consular affairs, told reporters.
  35. ^ "Panama (03/09)". Previous Editions of Panama Background Note. United States Department of State. March 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2012. About 25,000 American citizens reside in Panama, many retirees from the Panama Canal Commission and individuals who hold dual nationality.
  36. ^ "Foreign population by sex, country of nationality and age (up to 85 and above)". Instituto Natcional de Estadistica (in Spanish). 1 January 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2018. Both genders 22,082
  37. ^ S. Vedoya; V. Rivera (4 April 2018). "Gobierno cifra en más de un millón el número de inmigrantes que están en Chile". Latercera (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  38. ^ "El Salvador (01/10)". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2014. More than 19,000 American citizens live and work full-time in El Salvador
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  40. ^ "Honduras (11/23/09)". Previous Editions of Honduras Background Note. United States Department of State. November 23, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2012. U.S.-Honduran ties are further strengthened by numerous private sector contacts, with an average of between 80,000 and 110,000 U.S. citizens visiting Honduras annually and about 15,000 Americans residing there.
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  45. ^ Tatiana Morales (August 2, 2009). "Americans in Kuwait: When To Go?". CBS News. Retrieved December 17, 2012. There are about 8,000 Americans who live in Kuwait.
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  47. ^ 8 U.S.C. § 1401 ("Nationals and citizens of United States at birth"); 8 U.S.C. § 1408 ("Nationals but not citizens of the United States at birth"); Ricketts v. Att'y Gen., 897 F.3d 491, 493-94 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) ("Citizenship and nationality are not synonymous."); Tuaua v. United States, 788 F.3d 300 (D.C. Cir. 2015); 22 C.F.R. 51.1 ("U.S. non-citizen national means a person on whom U.S. nationality, but not U.S. citizenship, has been conferred at birth under 8 U.S.C. 1408, or under other law or treaty, and who has not subsequently lost such non-citizen nationality."); 8 U.S.C. § 1483 ("Restrictions on loss of nationality"); see also 8 U.S.C. § 1503 ("Denial of rights and privileges as national"); 8 U.S.C. § 1252(b)(5) ("Treatment of nationality claims").
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  49. ^ See, e.g., Khalid v. Sessions, 904 F.3d 129, 131 (2d Cir. 2018) (the court fully agreed with a lawful permanent resident (LPR) that he is an American); Jaen v. Sessions, 899 F.3d 182, 190 (2d Cir. 2018) (same); Anderson v. Holder, 673 F.3d 1089, 1092 (9th Cir. 2012) (same); Dent v. Sessions, 900 F.3d 1075, 1080 (9th Cir. 2018) ("An individual has third-party standing when [(1)] the party asserting the right has a close relationship with the person who possesses the right [and (2)] there is a hindrance to the possessor's ability to protect his own interests.") (quoting Sessions v. Morales-Santana, 582 U.S. ___, ___, 137 S.Ct. 1678, 1689 (2017)) (internal quotation marks omitted); see also Gonzalez-Alarcon v. Macias, 884 F.3d 1266 (10th Cir. 2018); Hammond v. Sessions, No. 16-3013, p.2-3 (2d Cir. Jan. 29, 2018) (summary order).
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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term typically refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. As a compound adjective, the term is usually hyphenated as African-American.Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States (after White Americans and Hispanic and Latino Americans). Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, and some also have Native American ancestry. According to U.S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities (~95%). Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term.African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, and in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America. After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, and the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens. The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U.S. citizenship to whites only, and only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, and the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.

Asian Americans

Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. This includes people who indicate their race(s) on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U.S. population, while people who are Asian alone, and those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%.Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups, eventually prohibiting almost all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.

Democratic Party (United States)

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.The Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive ("Bull Moose") Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, and leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has also promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice.Today, the House Democratic caucus is composed mostly of centrists and progressives, with a small minority of conservative Democrats. The party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state. It seeks to provide government intervention and regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. The party has united with smaller liberal regional parties throughout the country, such as the Farmer–Labor Party in Minnesota and the Nonpartisan League in North Dakota.

Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings. The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level. The once-powerful labor union element became smaller and less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became heavily Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women, sexual minorities, millennials, college graduates, and racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party.

Fifteen Democrats have served as President under sixteen administrations: the first was seventh President Andrew Jackson, who served from 1829 to 1837; Grover Cleveland served two nonconsecutive terms from 1885 to 1889 and 1893 to 1897; and thus is counted twice (as the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President). The most recent was the forty-fourth President Barack Obama, who held the office from 2009 to 2017.

Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats are the opposition party as of 2019, due to having the minority of seats in the Senate, as well as having the minority of governorships and state legislatures (full control of 17/50, split control of one other); However, they do have the majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" (the executive branch and both chambers of the legislative branch) in 14 states, and the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, New York City, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington, D.C. In the Supreme Court, four of the nine seats are filled by justices appointed by Democratic presidents.

German Americans

German Americans (German: Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry. With an estimated size of approximately 44 million in 2016, German Americans are the largest of the ancestry groups reported by the US Census Bureau in its American Community Survey. The group accounts for about one third of the total ethnic German population in the world.None of the German states had American colonies. In the 1670s, the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the British colonies, settling primarily in Pennsylvania, New York, and Virginia. Immigration continued in very large numbers during the 19th century, with eight million arrivals from Germany. Between 1820 and 1870 over seven and a half million German immigrants came to the United States. By 2010, their population grew to 49.8 million immigrants, reflecting a jump of 6 million people since 2000.

There is a "German belt" that extends all the way across the United States, from eastern Pennsylvania to the Oregon coast. Pennsylvania has the largest population of German-Americans in the U.S. and is home to one of the group's original settlements, Germantown (Philadelphia), founded in 1683 and the birthplace of the American antislavery movement in 1688, as well as the revolutionary Battle of Germantown. The state of Pennsylvania has 3.5 million people of German ancestry.

They were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, and pushed out of Germany by shortages of land and religious or political oppression. Many arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, and others for the chance to start fresh in the New World. The arrivals before 1850 were mostly farmers who sought out the most productive land, where their intensive farming techniques would pay off. After 1840, many came to cities, where "Germania"—German-speaking districts—soon emerged.German Americans established the first kindergartens in the United States, introduced the Christmas tree tradition, and introduced popular foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers to America.The great majority of people with some German ancestry have become Americanized and can hardly be distinguished by the untrained eye; fewer than 5% speak German. German-American societies abound, as do celebrations that are held throughout the country to celebrate German heritage of which the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City is one of the most well-known and is held every third Saturday in September. Oktoberfest celebrations and the German-American Day are popular festivities. There are major annual events in cities with German heritage including Chicago, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, San Antonio, and St. Louis.

Hispanic and Latino Americans

Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Spanish: estadounidenses hispanos or americanos hispanos, pronounced [isˈpanos]) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula. The United States has the largest population of Latinos and Hispanics outside of Latin America. More generally, it includes all persons in the United States who self-identify as Hispanic or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry. For the 2010 United States Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire ("Mexican", "Puerto Rican" or "Cuban") as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Cuban, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Dominican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, Bolivian, Spanish, Chilean, Ecuadorian, Paraguayan, Peruvian, Uruguayan, and Venezuelan. Other U.S. government agencies have slightly different definitions of the term, including Brazilians and other Portuguese-speaking groups. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably."Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two specifically designated categories of ethnicity in the United States (the other being "Not Hispanic or Latino"), Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadoran, Dominican, Guatemalan, or Colombian origin. The predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies widely in different locations across the country.Hispanic Americans are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non-Hispanic whites (a group which, like Hispanics and Latinos, is composed of dozens of sub-groups of differing national origin).

Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida. Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic immigrants to the New York-New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states.A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, and 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest, especially those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry.

