American Nazi Party

The American Nazi Party (ANP) is an American neo-Nazi political party founded by George Lincoln Rockwell; its headquarters are in Arlington, Virginia. Rockwell founded the organization as the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists (WUFENS), but renamed it the American Nazi Party in 1960.[4] Since the late 1960s, a number of small groups have used the name "American Nazi Party" with most being independent from each other and disbanding before the 21st century. The party is based largely upon the ideals and policies of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party in Germany during the Nazi era, and embraced its uniforms and iconography.[5][A] Shortly after Rockwell's assassination in 1967, the organization appointed Rockwell's second in command, Deputy Commander Matt Koehl as the new leader. The American Nazi Party, now under Koehl's command, was subject to ideological disagreements between members in the 1970s and 1980s. "In 1982, Martin Kerr, a leader at the Franklin Road headquarters, announced that the organization was changing its name to the New Order and moving to the Midwest," effective January 1, 1983.[9] Due to recruitment issues along with financial and legal trouble, Koehl was forced to relocate the group's headquarters from the DC area, eventually finding his way to scattered locations in Wisconsin and Michigan. After Koehl's death in 2014, long-time member and officer of the New Order, Martin Kerr assumed leadership and maintains the New Order website and organization.

A former member of the original American Nazi Party, Rocky Suhayda, founded his own organization using the American Nazi Party name and has been active since at least 2008.[10] Suhayda claims Rockwell as its founder despite no direct legal or financial link between it and Rockwell's legacy organization.[11] The one connection between the original American Nazi Party and Rocky Suhayda's group besides ideology is that they sell reprints of Rockwell's 1960s-era magazine The Stormtrooper on their website. Suhayda's American Nazi Party condemns the largest neo-Nazi group in the United States, the National Socialist Movement. Suhayda's party does not consider the NSM to be a national socialist group and Suhayda says the NSM founder, Clifford Herrington, husband of the founder of Joy of Satan, is a devil-worshiper.[12]

American Nazi Party
LeaderGeorge Lincoln Rockwell (1959–67)
Matt Koehl

(ANP: 1967–1983) (New Order: 1983–2014)
Martin Kerr (New Order: 2014–present)[1][2]

Rocky Suhayda (ANP: 2014–present)[3]
FounderGeorge Lincoln Rockwell
Founded1959 (as World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists)
IdeologyNeo-Nazism
Neo-fascism
White nationalism
Antisemitism
White Supremacism
Political positionFar-right
International affiliationWorld Union of National Socialists
Party flag
Party flag

Headquarters

The WUFENS headquarters was located in a residence on Williamsburg Boulevard in Arlington, but was moved as the ANP headquarters to a house at 928 North Randolph Street (now a hotel and office building site). Rockwell and some party members also established a "Stormtrooper Barracks" in an old mansion owned by the widow of Willis Kern[13] in the Dominion Hills section of Arlington at what is now the Upton Hill Regional Park. After Rockwell's death, the headquarters was moved again to one side of a duplex brick and concrete storefront at 2507 North Franklin Road which featured a swastika prominently mounted above the front door. This site was visible from busy Wilson Boulevard. Today, the Franklin Road address is often misidentified as Rockwell's headquarters when in fact it was the successor organization's last physical address in Arlington (now a coffeehouse).[14][15][16]

Name change and party reform

Under Rockwell, the party embraced Nazi uniforms and iconography.[B]

After several years of living in impoverished conditions, Rockwell began to experience some financial success with paid speaking engagements at universities where he was invited to express his controversial views as exercises in free speech. This inspired him to end the rancorous "Phase One" party tactics and begin "Phase Two", a plan to recast the group as a legitimate political party by toning down the verbal and written attacks against non-whites, replacing the party rallying cry of "Sieg Heil!" with "White Power!", limiting public display of the swastika, and entering candidates in local elections. In 1966 or 1967,[C] Rockwell renamed the ANP the National Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP), a move that alienated some hard-line members. The new name was a “conscious imitation” of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Rockwell wanted a more "ecumenical" approach and felt that the swastika banner was impeding organizational growth. Rockwell was assassinated by a former member. Matt Koehl, although a purist National Socialist, succeeded Rockwell as the new leader and this ended the American Nazi Party. Thereafter, the members engaged in internecine disputes, and they were either expelled by Koehl or they resigned. After the assassination of Rockwell, the party dissipated and ad hoc organizations usurped the American Nazi Party logo. Those included James Burford in Chicago and John Bishop in Iowa.[17]

