American Ultimate Disc League

The American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL) is a semi-professional ultimate frisbee league in North America. Between 2013 and 2016, it was one of two such leagues, the other being Major League Ultimate, which ceased operation on December 21, 2016.[1] It was founded by Josh Moore in 2010 and its inaugural season began in April 2012 with eight teams. Regular season games are played April through July. The playoffs consist of three rounds: divisional wild card round, division championships, and finally culminating in a final four style showcase known as AUDL Championship Weekend in August.[2] The winner of each division's championship game advances to Championship Weekend, with semifinals on Saturday and the championship game played on Sunday.

AUDL players do not receive a regular paycheck for playing in the league. Instead, players receive a portion of gate receipts and an ownership interest in the team.[3]

American Ultimate Disc League
Current season, competition or edition:
Current sports event 2019 AUDL season
American Ultimate Disc League Logo
SportUltimate
Founded2010
Inaugural season2012
No. of teams21
CountryUnited States (18 teams)
Canada (3 teams)
Most recent
champion(s)
Madison Radicals (1st title)
Most titlesSan Jose Spiders (2)
TV partner(s)Stadium (sports network)
Eleven Sports Network
Official websitetheAUDL.com

History

Inaugural season

The first AUDL game was won by the Connecticut Constitution on April 14, 2012 over the Rhode Island Rampage by a score of 29 to 23, and the first goal was scored by Brent Anderson of the Constitution.[4] The first championship was held on August 11, 2012 and was won by the Philadelphia Spinners by a score of 29 to 22 over the Indianapolis AlleyCats.

In the first season, the league consisted of eight teams broken into the Eastern and Western conferences. Jonathan 'Goose' Helton of the AlleyCats was named league MVP for the inaugural season. Helton, alongside Evan Boucher, Cameron Brock, Rob Dulabon, Dave Hochholter, John Korber, and Jake Rainwater were named to the first All-AUDL Team.

2012 lawsuit

In May 2012, the AUDL announced its plans for expansion for the following season, including franchises in New Jersey, New York, and Boston. Owners of the Connecticut Constitution and Rhode Island Rampage contended that the Boston and New York franchises impinged upon their Territory Licensing Agreements, which specified a non-compete radius of 100 miles. Separately, the league compensated the Philadelphia Spinners for the encroachment of the New Jersey and New York franchises. Negotiations between the Constitution, the Rampage, and the league reached an impasse in early June and the franchises' owners threatened legal action. The league preemptively sued the owners on June 17. As negotiations wore on, the league (at least twice) offered various settlements to the owners of the Constitution and the Rampage, but those offers were rejected. On July 5, the Constitution suspended team operations due to legal fees, missing two games. The league then fined the team the maximum fine of $10,000 per game, which Constitution owner Bryan Ricci called “severe and excessive” and refused to pay. Both the Constitution and Rampage had games cancelled near the end of the season.[5] The Constitution would have earned a playoff berth but were disqualified due to their unpaid fines and the Rampage advanced in their place, losing to the Philadelphia Spinners in the Division final.

In December, 2012, the league and team owners reached a settlement. Details of the settlement are unknown due to a non-disclosure agreement.[6] Neither the Rampage nor the Connecticut Constitution returned to the AUDL in 2013.

2013—present

For the 2013 season, the Indianapolis AlleyCats and the Detroit Mechanix were the only teams from the 2012 season to remain in their cities, while the Bluegrass Revolution relocated from Lexington, KY to Cincinnati, OH and the Buffalo Hunters relocated and rebranded as the Rochester Dragons.[7] Even with only four teams left, the league still managed to expand to twelve teams overall.[8]

In 2014, the league expanded to 17 teams, including the introduction of the West Division.[9] The league also reached a multi-year broadcasting deal with ESPN3 that covered 14 regular season games, a playoff game, and the Championship Weekend.[10]

