American tree sparrow

The American tree sparrow (Spizelloides arborea), also known as the winter sparrow,[2] is a medium-sized sparrow.

It had been classified under the genus Spizella, but multilocus molecular evidence suggested placement in its own genus.

Adults have a rusty cap and grey underparts with a small dark spot on the breast. They have a rusty back with lighter stripes, brown wings with white bars and a slim tail. Their face is grey with a rusty line through the eye. Their flanks are splashed with light brown. They are similar in appearance to the chipping sparrow.

Their breeding habitat is tundra or the northern limits of the boreal forest in Alaska and northern Canada. They nest on the ground.

These birds migrate into southern Canada and the United States to spend the winter. Usually, chipping sparrows are moving south around the same time as these birds arrive.

These birds forage on the ground or in low bushes, often in flocks when not nesting. They mainly eat seeds and insects, but also eat some berries. They are commonly seen near feeders with dark-eyed juncos.

This bird's song is a sweet high warble descending in pitch and becoming buzzy near the finish.

American tree sparrow
Spizella-arborea-002 edit2
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Passerellidae
Genus: Spizelloides
Slager & Klicka, 2014
Species:
S. arborea
Binomial name
Spizelloides arborea
(Wilson, 1810)
Spizelloides arborea map
Synonyms

Spizella monticola
Spizella arborea
Passerella arborea

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Passerella arborea". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Sandrock, James; Prior, Jean C. (2014). The Scientific Nomenclature of Birds in the Upper Midwest. Iowa City, IA, US: University of Iowa Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-60938-225-4.
  • Slager, D.L.; Klicka, J. 2014: A new genus for the American tree sparrow (Aves: Passeriformes: Passerellidae). Zootaxa, 3821(3): 398-400. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3821.3.9

Further reading

Book

  • Naugler, C. T. 1993. American Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea). In The Birds of North America, No. 37. (A. Poole, P. Stettenheim, and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: The American Ornithologists' Union.

Thesis

  • Heydweiller AM. Ph.D. (1936). LIFE HISTORY OF THE TREE SPARROW, SPIZELLA ARBOREA. Cornell University, United States, New York.
  • Naugler CT. M.Sc. (1992). Effects of the acoustic environment on song structure and song recognition in the American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea). Queen's University at Kingston (Canada), Canada.

Articles

  • Cusick EK & Wilson FE. (1972). On Control of Spontaneous Testicular Regression in Tree Sparrows Spizella-Arborea. General & Comparative Endocrinology. vol 19, no 3. pp. 441–456.
  • Delisle JM & Savidge JA. (1997). Avian use and vegetation characteristics of conservation reserve program fields. Journal of Wildlife Management. vol 61, no 2. pp. 318–325.
  • Durairaj G & Martin EW. (1970). Fatty-Acid Composition of the Tree Sparrow Spizella-Arborea. American Zoologist. vol 10, no 3.
  • Hannah KC. (2005). An apparent case of cooperative hunting in immature Northern Shrikes. Wilson Bulletin. vol 117, no 4. pp. 407–409.
  • Helms CW & Smythe RB. (1969). Variation in Major Body Components of the Tree Sparrow Spizella-Arborea Sampled within the Winter Range. Wilson Bulletin. vol 81, no 3. pp. 280–292.
  • Keiper RR. (1969). Causal Factors of Stereotypies in Caged Birds Serinus-Canarius Serinus-Mozambicus Serinus-Leucopygius Spizella-Arborea Junco-Hyemalis Cyanocitta-Cristata Rearing. Animal Behaviour. vol 17, no 1. pp. 114–119.
  • Martin EW. (1968). The Effects of Dietary Protein on the Energy and Nitrogen Balance of the Tree Sparrow Spizella-Arborea-Arborea. Physiological Zoology. vol 41, no 3. pp. 313–331.
  • Morrison JV & Wilson FE. (1972). Ovarian Growth in Tree Sparrows Spizella-Arborea. Auk. vol 89, no 1. pp. 146–155.
  • Paton PWC & Pogson TH. (1996). Relative abundance, migration strategy, and habitat use of birds breeding in Denali National Park, Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist. vol 110, no 4. pp. 599–606.
  • Stuebe MM & Ketterson ED. (1982). A STUDY OF FASTING IN TREE SPARROWS (SPIZELLA-ARBOREA) AND DARK-EYED JUNCOS (JUNCO-HYEMALIS) - ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS. Auk. vol 99, no 2. pp. 299–308.

External links

1810 in birding and ornithology

University of Berlin founded. Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger is a professor and director of the Zoological Museum.

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque describes the streaked fantail warbler in Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia.

George Perry describes the brolga in Arcana; or the Museum of Natural History. This serial publication, like many was short-lived ( January 1810 to September 1811).

