The American Rocket Society (ARS) began its existence on April 4, 1930, under the name of the American Interplanetary Society. It was founded by science fiction writers G. Edward Pendray, David Lasser, Laurence Manning, and others. The members originally conducted their own rocket experiments in New York and New Jersey. The society printed its own journal. The AIS did pioneering work in testing the design requirements of liquid-fuelled rockets, with a number of successful test launches of ARS rockets occurring in this period and pointing the way to the United States space program. Its name was changed to American Rocket Society on April 6, 1934. In 1936, the American Rocket Society and its member Alfred Africano were awarded the Prix d'Astronautique by the Société astronomique de France (French Astronomical Society) in recognition of their pioneering tests with liquid fueled rockets.
The Journal of the American Rocket Society was published from 1945–53.
Membership increased rapidly in the 1950s as the government funded "upper air research", and by the end of the decade it had reached 21,000. In early 1963, the ARS merged with the Institute of the Aerospace Sciences to become the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).
|American Rocket Society|
|Founded||April 6, 1934|
|Dissolved||merged with the Institute of the Aerospace Sciences to become AIAA|
|Origins||renamed from American Interplanetary Society (formed April 4, 1930)|
The AIAA Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published monthly by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It covers all areas of aeronautics and astronautics, particularly with respect to new theoretical and experimental developments. The current editor-in-chief is Alexander J. Smits from Princeton University. According to the Journal Citation Reports, its 2014 impact factor is 1.207, ranking it 4th out of 30 journals in the category "Engineering, Aerospace".ARS (rocket family)
The ARS rocket family was a series of rockets developed by the American Interplanetary Society — later the American Rocket Society — during the 1930s. Based on the German Mirak rocket, it used a liquid-fueled rocket engine, powered by liquid oxygen and gasoline propellants. The first successful launch, of the ARS-2, took place on May 14, 1933. The design was modified and refined by successive rockets; the last launch of an ARS rocket took place on May 9, 1937.Albert Fonó
Albert Fonó (born 2 July 1881 in Budapest, d. 21 November 1972 in Budapest), a successful Hungarian mechanical engineer who was one of the early pioneers of turbojet and ramjet propulsion and was first to patent a ramjet engine and a turbojet engine in 1928 (granted in 1932).
Fonó graduated from the József Technical University in Budapest in 1903 and travelled widely, gaining experience working for German, Belgian, French and Swiss manufacturers, before attaining his Ph.D.
His main specialty was energetics. He had 46 patents in 20 topics of research, including a steam boiler and an air compressor for mines. In 1915 he devised a solution for increasing the range of artillery, comprising a gun-launched projectile combined with a ramjet propulsion unit. This was to make it possible to obtain a long range with low initial muzzle velocities, allowing heavy shells to be fired from relatively lightweight guns. Fonó submitted his invention to the Austro-Hungarian Army but the proposal was rejected.
After World War I Fonó returned to the subject of jet propulsion, in May 1928 describing an "air-jet engine" (now called a ramjet) which he described as being suitable for high-altitude supersonic aircraft, in a German patent application. In an additional patent application he adapted the engine for subsonic speed. The patent was finally granted in 1932 after four years of examination (German Patent No. 554,906, 1932-11-02).From 1954 he was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and received the Hungarian Kossuth Prize in 1956 (awarded for outstanding merit in the cultural and artistic fields). In 1968 he became a corresponding member of the International Academy of Astronautics. Finally, in 1960, the American Rocket Society reviewed his patents and acknowledged him as the inventor of the jet engine.He is remembered by the Albert Fonó Award, which is awarded by the Hungarian Astronautical Society.Alfred Norton Goldsmith
Alfred Norton Goldsmith (September 15, 1888 – July 2, 1974) was a noted American electrical engineer.
Goldsmith was born in New York City, received his B.S. in 1907 from the College of the City of New York and in 1911 his Ph.D. from Columbia University where he studied under Michael I. Pupin. He taught at City College from 1906 to 1923. In 1912 Goldsmith co-founded the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) and was the first editor of its proceedings, serving for 42 years. In 1914 he consulted as a radio engineer for the Atlantic Communication Company, and for the General Electric Company from 1915-1917. During World War I he was Technical Director of the United States Army Signal Corps School of Communication and the U. S. Naval Radio School at City College.