Household income in the United States

Household income is an economic measure that can be applied to one household, or aggregated across a large group such as a county, city, or the whole country. It is commonly used by the United States government and private institutions to describe a household's economic status or to track economic trends in the US.

One key measure is the real median level, meaning half of households have income above that level and half below, adjusted for inflation. According to the Census, this measure was $61,372 in 2017, an increase of $1,063 or 1.8% versus 2016, the second consecutive record level year. This measure was $60,309 in 2016 (up $1,833 or 3.1% vs. 2015) and $58,476 in 2015 (up $2,863 or 5.1% vs. 2014).The distribution of U.S. household income has become more unequal since around 1980, with the income share received by the top 1% trending upward from around 10% or less over the 1953–1981 period to over 20% by 2007. After falling somewhat due to the Great Recession in 2008 and 2009, inequality rose again during the economic recovery, a typical pattern historically.

Indian Americans

Indian Americans or Indo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry belongs to any of the many ethnic groups of the Republic of India. The U.S. Census Bureau uses the term Asian Indian to avoid confusion with the indigenous peoples of the Americas commonly referred to as American Indians (or Native Americans or Amerindians).

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.

Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, chiefdoms, states, kingdoms and empires. Among these are the Aztec, Inca and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and socially advanced nations in the world. They had a vast knowledge of engineering, architecture, mathematics, astronomy, writing, physics, medicine, planting and irrigation, geology, mining, sculpture and goldsmithing.

Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Peru and the United States. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

Internment of Japanese Americans

The internment of Japanese Americans in the United States during World War II was the forced relocation and incarceration in concentration camps in the western interior of the country of between 110,000 and 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, most of whom lived on the Pacific coast. Sixty-two percent of the internees were United States citizens. These actions were ordered by President Franklin D. Roosevelt shortly after Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.Of 127,000 Japanese Americans living in the continental United States at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, 112,000 resided on the West Coast. About 80,000 were Nisei (literal translation: "second generation"; American-born Japanese with U.S. citizenship) and Sansei ("third generation"; the children of Nisei). The rest were Issei ("first generation") immigrants born in Japan who were ineligible for U.S. citizenship under U.S. law.Japanese Americans were incarcerated based on local population concentrations and regional politics. More than 110,000 Japanese Americans in the mainland U.S., who mostly lived on the West Coast, were forced into interior camps. However, in Hawaii, where 150,000-plus Japanese Americans composed over one-third of the population, only 1,200 to 1,800 were also interned. The internment is considered to have resulted more from racism than from any security risk posed by Japanese Americans. Those who were as little as 1/16 Japanese and orphaned infants with "one drop of Japanese blood" were placed in internment camps.Roosevelt authorized the deportation and incarceration with Executive Order 9066, issued on February 19, 1942, which allowed regional military commanders to designate "military areas" from which "any or all persons may be excluded." This authority was used to declare that all people of Japanese ancestry were excluded from the West Coast, including all of California and parts of Oregon, Washington, and Arizona, except for those in government camps. Approximately 5,000 Japanese Americans relocated outside the exclusion zone before March 1942, while some 5,500 community leaders had been arrested immediately after the Pearl Harbor attack and thus were already in custody. The majority of nearly 130,000 Japanese Americans living in the U.S. mainland were forcibly relocated from their West Coast homes during the spring of 1942.The United States Census Bureau assisted the internment efforts by spying and providing confidential neighborhood information on Japanese Americans. The Bureau denied its role for decades, but it became public in 2007. In 1944, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the removal by ruling against Fred Korematsu's appeal for violating an exclusion order. The Court limited its decision to the validity of the exclusion orders, avoiding the issue of the incarceration of U.S. citizens without due process.In 1980, under mounting pressure from the Japanese American Citizens League and redress organizations, President Jimmy Carter opened an investigation to determine whether the decision to put Japanese Americans into concentration camps had been justified by the government. He appointed the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) to investigate the camps. The Commission's report, titled Personal Justice Denied, found little evidence of Japanese disloyalty at the time and concluded that the incarceration had been the product of racism. It recommended that the government pay reparations to the internees. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 which apologized for the internment on behalf of the U.S. government and authorized a payment of $20,000 (equivalent to $42,000 in 2018) to each camp survivor. The legislation admitted that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership." The U.S. government eventually disbursed more than $1.6 billion (equivalent to $3,390,000,000 in 2018) in reparations to 82,219 Japanese Americans who had been interned and their heirs.