John James Audubon meets Alexander Wilson author of American Ornithology.

Moritz Balthasar Borkhausen publishes Deutsche Ornithologie oder Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands (Natural history of German birds).Ongoing events

Alexander Wilson Ornithology of America (1808–1814) Species described in 1810 include the American tree sparrow, the pine siskin, the blue-headed vireo, the mourning warbler and the marsh wren.

American sparrow

American sparrows are a group of mainly New World passerine birds, forming part of the family Passerellidae. American sparrows are seed-eating birds with conical bills, brown or gray in color, and many species have distinctive head patterns.

Although they share the name sparrow, American sparrows are more closely related to Old World buntings than they are to the Old World sparrows (family Passeridae). American sparrows are also similar in both appearance and habit to finches, with which they sometimes used to be classified.

Cap Tourmente National Wildlife Area

The Cap Tourmente National Wildlife Area is a National Wildlife Area located on the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River in the National Capital Region of Quebec, established on 28 April 1978. It is one of the critical habitats for the greater snow goose during migration. Flocks of tens of thousands of these birds stop over to feed on the bullrushes in the spring and fall. The tidal marsh was recognized as a wetland of international significance per the Ramsar Convention in 1981, the first North American site to receive that distinction.Within the wildlife refuge is a historic farm site, La Petite-Ferme du cap Tourmente, which was begun by Samuel de Champlain in 1626, as a food source for the fledgling Habitation at Quebec City. Later, the farm was purchased and run for nearly 300 years by and for the Seminary of Quebec. A farm house built around 1667 still stands, and is at the core of La Petite-Ferme du cap Tourmente National Historic Site, designated in 2018.

Environment of Virginia

The natural environment of Virginia encompasses the physical geography and biology of the U.S. state of Virginia. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles (110,784.67 km2), including 3,180.13 square miles (8,236.5 km2) of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Forests cover 65% of the state, wetlands and water cover 6% of the land in the state, while 5% of the state is a mixture of commercial, residential, and transitional.Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.C. to the north and east; by the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina and Tennessee to the south; by Kentucky to the west; and by West Virginia to the north and west. Due to a peculiarity of Virginia's original charter, its boundary with Maryland and Washington, D.C. does not extend past the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River (unlike many boundaries that split a river down the middle). The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes.The state agencies whose primary focii are on the natural environment of Virginia are the Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR), and the Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ).

Eurasian tree sparrow

The Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) is a passerine bird in the sparrow family with a rich chestnut crown and nape, and a black patch on each pure white cheek. The sexes are similarly plumaged, and young birds are a duller version of the adult. This sparrow breeds over most of temperate Eurasia and Southeast Asia, where it is known as the tree sparrow, and it has been introduced elsewhere including the United States, where it is known as the Eurasian tree sparrow or German sparrow to differentiate it from the native unrelated American tree sparrow. Although several subspecies are recognised, the appearance of this bird varies little across its extensive range.

The Eurasian tree sparrow's untidy nest is built in a natural cavity, a hole in a building or the large nest of a European magpie or white stork. The typical clutch is five or six eggs which hatch in under two weeks. This sparrow feeds mainly on seeds, but invertebrates are also consumed, particularly during the breeding season. As with other small birds, infection by parasites and diseases, and predation by birds of prey take their toll, and the typical life span is about two years.

The Eurasian tree sparrow is widespread in the towns and cities of eastern Asia, but in Europe it is a bird of lightly wooded open countryside, with the house sparrow breeding in the more urban areas. The Eurasian tree sparrow's extensive range and large population ensure that it is not endangered globally, but there have been large declines in western European populations, in part due to changes in farming practices involving increased use of herbicides and loss of winter stubble fields. In eastern Asia and western Australia, this species is sometimes viewed as a pest, although it is also widely celebrated in oriental art.

List of birds of Aleutian Islands

This list of birds of the Aleutian Islands is a comprehensive listing of all bird species known from the Aleutian Islands, as documented by Gibson and Byrd (2007) and eBird.The known avifauna of the Aleutian Islands total 300 species as of January 2019. Of that number, 44 (15%) are year-round residents and breeders, 27 (9%) migrate to the Aleutians to breed, 18 (6%) migrate to the Aleutians to winter, 6 (2%) are non-breeding summer residents, 37 (12%) are annual through-migrants, and the remaining 168 (56%) are vagrants of less-than-annual occurrence. Several of the vagrants have only a single record.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

The following terms used to denote the annual and seasonal status of each species are from Gibson and Byrd (2007):

Accidental – one or two records

Casual – recorded in <30% of years in the appropriate season, but in at least three calendar years

Intermittent – recorded in ≥30% of years in the appropriate season, but not annually

Migrant – annual through-migrant in spring or fall

Resident – substantial numbers present throughout the year

Summer – migrates to the Aleutians to breed or to summer offshore

Winter – migrates to the Aleutians to winter

Annual breeders are designated with an asterisk (*), as in Resident* or Summer*.