After the war, Goldsmith became director of research for the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America and in 1919 RCA's director of research. In 1923 he was named RCA's Chief Broadcast Engineer and in 1927 Chairman of the Board of Consulting Engineers of the National Broadcasting Company. He remained with RCA as vice president and general manager until 1931, and was awarded RCA's first production television tube with an inscription reading "RCA Laboratory’s Award for Outstanding Work in Research presented to Alfred Norton Goldsmith for his early recognition of the importance of a tri-color kinescope and for his concept of means for accomplishing it."
Goldsmith was made an IRE Fellow in 1915, its president in 1928, and served on its board of directors for 51 years. In 1941 he was awarded the IRE Medal of Honor "for his contributions to radio research, engineering, and commercial development, his leadership in standardization, and his unceasing devotion to the establishment and upbuilding of the Institute and its proceedings", the IEEE Founders Medal in 1954, and the first IEEE Haraden Pratt Award in 1972, to honor "outstanding service to the IEEE."Goldsmith was also a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Rocket Society, the Institution of Radio Engineers, Australia, the International College of Surgeons, the New York Academy of Sciences, the Optical Society of America, and was a Benjamin Franklin Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (London). He was also a senior member in the American Astronomical Society, as well as a member of the American Physical Society, and an honorary member of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers.
Since 1975 the Alfred N. Goldsmith Award for Distinguished Contributions to Engineering Communication Award has been given by IEEE Professional Communication Society in his honor.American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is a professional society for the field of aerospace engineering. The AIAA is the U.S. representative on the International Astronautical Federation and the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences. In 2015, it had more than 30,000 members among aerospace professionals worldwide (a majority are American and/or live in the United States).Bell nozzle
The Bell-shaped or contour nozzle is probably the most commonly used shaped rocket engine nozzle. It has a high angle expansion section (20 to 50 degrees) right behind the nozzle throat; this is followed by a gradual reversal of nozzle contour slope so that at the nozzle exit the divergence angle is small, usually less than a 10 degree half angle.
An ideal nozzle would direct all of the gases generated in the combustion chamber straight out the nozzle. That would mean the momentum of the gases would be axial, imparting the maximum thrust to the rocket. In fact, there are some non-axial components to the momentum. In terms of a momentum vector, there is an angle between the axis of the rocket engine and the gas flow. As a result, the thrust is lowered by varying amounts. The Bell or Contour shape is designed to impart a large angle expansion for the gases right after the throat. The nozzle is then curved back in to give a nearly straight flow of gas out the nozzle opening. The contour used is rather complex. The large expansion section near the throat causes expansion shock waves. The reversal of the slope to bring the exit to near zero degrees causes compression shock waves. A properly designed nozzle will have these two sets of shock waves coincide and cancel each other out. In this way, the bell is a compromise between the two extremes of the conical nozzle since it minimizes weight while maximizing performance.
The most important design issue is to contour the nozzle to avoid oblique shocks and maximize performance.
In his classic textbook, George P. Sutton credits Dr. G. V. R. Rao with working out the mathematics of the optimal bell nozzle design in 1955, while working at Rocketdyne.Charles Bartley
Charles E. Bartley (1921–1996) was an American scientist, known for developing the first elastomeric solid rocket propellant formula, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (now part of NASA) in Pasadena, California in the late 1940s.Bartley founded Grand Central Rocket Company in Redlands, California in 1952. Six years later, his company provided the fuel for the third stage of Explorer I, America's first satellite. Bartley eventually sold Grand Central and founded two other solid propellant rocket companies specializing in weather rockets and ejection seats for jets—Rocket Power, which he formed in Mesa, Ariz., in 1959, and Universal Propulsion Co., which he established in Phoenix in 1963. He was elected to the American Rocket Society (now the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics) in 1951. In 1953, he was given a society award for outstanding contributions.