Irish Americans

Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics. About 33 million Americans — 10.5% of the total population — reported Irish ancestry in the 2013 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. This compares with a population of 6.7 million on the island of Ireland. Three million people separately identified as Scotch-Irish, whose ancestors were Ulster Scots and Anglo-Irish Protestant Dissenters who emigrated from Ireland to the United States. However, whether the Scotch-Irish should be considered Irish is disputed.

Italian Americans

Italian Americans (Italian: italoamericani or italo-americani [ˌitalo.ameriˈkaːni]) are an ethnic group consisting of Americans who have ancestry from Italy. Italian Americans are the fourth largest ethnic group of European Americans behind German Americans, Irish Americans and English Americans.About 5.5 million Italians immigrated to the United States from 1820 to 2004. By 1870, there were less than 25,000 Italian immigrants in America, many of them Northern Italian refugees from the wars that accompanied the Risorgimento—the struggle for Italian unification and independence from foreign rule. Immigration began to increase during the 1870s, when more than twice as many Italians immigrated (1870–79: 46,296) than during the five previous decades combined (1820–69: 22,627). The 1870s were followed by the greatest surge of immigration, which occurred between 1880 and 1914 and brought more than 4 million Italians to the United States, the majority being from Southern Italy and Sicily, with many having agrarian backgrounds. This period of large scale immigration ended abruptly with the onset of the First World War in 1914 and, except for one year (1922), never fully resumed.

Further immigration was greatly limited by several laws Congress passed in the 1920s.Approximately 84% of the Italian immigrants came from Southern Italy and Sicily., which was still largely rural and agricultural, and where much of the populace had been impoverished by centuries of foreign misrule, and an oppressive taxation system imposed after Italian unification in 1861. After unification, the Italian government initially encouraged emigration to relieve economic pressures in the South. After the American Civil War, which resulted in over a half million killed or wounded, immigrant workers were recruited from Italy and elsewhere to fill the labor shortage caused by the war. In the United States, most Italians began their new lives as manual laborers in Eastern cities, mining camps and in agriculture.

The descendants of the Italian immigrants gradually rose from a lower economic class in the first generation to a level comparable to the national average by 1970. The Italian community has often been characterized by strong ties to family, the Roman Catholic Church, fraternal organizations, and political parties.

Jim Crow laws

Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures after the Reconstruction period. The laws were enforced until 1965. In practice, Jim Crow laws mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in the states of the former Confederate States of America, starting in the 1870s and 1880s, and were upheld in 1896, by the U.S. Supreme Court's "separate but equal" legal doctrine for facilities for African Americans, established with the court's decision in the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson. Moreover, public education had essentially been segregated since its establishment in most of the South, after the Civil War (1861–65).

The legal principle of "separate, but equal" racial segregation was extended to public facilities and transportation, including the coaches of interstate trains and buses. Facilities for African Americans and Native Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded, compared to the facilities for white Americans; sometimes there were no facilities for people of color. As a body of law, Jim Crow institutionalized economic, educational, and social disadvantages for African Americans, and other people of color living in the south. Legalized racial segregation principally existed in the Southern states, while Northern racial segregation generally was a matter of fact — enforced in housing with private covenants in leases, bank lending-practices, and employment-preference discrimination, including labor-union practices.