List of birds of Kansas

This list of birds of Kansas includes species documented in the U.S. state of Kansas and accepted by Kansas Ornithological Society (KOS). As of February 2018, there are 477 species included in the official list. Of them, 72 are classed as accidental, 12 are classed as hypothetical, and five have been introduced to North America. In addition to the 475, two species are extinct and one has been extirpated.

Only birds that are considered to have established, self-sustaining, wild populations in Kansas are included on this list. This means that birds that are considered probable escapees, although they may have been sighted flying free in Kansas, are not included.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

These tags are used to annotate some species:

(A) Accidental – "Fewer than ten Kansas records" per the KOS

(E) Extinct – a recent species that no longer exists

(Ex) Extirpated – a species that is no longer in Kansas, but exists elsewhere

(I) Introduced – a species established in North America as a result of human action

(H) Hypothetical – a species that has had a credible sighting reported, but has not been documented with a specimen or suitable photograph

(F) Fictional – birds known to be fictional but associated with Kansas tradition

List of birds of Manitoba

.

This list of birds of Manitoba includes all the bird species confirmed in the Canadian province of Manitoba as determined by the Manitoba Avian Research Committee (MARC). There were, as of 2009, 390 species on this list. Between that date and July 2018, seven additional species have been added through eBird. Of the 397 species, 71 are rare or accidental, 23 are classed as occasional, and eight have been introduced to Manitoba or elsewhere in North America. One species is extinct and two species have been extirpated; one of them might be extinct.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

The following codes are used to describe some categories of occurrence. The MARC Checklist provides abundance codes by region and season, and species may be abundant at one time and place and accidental in another. Therefore, an (A) or (O) code is used here only if the Checklist does not have a code for greater abundance anywhere.

(A) Accidental - one to six records since 1 January 1960 per the MARC

(O) Occasional - seven or more records since 1 January 1960 but not expected to occur annually per the MARC

(I) Introduced - established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous

(E) Extinct – a recent species that no longer exists

(Ex) Extirpated – a species that no longer occurs in Manitoba, but populations still exist elsewhere

List of birds of Mont-Tremblant National Park

This lists the species of birds in Mont-Tremblant National Park in Quebec, Canada. The bolded species indicate that they are threatened in the area.

List of birds of New Jersey

This list of birds of New Jersey includes species credibly documented in the U.S. state of New Jersey and accepted by the New Jersey Bird Records Committee (NJBRC) as of December 2017. There are 476 species and two species pairs included in the official list. Six additional species of uncertain origin are also included in this page.This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in New Jersey as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. These tags are used to annotate some species:

(R) Rare or accidental - Review List ; birds that if observed require more comprehensive documentation than regularly seen species (138 species and two species pairs)

(R*) Review List, in part - "Identifiable form/race/subspecies, seen from shore, etc." per the NJBRC (16 species)

(E) Extinct - a recent species that no longer exists (four species)

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in New Jersey, but populations survive elsewhere (one species)

(I) Introduced - a species established in North America by direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native or non-indigenous (eight species)

(PU) Provenance uncertain - species which might have been released or escaped from captivity (six species)

List of birds of New York (state)

This list of birds of New York covers all 493 species, and a species pair, of wild birds ever documented in New York. It is a reproduction of the Checklist of the Birds of New York State produced by the New York State Ornithological Association, and approved by the New York State Avian Records Committee (NYSARC) through December 21, 2018. These species represent 23 orders and 66 families of birds.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in New York as permanent residents, summer or winter visitors, or migrants. These tags are used to annotate some species:

(B) Breeding - a species that currently breeds or has bred in New York (252 species)

(†) Extinct - a species that used to live in what is now New York but is now extinct (2 species)

(E) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in New York, but populations exist elsewhere (2 species)

(I) Introduced - a population established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous (8 species)

(IE) - an introduced population existed but is now extirpated (2 species)Other markings denote birds that NYSARC requests documentation of in certain conditions:

(N) - documentation of this bird should be submitted if seen anywhere in New York (154 species)

(U) - documentation of this bird should be submitted if seen in upstate New York (31 species)

(D) - documentation of this bird should be submitted if seen in downstate New York (4 species)

(A) - documentation of this bird should be submitted if seen outside the Adirondacks (3 species)

(P) - documentation of this bird should be submitted if seen outside of the pelagic zone (between 3 and 200 miles from shore) but within New York State. (4 species)

(S) - documentation of this bird should be submitted if seen in New York in spring (3 species)