A full essay on Charles Bartley's contributions to the world of solid propellant rocket motors and the business after their development is contained in:
CHARLES BARTLEY interviewed by John F. Bluth, October 3 and 4, 1994
Recorded and documented in the
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY ARCHIVES
ORAL HISTORY PROGRAMHis wife, Helen Bartley, and four children, Steve (Leslie) Bartley, Judy (John) Blabe, Susan (Robert) Lea, and Jack Bartley. Six grandchildren, Jed Bartley, Daniel Bartley, Christine Blabe, Cynthia Blabe, Sabrina Lea, Graham Lea.Eugene F. Lally
Eugene F. Lally (August 14, 1934 – July 28, 2014) was American aerospace engineer. He worked in the early 1960s on U.S. interplanetary space programs. Beside his space programs he was also an inventor and developed non-space products with his own company Dynamic Development Co. which he founded in the early 1960s. He later became an active amateur photographer and lubrication product entrepreneur. Lally contributed articles for popular space, astrobiology, photography, travel, and archaeology magazines. He was also a speaker at local space exploration and extraterrestrial intelligence (UFO) society meetings where he gave first-hand accounts of the early U.S. space program, commentaries on current U.S. space exploration activities and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence.Frederick I. Ordway III
Frederick Ira Ordway III (April 4, 1927 – July 1, 2014) was an American space scientist and author of visionary books on spaceflight.
Ordway was educated at Harvard University and completed several years of graduate study at the University of Paris and other universities in Europe. He owned a large collection of original paintings depicting astronautical themes. He was a member of many leading professional societies and was the author, co-author, or editor of more than thirty books and over three hundred articles.As scientific consultant, he was part of the production team of 2001: A Space Odyssey.At the time of his death he was the longest-serving member of the American Rocket Society which he joined in 1939. Ordway served as a member of the faculty at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) from 1970 to 1973, and he was awarded an honorary doctorate by UAH in 1992.Goodyear Meteor Junior
The Goodyear Meteor Junior was a 1954 concept for a fully reusable spacecraft and launch system designed by Darrell C. Romick and two of his colleagues employed by Goodyear Aerospace, a subsidiary of the American Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. Darrell Romick originally estimated that the craft would cost about the same as an intercontinental B-52 bomber.International Electric Propulsion Conference
The International Electric Propulsion Conference (IEPC) in its current form is a biennial academic conference in the field of electric space propulsion and hosted by the Electric Rocket Propulsion Society (ERPS). It was originally organized by the American Rocket Society (ARS) and later by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) as a US-American national conference and was expanded starting in 1976 to its current international character with the joining of international space engineering societies. Currently, few hundred engineers and scientists join the conference and present and discuss the latest developments and research results regarding electric propulsion.James Hart Wyld
James Hart Wyld (1912–1953) was an American engineer and rocketry scientist.
James Hart Wild was born on September 10, 1912 in New York City. Recognizing him as a child prodigy, his parents hired private tutors and sent him to the Harvey prep school in Hawthorne, New York, the Salisbury boarding school in Connecticut, and Princeton University. He completed his B.S. in mechanical engineering at Princeton University in 1935.
Wyld's interest in rocketry began in 1934, with the reading of David Lasser's book, Conquest of Space, and reports from the Cleveland Rocket Society of early rocket engine experiments. He learned of the American Interplanetary Society (later renamed the American Rocket Society), and applied for membership in March 1935. The society's engines were based on early designs of the German rocket society Verein für Raumschiffahrt, but Wyld was unhappy with the German water-bath cooling scheme then used. He was more impressed with a 1933 regeneratively cooled engine developed by Harry Bull, of Syracuse, NY, and work by Eugene Saenger in Austria. With help from a couple professors, he began his own designs, calculations and experiments at Princeton.In 1936 he developed the concept of a regeneratively cooled liquid rocket motor, which he named M-15. This uses a double-hulled rocket nozzle that allows the rocket fuel to circulate as a coolant. A version of this rocket motor was tested by the American Rocket Society on December 10, 1938 at New Rochelle, New York. The design produced a thrust of 90 pounds force (400 N) that lasted for 13 seconds, and the steel chamber and nozzle were successfully protected by the design. This cooling design became the basis of all modern liquid-propellant rocket motors.