Jim Crow laws—sometimes, as in Florida, part of state constitutions—mandated the segregation of public schools, public places, and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains for whites and blacks. The U.S. military was already segregated. President Woodrow Wilson, a Southern Democrat, initiated segregation of federal workplaces in 1913.These Jim Crow laws revived principles of the 1865 and 1866 Black Codes, which had previously restricted the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. Segregation of public (state-sponsored) schools was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education. In some states it took many years to implement this decision. Generally, the remaining Jim Crow laws were overruled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, but years of action and court challenges have been needed to unravel the many means of institutional discrimination.

Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans (as defined by the US Census) are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

The ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago, possibly much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples, societies and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were greatly affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, and their population declined precipitously mainly due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery. After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare, removals and one-sided treaties, and they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations.

When the United States was created, established Native American tribes were generally considered semi-independent nations, as they generally lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, and started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law. This law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty. For this reason, many (but not all) Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law.

The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States who had not yet obtained it. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, and extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968.

Race and ethnicity in the United States

The United States of America has a racially and ethnically diverse population. The United States Census officially recognizes six racial categories: White or European American, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races; a category called "some other race" is also used in the census and other surveys, but is not official. The United States Census Bureau also classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as an ethnicity (not a race) distinct from others, and comprising the largest minority group in the nation.The United States Supreme Court unanimously held that "race" is not limited to Census designations on the "race question" but extends to all ethnicities, and thus can include Jewish and Arab as well as Polish or Italian or Irish, etc. In fact, the Census asks an "Ancestry Question" which covers the broader notion of ethnicity initially in the 2000 Census long form and now in the American Community Survey. The ancestry question will return in the 2020 Census.As of July 2016, White Americans are the racial majority. African Americans are the largest racial minority, amounting to an estimated 12.7% of the population. Hispanic and Latino Americans amount to an estimated 17.8% of the total U.S. population, making up the largest ethnic minority. The White, non-Hispanic or Latino population make up 61.3% of the nation's total, with the total White population (including White Hispanics and Latinos) being 76.9%.White Americans are the majority in every census-defined region (Northeast, Midwest, South, West) and in every state except Hawaii, but contribute the highest proportion of the population in the Midwestern United States, at 85% per the Population Estimates Program (PEP), or 83% per the American Community Survey (ACS). Non-Hispanic Whites make up 79% of the Midwest's population, the highest ratio of any region. However, 35% of White Americans (whether all White Americans or non-Hispanic/Latino only) live in the South, the most of any region.55% of the African American population lives in the South. A plurality or majority of the other official groups reside in the West. The latter region is home to 42% of Hispanic and Latino Americans, 46% of Asian Americans, 48% of American Indians and Alaska Natives, 68% of Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, 37% of the "two or more races" population (Multiracial Americans), and 46% of those self-designated as "some other race".

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census

Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin (the only categories for ethnicity).The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both racial and national-origin groups.Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino". However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights.In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government. The development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.

Racism in the United States

Racism in the United States has existed since the colonial era. Legally or socially sanctioned privileges and rights were given to white Americans but denied to all other races. European Americans (particularly affluent white Anglo-Saxon Protestants) were granted exclusive privileges in matters of education, immigration, voting rights, citizenship, land acquisition, and criminal procedure throughout American history. However, non-Protestant immigrants from Europe, particularly Irish, Italians, and Poles, often suffered xenophobic exclusion and other forms of discrimination in American society until the late 1800s and early 1900s. In addition, Middle Eastern American groups like Jews and Arabs have faced continuous discrimination in the United States, and as a result, some people belonging to these groups do not identify as white. East, South, and Southeast Asians have similarly faced racism in America.

Major racially and ethnically structured institutions include slavery, segregation, Native American reservations, Native American boarding schools, immigration and naturalization law, and internment camps. Formal racial discrimination was largely banned in the mid-20th century and came to be perceived as socially and morally unacceptable. Racial politics remain a major phenomenon, and racism continues to be reflected in socioeconomic inequality. Racial stratification continues to occur in employment, housing, education, lending, and government.