In 2015, the league expanded to 25 teams. The new expansion teams consisted of the Pittsburgh Thunderbirds, Ottawa Outlaws, Los Angeles Aviators, San Diego Growlers, Jacksonville Cannons, Nashville Nightwatch, Raleigh Flyers, Atlanta Hustle and Charlotte Express. In March 2015, the Salt Lake Lions announced that they would be suspending operations for the entire 2015 season; leaving the West Conference with only 6 teams. In October 2015, the AUDL announced that the Lions franchise had been bought back by the league, making that hiatus permanent. In the same announcement, the league welcomed the Austin Sol and Dallas Roughnecks to the South Division.[11] Shortly thereafter, the AUDL announced that the Rochester Dragons franchise was also being contracted and that the league was again hoping to start a franchise in the Boston area.[12]

Also in 2015, the Raleigh Flyers of the AUDL signed the first ever female professional ultimate player, Jessi Jones, to play in their game against the Nashville Nightwatch. Jones, who was a team USA U-23 player in 2013, was signed as part of "Women's Ultimate Day".[13][14]

In September 2016, the Cincinnati Revolution and the Charlotte Express announced they would be ceasing operations.[15]

In the 2017 season, Jesse Shofner was selected to the roster for the Nashville Nightwatch, which made her the first female player to make a full season AUDL roster.[14] Shofner subsequently scored two goals in the Nightwatch's first game of the 2017 season, making her the first woman to do so in any AUDL game.[16]

Before the 2018 Season, the Vancouver Riptide announced they would be leaving Vancouver, with the intent of relocating to Portland, Oregon.

Before the 2019 Season, the Nashville Nightwatch and the San Francisco FlameThrowers announced they would be ceasing operations.

Rules

The AUDL features a number of rule changes from the traditional set of rules laid out and established by USA Ultimate and the WFDF.

The field area is expanded to ​53 13 yards wide and 80 yards long with 20 yard end zones (the same size as an American football field, but with the end zones taking up twice as much of the field as in American football). Games are timed with four quarters of 12 minutes each, including a 15-minute halftime. If the score is tied, a five-minute overtime period is played. If the score remains tied after overtime, a second overtime is played in which the first team to score wins.

Notable changes from the USAU format include the use of referees, a drop in the stall count from 10 seconds to 7, a ten-yard penalty for travelling when catching the disc, no prohibition of double-teams, and a yardage penalty for travelling when throwing the disc.[17] There are also other infractions, such as too much physicality, that result in 5-, 10-, or 20-yard penalties depending on the severity of the infraction. While different to the USAU and WFDF rules, many of the changes for the AUDL could also be seen in the MLU.

Teams

As of the 2019 season, 21 active teams compete in four divisions: East, Midwest, West, and South. There are 18 teams from the continental United States and three from Canada.

Map of teams

Active teams

Team City/Area Stadium Founded First Season
East
DC Breeze Washington, DC Cardinal Stadium at Catholic Univ.[18] 2013 2013
Montreal Royal Montreal, QC Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard 2013 2014
New York Empire New York City, NY Joseph F. Fosina Field[19] 2013 2013
Ottawa Outlaws Ottawa, ON MNP Park 2014 2015
Philadelphia Phoenix Philadelphia, PA 2013 2013
Toronto Rush Toronto, ON Varsity Stadium 2013 2013
Midwest
Chicago Wildfire Chicago, IL Langhorst Field, Elmhurst College 2013 (as Windy City Wildfire) 2013
Detroit Mechanix Madison Heights, MI Bishop Foley Catholic High School 2010 2012
Indianapolis AlleyCats Indianapolis, IN Grand Park Events Center[20] 2012 2012
Madison Radicals Madison, WI Breese Stevens Field 2013 2013
Minnesota Wind Chill Blaine, MN Sea Foam Stadium 2013 2013
Pittsburgh Thunderbirds Pittsburgh, PA 2014 2015
West
Los Angeles Aviators Los Angeles, CA Culver City High School 2014 2015
San Diego Growlers San Diego, CA Junipero Serra High School/Balboa Stadium 2014 2015
San Jose Spiders Los Altos Hills, CA Foothill College 2013 2014
Seattle Cascades Seattle, WA Seattle Memorial Stadium 2014 (as the Seattle Raptors) 2014
TBD Portland, OR TBD 2018 2020
South
Atlanta Hustle Atlanta, GA Grady Stadium 2015 2015
Austin Sol Austin, TX House Park 2015 2016
Dallas Roughnecks Dallas, TX The Colony Five Star Complex 2015 2016
Raleigh Flyers Raleigh, NC WakeMed Soccer Park 2014 2015
Tampa Bay Cannons St. Petersburg, FL 2014 2015