In 1941 he helped to found Reaction Motors, Inc., serving as secretary and research director. This was the first commercial rocket company in the United States, and it was sponsored by the Navy. RMI's first Navy contract produced an engine capable of 1,000 pounds force (4,000 N) in 1942, and it was employed for JATO. Today this engine is on display at the National Air and Space Museum. By 1943, his engines had achieved 3400 pounds thrust. His 6000C-4 engine, producing 6000 pounds of thrust was contained in the Bell X-1 rocket plane, which was the first manned vehicle to break the sound barrier. The improved 8000C engine powered the MX-774 rocket, built by Karel Bossart.
After 1947, he worked on concepts for atomic rocket propulsion. He served on the Atomic Energy Commission, in 1950.
Wyld died from a heart ailment on December 3, 1954, at Pompton Lakes, New Jersey.Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics
The Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It covers the science and technology of guidance, control, and dynamics of flight. The editor-in-chief is Ping Lu (San Diego State University). It was established in 1978 as Journal of Guidance and Control, obtaining its current title in 1982.Laurence Manning
Laurence Manning (July 20, 1899 – April 10, 1972) was a Canadian science fiction author.
Manning was born in St. John, New Brunswick and attended Kings College in Halifax, Nova Scotia. As did his two older brothers, Manning signed up to participate in WWI, but he was too young - when the War ended, he was still in training, and never saw action overseas. He signed his attestation papers for the RFC on 14 May 1918.
In the 1920s he moved to the United States, living initially with his great uncle, Craven Langstroth Betts, the noted Canadian poet. In the US, he lived in Manhattan before moving to Staten Island in 1928, where he began writing short stories for several pulp science fiction magazines. After teaming with SF writer Fletcher Pratt in "City of the Living Dead" in the May, 1930 issue of Science Wonder Stories, he wrote "The Voyage of the 'Asteroid'", which appeared in the Summer 1932 issue of Wonder Stories Quarterly, and The Man Who Awoke, a series of stories that was later published as a novel. He also translated at least one German-language story for Hugo Gernsback's magazines (this may have been the translation of his popular story "The Man Who Awoke," published as Der Jahrtausendschläfer (The Millennium Sleeper). However, In the July, August and September, 1932 issues of Wonder Stories appeared "In the Year 8000", by Otfrid von Hanstein, translated by Manning, teamed with Konrad Schmidt.
Manning lost his two older brothers at very early ages: the oldest Frederick Charles died of wounds suffered fighting for the 85th Battalion, C.E.F in the battle of Vimy Ridge, France on April 9, 1917; James Harold suffered wounds in the same battle but survived the war. He died working as an engineer for the Standard Oil Company in Maturin, Venezuela in October, 1924 at age 27. It is possible the loss of these brothers and the horrors of war the country had just endured caused Laurence to become interested in the idea of Utopia. In the early 1930s he had over 500 books in his collection on the subject. It was in hopes of obtaining more book titles on Utopia that Manning contacted Wonder Stories magazine. He hoped to talk with Hugo Gernsback, but instead got David Lasser. They formed a strong friendship that lasted until Manning's death in 1972. They ate lunch together frequently, and it was at one of them that Manning mentioned having an idea for a story. After some discussion, Lasser suggested that Manning contact Fletcher Pratt, who could help with the story. This resulted in Manning's first published science fiction work, co-written by Pratt, entitled City of the Living Dead, which appeared in the May, 1930 Science Wonder Stories.
Manning gave up his successful writing career at the end of 1935 (with the exceptions of "Coal Thief" in the April, 1936 The Planeteer and "Expedition to Pluto" in the winter, 1939 Planet Stories), and devoted his time to Kelsey mail order nursery business he owned and managed. Apart from several short stories in the 1950s (Good-Bye, Ilha!, Mr. Mottle Goes Pouf, Men on Mars), he never wrote any more science fiction. However, he was the author of a successful book on gardening, The How and Why of Better Gardening (1951), Van Nostrand & Co, used for more than 40 years as a textbook by the Garden Clubs of America.