In the view of the United Nations and the U.S. Human Rights Network, "discrimination in the United States permeates all aspects of life and extends to all communities of color." While the nature of the views held by average Americans has changed significantly over the past several decades, surveys by organizations such as ABC News have found that even in modern America, large sections of Americans admit to holding discriminatory viewpoints. For example, a 2007 article by ABC stated that about one in ten admitted to holding prejudices against Hispanic and Latino Americans and about one in four did so regarding Arab-Americans. A 2018 YouGov/Economist poll found that 17% of Americans oppose interracial marriage, with 19% of "other" ethnic groups, 18% of blacks, 17% of whites, and 15% of Hispanics opposing.Some Americans saw the presidential candidacy of Barack Obama as the first black president of the United States from 2008 to 2016 as a sign that the nation had entered a new, post-racial era. The right-wing populist radio host Lou Dobbs claimed in November 2009, "We are now in a 21st-century post-partisan, post-racial society." Two months later, Chris Matthews, an MSNBC host, said President Obama, "is post-racial by all appearances. You know, I forgot he was black tonight for an hour." The election of President Donald Trump in 2016 has been viewed by some commentators as a racist backlash against the election of Barack Obama.During the 2010s, American society continues to experience high levels of racism and discrimination. One new phenomenon has been the rise of the "alt-right" movement: a white nationalist coalition that seeks the expulsion of sexual and racial minorities from the United States. In August 2017, these groups attended a rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, intended to unify various white nationalist factions. During the rally, a white supremacist demonstrator drove his car into a group of counter-protesters, killing one person and injuring 19. Since the mid-2010s, the Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Bureau of Investigation have considered white supremacist violence to be the leading threat of domestic terrorism in the United States.

The Americans (2013 TV series)

The Americans is an American period spy thriller television series created by Joe Weisberg for the FX television network. Set in the 1980s during the Cold War, it is the story of Elizabeth (Keri Russell) and Philip Jennings (Matthew Rhys), two Soviet KGB officers posing as an American married couple living in the Virginia suburbs of Washington, D.C., with their children Paige (Holly Taylor) and Henry (Keidrich Sellati). Their neighbor Stan Beeman (Noah Emmerich) is an FBI agent working in counterintelligence. Season 1 begins shortly after the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan in January 1981, and Season 6 ends in December 1987, shortly before the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty is signed.

The Americans premiered in the United States on January 30, 2013, and ended on May 30, 2018, after six seasons. Over the course of its run, the series was considered among the best of its era by critics, winning the TCA Award for Outstanding Achievement in Drama three times and the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Drama Series twice. For its final season, Matthew Rhys won the Emmy for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series, and executive producers Joel Fields and Joe Weisberg won the Emmy for Outstanding Writing for a Drama Series, as well as the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Drama.

White Americans

White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry. White Americans (including White Hispanics) constitute the historical and current majority of the people living in the United States, with 72% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. Non-Hispanic whites totaled about 197,285,202 or 60.7% of the U.S. population. European Americans are the largest ethnic group of White Americans and constitute the historical population of the United States since the nation's founding.

The United States Census Bureau defines white people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa." Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component, the latter consisting mostly of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is synonymous with "white", although the latter is sometimes used to denote skin tone instead of race. The inclusion of non-Europeans in the definition of white is controversial. Many of the non-European ethnic groups classified as white by the U.S. Census, such as Arab Americans, Jewish Americans, and Hispanics or Latinos, may not identify as or may not be perceived to be, white.

The largest ancestries of American whites are: German Americans (17%), Irish Americans (12%), English Americans (9%), Italian Americans (6%), French Americans (4%), Polish Americans (3%), Scottish Americans (3%), Scotch-Irish Americans (2%), Dutch Americans (2%), Norwegian Americans (2%) and Swedish Americans (1%). However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply "Americans" (7%), due to the length of time they have inhabited the United States, particularly if their family arrived prior to the American Revolution. The vast majority of white Americans also have ancestry from multiple countries.

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