List of birds of Ontario

This list of birds of Ontario includes all the bird species recorded in the Canadian province of Ontario as determined by the Ontario Bird Records Committee (OBRC). There are, as of April 2017, 495 species on this list, 291 of which are known to breed in the province. Ontario has a considerable variety of bird species. One of the factors in this diversity is the size and range of environments in Ontario. Another is the Great Lakes; many birds use the shores as a stopping point during migration.The OBRC Checklist divides the province into the Lowlands, Central, and South review zones and requests documentation of sightings of birds which are rare or accidental in one, two, or all of the zones. Of the 495 species on the list, 167 are noted as rare anywhere in the province and another 108 are rare in one or two of the zones. Eight species have been introduced to North America. One species has been extirpated, one is extinct, and another might be.

Only birds that are considered to have established, self-sustaining, wild populations are included on this list. This means that birds that are considered probable escapees, although they may have been sighted flying free, are not included.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

The following codes are used to categorise some species:

(A) Accidental - rare or accidental anywhere in Ontario

(L) Lowlands - rare or accidental in the Lowlands Review Zone

(C) Central - rare or accidental in the Central Review Zone

(S) South - rare or accidental in the South Review Zone

(I) Introduced - established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous

(E) Extinct – a recent species that no longer exists

(Ex) Extirpated – a species that no longer occurs in Ontario, but populations still exist elsewhere

Pass a Loutre Wildlife Management Area

Pass a Loutre Wildlife Management Area (WMA) is a 66,000-acre (270 km2) protected wetland in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, United States. The WMA is located due south and bordering the 48,000 acre Delta National Wildlife Refuge, accessible only by air or boat, contains the Pass A L'Outre Lighthouse (29°11′26.6″N 89°2′29.3″W), and Port Eads is within the boundary.

Passerellidae

The Passerellidae (New World sparrows or American sparrows) are a large family of seed-eating passerine birds with distinctively finch-like bills. The American Ornithological Society split the family from Emberizidae (Old World buntings) in 2017.

Prince Edward Point Bird Observatory

The Prince Edward Point Bird Observatory is a bird observatory located in the Prince Edward Point National Wildlife Area, located on Prince Edward Point in the south-east corner of Prince Edward County, Ontario, Canada. The National Wildlife Area was established in 1978 covering 560 hectares. The observatory was established in 1995 to monitor bird migrations across the point, continuing the work of the Kingston Field Naturalists who performed similar work in the 1970s and 1980s. The observatory was designated a Globally Important Birding Area in 1998 by the Canadian Nature Federation and Bird Studies Canada. It is also an International Monarch Butterfly Reserve.

Rough-legged buzzard

The rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus), also called the rough-legged hawk, is a medium-large bird of prey. It is found in Arctic and Subarctic regions of North America and Eurasia during the breeding season and migrates south for the winter. It was traditionally also known as the rough-legged falcon in such works as John James Audubon's The Birds of America.

Nests are typically located on cliffs, bluffs or in trees. Clutch sizes are variable with food availability, but three to five eggs are usually laid. These hawks hunt over open land, feeding primarily on small mammals. Along with the kestrels, kites and osprey, this is one of the few birds of prey to hover regularly.

Spizella

The genus Spizella (Bonaparte, 1832) is a group of American sparrows in the family Emberizidae.

These birds are fairly small and slim, with short bills, round heads and long wings. They are usually found in semi-open areas. Outside of the nesting season they often forage in small mixed flocks.

American tree sparrow was formerly a member of this group, but is now placed in its monotypic genus Spizelloides.

The full list of species is:

Chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina

Clay-colored sparrow, Spizella pallida

Brewer's sparrow, Spizella breweri

Timberline sparrow, Spizella breweri taverneri

Field sparrow, Spizella pusilla

Worthen's sparrow, Spizella wortheni

Black-chinned sparrow, Spizella atrogularis

Wapack National Wildlife Refuge

Wapack National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the United States located in southern New Hampshire. It was the state's first refuge and was established through a donation in 1972. The 1,672-acre (677 ha) refuge is located about 20 miles (32 km) west of Nashua, New Hampshire and encompasses the 2,278-foot (694 m) North Pack Monadnock Mountain.

A 3-mile (5 km) segment of the 21-mile (34 km) Wapack Trail passes through the refuge and provides wide views of the surrounding mountains.

The refuge lies in the towns of Greenfield, Lyndeborough, and Temple, and is administered by the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge in Newburyport, Massachusetts.

Birds (class: Aves)
Anatomy
Behaviour
Evolution
Fossil birds
Human interaction
Lists
Neornithes
Taxon identifiers
Spizella arborea
Spizelloides arborea
Fringilla arborea

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