Former teams

Team City/Area Stadium Season(s) Status
Cincinnati Revolution Cincinnati, OH Sheakley Athletic Center 2012 (as the Bluegrass Revolution),20132016 Folded[21]
Rochester Dragons Rochester, NY Eunice Kennedy Shriver Stadium 2012 (as the Buffalo Hunters),20132015 Contracted[12]
Charlotte Express Charlotte, NC Irwin Belk Complex 20152016 Contracted[21]
Columbus Cranes Westerville, Ohio Warhawks Stadium 2012 Folded
Connecticut Constitution New Britain, CT Arute Field 2012 Folded
Nashville Nightwatch Nashville, TN Hunters Lane High School 2014-2018 Dropped to a semi-pro level
New Jersey Hammerheads West Windsor Township, NJ Mercer County Community College Stadium 2013 Folded[22]
Philadelphia Spinners Philadelphia, PA Franklin Field 2012 Left to join MLU[23]
Rhode Island Rampage East Providence, RI Pierce Memorial Field 2012 Folded
Salt Lake Lions Salt Lake City, UT 2014 Dissolved
San Francisco FlameThrowers Oakland, CA Laney College Football Field[24] 2013-2018 Transitioned to a women's program
Vancouver Riptide Vancouver, BC Swangard Stadium 2014-2017 Team move to Portland, Oregon for 2019 season

Championships

Season Date Champion Final score Runner-Up Venue Location Ref
2012 August 11, 2012 Philadelphia Spinners 29–22 Indianapolis AlleyCats Pontiac Silverdome Pontiac, MI [25]
2013 August 4, 2013 Toronto Rush 16–14 Madison Radicals Lane Tech Stadium Chicago, IL [26][27]
2014 July 27, 2014 San Jose Spiders 28–18 Toronto Rush Varsity Stadium Toronto, ON [28]
2015 August 9, 2015 San Jose Spiders 17–15 Madison Radicals Avaya Stadium San Jose, CA [29]
2016 August 7, 2016 Dallas Roughnecks 33–27 Seattle Cascades Breese Stevens Field Madison, WI [30]
2017 August 27, 2017 San Francisco FlameThrowers 30-29 Toronto Rush Complexe sportif Claude-Robillard Montreal, QC [31]
2018 August 12, 2018 Madison Radicals 20-16 Dallas Roughnecks Breese Stevens Field Madison, WI [32]

MVP

Season Name Team
2012 Jonathan "Goose" Helton Indianapolis AlleyCats
2013 Jonathan "Goose" Helton Windy City Wildfire
2014 Beau Kittredge San Jose Spiders
2015 Beau Kittredge San Jose Spiders
2016 Dylan Tunnell[33] Atlanta Hustle
2017 Jonathan Nethercutt Raleigh Flyers
2018 Matthew "Rowan" McDonnell DC Breeze