He was a founding member of the American Interplanetary Society, serving as both president and editor of the Society's publication, Astronautics. For his involvement in the Society, Manning is recognized by the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum as an early rocketry pioneer. It was during his tenure as president of the society that the organization's name was changed to the American Rocket Society. Manning retired from the Society in the mid-1940s, stating that rocketry had 'grown up', and was no longer a place for amateurs. In 1960, Manning was awarded a fellowship in the Society, presumably given at the Society's annual meeting.
Manning married Edith Mary Finette Burrows in 1928 and had three children: Helen Louise, Dorothy, and James Edward. His daughter Dorothy has mentioned that Laurence was not only a skilled writer, but a pianist as well. He composed his own pieces, primarily as Music Director of his church, though only one, Peter Pan, was ever published. He also smoked pipe. He lived in Highlands, New Jersey from 1951 until his death in 1972.Maurice Zucrow
Maurice Joseph Zucrow (December 15, 1899 – June 1975) was a Ukrainian-born American scientist and aerospace engineer known for his contributions to the development of gas turbines and jet propulsion. Zucrow was born in Kiev and immigrated with his family to the UK in 1900. Young Maurice attended Central Foundation Boys' School in London. The family moved to the US in 1914.In 1922 Maurice Zucrow became the first person to graduate with a BS degree in engineering from Harvard University. He went on to receive a S.M degree from the same school next year. Zucrow was also the first recipient of a doctoral degree in engineering at Purdue University completing his dissertation in Mechanical Engineering in 1928. His PhD advisor was Andrey Abraham Potter, Dean of Purdue University College of Engineering.After leaving Purdue in 1929, Zucrow spent 17 years in industry. During his work at Elliott Company, he played an important part in the research and development of the nation's first gas turbine built in 1942. He also helped develop Aerojet’s JATO rocket, used by seaplanes to assist takeoff under adverse conditions. During the World War II, Zucrow was asked to teach a course in jet propulsion theory to engineers in the aircraft industry as part of the Engineering, Science, and Management War Training (ESMWT) program at the University of California, Los Angeles.
In 1946 he joined the faculty of Purdue School of Aeronautics and Astronautics establishing Purdue's Jet Propulsion Center. The research facility was renamed Maurice J. Zucrow Propulsion Laboratories in 1998 and is now the world's largest academic propulsion laboratory. In 1948 Zucrow published Principles of Jet Propulsion and Gas Turbines, the first textbook in this field.
In 1957 Zucrow was elected to the board of directors of American Rocket Society together with Wernher von Braun. In 1962 Zucrow received the Sigma Xi national research award and delivered the award lecture entitled "Space Propulsion Engines - Their Characteristics and Problems". He received the Distinguished Civilian Service award from the Department of the Army in 1967.Zucrow's residence in West Lafayette was 801 Carrolton Boulevard in Hill and Dales neighborhood adjacent to the Purdue campus.Propulsive fluid accumulator
A Propulsive Fluid Accumulator is an artificial Earth satellite which collects and stores oxygen and other atmospheric gases for in-situ refuelling of high-thrust rockets. This eliminates the need to lift oxidizer to orbit and therefore brings significant cost benefits. A major portion of the total world payload sent into low earth orbit each year is either liquid oxygen or water.Robert Truax
Captain Robert C. Truax (USN) (September 3, 1917 – September 17, 2010) was an American rocket engineer in the United States Navy, and companies such as Aerojet and Truax Engineering, which he founded. Truax was a proponent of low-cost rocket engine and vehicle designs.Roy Healy
Roy Healy (1915–1968) was an American rocket scientist. He was a member of the American Rocket Society.
During World War II, when the military significance of rockets was recognized, Roy Healy, at the time a civilian engineer, was sent by Dover Air Force Base to Burma. There he supervised the installation of rocket launchers on fighter planes, to be used against the Japanese in Southeast Asia, and provided training for this new equipment. He supervised the modifications made to the mounts on the P-51A in the field so that the aircraft could carry both bombs and rocket launchers.
The crater Healy on the Moon is named after him.