References

  1. ^ Eisenhood, Charlie (21 December 2016). "BREAKING: Major League Ultimate Suspends Operations". Ultiworld.
  2. ^ "Full Schedule". theAUDL.com. Archived from the original on 2015-08-10. Retrieved 2015-08-03.
  3. ^ "The Lowest Paid Athletes in All of Professional Sports", Men's Journal, Evan Grossman, November 25, 2014.
  4. ^ "Week 1 Results". American Ultimate Disc League. Retrieved 2012-04-16.
  5. ^ "A Timeline Of The AUDL Lawsuit: How Did We Get Here?". Ultiworld. Retrieved 2015-08-14.
  6. ^ "AUDL Settles Lawsuit With Connnecticut and Rhode Island Franchises". Ultiworld. Retrieved 2015-08-14.
  7. ^ "Philadelphia Spinners Leave AUDL". Skyd Magazine. 2012-10-05. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  8. ^ "AUDL Teams". American Ultimate Disc League. Archived from the original on 2013-01-19. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
  9. ^ "AUDL Announces 2014 Expansion To West Coast, Montreal". Ultiworld. 2013-10-25. Retrieved 2014-11-25.
  10. ^ "AUDL Signs Multi-Year Broadcast Agreement with ESPN". American Ultimate Disc League. Retrieved 2014-04-09.
  11. ^ "Austin, Dallas Joining AUDL's South Division In 2016". Ultiworld. 2015-10-08. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
  12. ^ a b "AUDL Announces Contraction of Rochester Dragons Franchise". AUDL. 2015-10-29. Retrieved 2015-10-30.
  13. ^ "Raleigh Flyers Sign First-Ever Female Pro Ultimate Player | Livewire | Ultiworld". Retrieved 2015-08-13.
  14. ^ a b "In First For Female Player, Jesse Shofner Makes Nashville Nightwatch Roster". Ultiworld. 2017-03-24. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
  15. ^ comments, Charlie Eisenhood in News with 2 (2016-09-02). "AUDL's Cincinnati Revolution, Charlotte Express Cease Operations". Ultiworld. Retrieved 2016-09-11.
  16. ^ "AUDL Throwaround: Shofner Makes History, Ugly Jersey Effect, Polk On SportsCenter". Retrieved 2017-04-06.
  17. ^ "AUDL 101". American Ultimate Disc League. Retrieved 2012-04-15.
  18. ^ "Breeze Stadium". AUDL. 2018-03-12. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
  19. ^ "New York Calls Joseph F. Fosina Field of New Rochelle (AKA Flower's Park) Home". New York Empire. nyempireaudl.com. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  20. ^ "Indianapolis AlleyCat". Indianapolis AlleyCat. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
  21. ^ a b "Cincinnati, Charlotte Franchises To Contract; New Atlanta Ownership". American Ultimate Disc League. 2016-09-04. Retrieved 2016-09-04.
  22. ^ "New Jersey AUDL Franchise Folds, DC Franchise Avoids Same Fate With New Investor". Ultiworld. 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  23. ^ "AUDL President Talks About 2013 Season, Spinners, Major League Ultimate". Ultiworld. 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  24. ^ "Venue". SF FlameThrowers. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  25. ^ "Philadelphia Wins Inaugural AUDL Championship". Skyd Magazine. 2012-08-20. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  26. ^ "2013 AUDL Championship Final Highlights". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  27. ^ "AUDL Championship Weekend Preview". Skyd Magazine. 2013-08-02. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  28. ^ "Instant Reaction: The AUDL Moves Championship Up to Toronto". Ultiworld. 2013-11-27. Retrieved 2014-06-24.
  29. ^ "2015 AUDL Championship". AUDL. 2015-08-09. Archived from the original on 2015-08-13. Retrieved 2015-08-10.
  30. ^ "Breese Stevens Field To Host 2016 AUDL Championship Weekend". AUDL. 2016-01-04. Retrieved 2016-01-05.
  31. ^ "2017 AUDL Championship Weekend: Montreal". AUDL. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  32. ^ "2018 AUDL Championship". AUDL. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
  33. ^ "Dylan Tunnell Wins 2016 AUDL MVP | Livewire". Ultiworld. 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2017-04-08.
2012 American Ultimate Disc League season

The 2012 American Ultimate Disc League season was the first season for the league. Each team was scheduled to play a 16-game schedule. The Philadelphia Spinners won the AUDL Championship over the Indianapolis AlleyCats at the Pontiac Silverdome. After the season all but three teams (Detroit Mechanix, Indianapolis AlleyCats, and the Bluegrass Revolution) left or folded.

2013 American Ultimate Disc League season

The 2013 American Ultimate Disc League season was the second season for the league. Each team played a 16-game schedule. The Toronto Rush won the AUDL Championship II over the Madison Radicals in Chicago, IL. The Rush completed the first undefeated season in AUDL history, going 16-0 in the regular season and winning both playoff games.

2014 American Ultimate Disc League season

The 2014 American Ultimate Disc League season was the third season for the league. Each team played a 14-game schedule. The San Jose Spiders won the AUDL Championship III over the Toronto Rush in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Spiders enjoyed the most successful season of all teams, finishing with a 16-1 record. Their only loss came to the San Francisco FlameThrowers in Week 6.

2015 American Ultimate Disc League season

The 2015 American Ultimate Disc League season was the fourth season for the league. Each team played a 14-game schedule. The San Jose Spiders won the AUDL Championship over the Madison Radicals at Avaya Stadium in San Jose, California. The Spiders won the championship despite entering the final four with the lowest seed after a regular-season record of 10-4.

2016 American Ultimate Disc League season

The 2016 American Ultimate Disc League season is the fifth season for the league. The twenty-six teams were split into four regional divisions (East, Midwest, West and South), with each team playing a 14-game schedule. The second and third placed teams in each division advanced to a playoff match, with the winners facing the first placed team in their division. The winners of these matches advanced to the AUDL Championship Weekend, which featured semifinals and then a final for the AUDL Championship. Dallas Roughnecks defeated Seattle Cascades 33–27 in the final to become the 2016 AUDL Champions.

Atlanta Hustle

The Atlanta Hustle is a professional ultimate frisbee franchise based out of Atlanta, GA. They compete as one of twenty seven teams in the American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL), a nationwide professional ultimate frisbee league based in the US. The Hustle are one of seven teams currently competing in the Southern Division, other teams in the division include: Charlotte Express, Nashville Nightwatch, Raleigh Flyers, Jacksonville Cannons, Austin Sol, and Dallas Roughnecks. The division, along with the Hustle franchise, were founded in 2015.

Austin Sol

The Austin Sol is a professional ultimate team from Austin, Texas playing in the South Division of the American Ultimate Disc League. The team was founded in 2015, and played its first match on April 2, 2016. The Sol play the majority of its home games at House Park but have also played home games at Westwood High School, Vandegrift High School and the Multisport Complex in Round Rock's Old Settler's Park. The owner and general manager of the Sol is Patrick Christmas, the coach is Steven Darroh, the assistant coach is Bjorn Schey and the assistant general manager is Ryan Purcell.

Charlotte Express

The Charlotte Express was a professional ultimate team from Charlotte, North Carolina playing in the South Division of the American Ultimate Disc League. The team was founded in 2015 and played its home games at the Irwin Belk Complex at Johnson C. Smith University in Charlotte, North Carolina. The team announced it would fold after the 2016 season.

Dallas Roughnecks

The Dallas Roughnecks are a professional ultimate team from Dallas, Texas playing in the South Division of the American Ultimate Disc League. The team played its first season in 2016.

The Roughnecks were an immediate success, finishing 14-0 in the regular season on to defeating the Seattle Cascades 33-27 in the championship game. They ended the season 17-0. Their success can be attributed to their superstar roster including 2 former Callahan winners, Jimmy Mickle (Colorado) and Dylan Freechild (Oregon). Neither of which played in the 2018 season, as Mickle was in Australia and Freechild was participating in the active AUDL boycott. The 2018 season ended in the AUDL Finals with a loss to the Madison Radicals.

Games are streamed live online by Game On Sports Productions. Broadcast by play-by-play announcer Emi Fitzgerald, color commentator Paul Burt, and sideline reporter Paige Shnorbach.

Detroit Mechanix

The Detroit Mechanix are an American professional ultimate team based in Detroit, Michigan. The Mechanix compete in the American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL) as a member team of the league's Midwest Division. The Mechanix began play in 2012 as one of the eight charter teams of the American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL). The team is owned by Brent Steepe, and was founded in 2010.

The Mechanix currently play their home games at Bishop Foley Catholic High School in Madison Heights, Michigan, where they have been since 2015. The Pontiac Silverdome was home to the team in 2012, while 2013 and 2014 saw the Mechanix play at Ultimate Soccer Arenas.

The Detroit Mechanix have been known to bring in international players, most notably: Dave Hochhalter (2012-2014) of Team Canada and Marc Michael Huber (2013) of Team Austria.

Indianapolis AlleyCats

The Indianapolis AlleyCats or Indy AlleyCats are a semi-professional ultimate team that competes in the Midwest Division of the American Ultimate Disc League. In their first year, the AlleyCats competed in the league championship, losing to the Philadelphia Spinners.

The AlleyCats play at Indianapolis' Roncalli Stadium. The team has called Roncalli home every season except the 2013 & 2014 campaigns, when they were based out of Kuntz Stadium.

Los Angeles Aviators

The Los Angeles Aviators are a professional ultimate frisbee franchise based out of Los Angeles, CA. They compete as one of twenty-four teams in the American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL), a professional ultimate frisbee league spanning the United States and Canada. The Aviators are one of six teams currently competing in the Western Division, other teams in the division include: San Francisco FlameThrowers, San Diego Growlers, Seattle Cascades, San Jose Spiders, and Vancouver Riptide. The team first played in the 2015 season.

Minnesota Wind Chill

The Minnesota Wind Chill are a professional ultimate team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Wind Chill are a member of the Midwest Division of the American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL). It is the only team in the AUDL to represent a state rather than a specific city.

New York Empire (AUDL)

The New York Empire is an open ultimate team in the American Ultimate Disc League based in New York City. They are in the Eastern Division with the DC Breeze, Montreal Royal, Ottawa Outlaws, Philadelphia Phoenix, and Toronto Rush. The team was introduced in the 2013 Season of the AUDL. The Empire formerly played its home games at MCU Park in the borough of Brooklyn, with some contests being played on Randall's Island. However, in the 2018 season, they switched to Joseph F. Fosina field in New Rochelle.

Philadelphia Phoenix (AUDL)

The Philadelphia Phoenix is a professional ultimate team based in Philadelphia and member of the American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL). The Philadelphia franchise was created in 2013 under the ownership of Jorge Harris. They compete in the East Division with DC Breeze, Montreal Royal, New York Empire, Ottawa Outlaws, and Toronto Rush. The Phoenix home field is A. A. Garthwaite Stadium in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. The Phoenix had their first franchise win on April 27, 2013 against the Rochester Dragons, winning 26 to 14 at home.

Pittsburgh Thunderbirds

The Pittsburgh Thunderbirds are a professional ultimate team that competes in the Midwest Division of the American Ultimate Disc League. In July 2015, the Thunderbirds reached the playoffs in their first year of existence and beat the Chicago Wildfire before falling to the Madison Radicals in the divisional final. Standout player Tyler DeGirolamo, who set the AUDL season record with 89 assists in only 11 games played in 2015, was only able to play a few points against the Radicals before withdrawing with an injury.

San Diego Growlers

The San Diego Growlers are a professional ultimate frisbee franchise based out of San Diego, CA. They compete as one of twenty-seven teams in the American Ultimate Disc League (AUDL), a nationwide professional ultimate frisbee league based in the US. The Growlers are one of six teams currently competing in the Western Division, other teams in the division include: San Francisco Flamethrowers, Los Angeles Aviators, Seattle Cascades and the San Jose Spiders. The team was established in 2015.

In 2015, the team finished with a record of 7-7.

In 2016, the team finished with a record of 2-12.

In 2017, the team finished with a record of 7-7.

In 2018, the team finished the regular season with a record of 7-7 and making the playoffs for the first time in team history. They lost in the first round to the Los Angeles Aviators.

San Francisco FlameThrowers

The San Francisco FlameThrowers were a professional ultimate team from the San Francisco Bay Area, playing in the West Division of the American Ultimate Disc League. The team was founded in 2014 when the league expanded to the west coast. In 2017, the Flamethrowers won the AUDL Championship game, with a final score of 30-29 over the Toronto Rush. The FlameThrowers folded after the 2018 season, but maintained rights to the FlameThrower brand and hinted at a rebirth as a women's team.

Tampa Bay Cannons

The Tampa Bay Cannons (formerly, Jacksonville Cannons) is a professional ultimate team in the American Ultimate Disc League based in Tampa, Florida. They are in the South division with the Atlanta Hustle, Raleigh Flyers, Austin Sol and Dallas Roughnecks. The Cannons play their home games at John M. Sexton Field in St. Petersburg, Florida and Skyway Park, Tampa Florida.

American Ultimate Disc League seasons
American Ultimate Disc League teams
East Division
Midwest Division
West Division
South Division
Former Teams

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