The years 1966 and 1967 were possibly the height of Rockwell's profile.[17] He was interviewed by Playboy magazine, an event that stirred controversy within the ranks.[17][19] At the time Rockwell had about 500 followers.[6]

Before he could fully implement party reforms, Rockwell was assassinated on August 25, 1967 by a disgruntled follower, John Patler, who was part of a splinter group.[6]

Assassination of Rockwell

An assassination attempt was made on Rockwell on June 28, 1967. As Rockwell returned from shopping, he drove into the long driveway of the "Stormtrooper barracks" located in Arlington's Dominion Hills subdivision and found it blocked by a felled tree and brush. Rockwell assumed that it was another prank by local teens. As a party member cleared the obstruction, two shots were fired at Rockwell from behind one of the swastika-embossed brick driveway pillars. One of the shots ricocheted off the car, right next to his head. Leaping from the car, Rockwell pursued the gunman. On June 30, Rockwell petitioned the Arlington County Circuit Court for a gun permit; no action was ever taken on his request.

On August 25, 1967, while leaving the Econowash laundromat at the Dominion Hills Shopping Center, an assassin, hiding on the roof of the building, fired two bullets into Rockwell's car through the windshield. One missed, the other hit his chest and ruptured his heart. His car slowly rolled backwards to a stop and Rockwell staggered out of the front passenger side door of the car, stood briefly while pointing upward at the strip mall's rooftop where the shots had come from, and then collapsed on the pavement. He was pronounced dead at the scene.[13][20] Rockwell's assailant was John Patler, a former ANP/NSWPP member whom Rockwell had ejected from the party for allegedly trying to introduce Marxist doctrine into the party's platforms.

Koehl succession and ideological divisions

Rockwell's second in command, Deputy Commander Matt Koehl, a staunch Hitlerist, assumed the leadership role after a council agreed that he should retain command. Koehl continued some of Rockwell's restructuring of the group by dropping the use of negative verbal and written attacks against racial minorities. Koehl also began emphasizing the positive aspects of National Socialism and the glories of a future all-white society. Koehl retained the swastika-festooned party literature and the pseudo-Nazi uniforms of the party's "Storm Troopers" which were modeled on those worn by the Nazi Party's Sturmabteilung. In 1968, Koehl moved the party to a new headquarters on 2507 North Franklin Road, clearly visible from Arlington's main thoroughfare, Wilson Boulevard. He also established a printing press, a "George Lincoln Rockwell Memorial Book Store", and member living quarters on property nearby.

The party began to experience ideological divisions among its followers as it entered the 1970s. In 1970, member Frank Collin, who was himself secretly the son of a Jewish father, broke away from the group and founded the National Socialist Party of America in Chicago, which became famous for its attempt to march through Skokie, Illinois, home to many Holocaust survivors. This led to the United States Supreme Court case, National Socialist Party of America v. Village of Skokie. Other dissatisfied members of the NSWPP chose to support William Luther Pierce, and formed the National Alliance in 1974.

Further membership erosion occurred as Koehl, drawing heavily upon the teachings of Hitlerian mystic Savitri Devi, began to suggest that National Socialism was more akin to a religious movement than a political one. He espoused the belief that Adolf Hitler was the gift of an inscrutable divine providence sent to rescue the white race from decadence and gradual extinction caused by a declining birth rate and miscegenation. Hitler's death in 1945 was viewed as a type of martyrdom; a voluntary, Christ-like self-sacrifice, that looked forward to a spiritual resurrection of National Socialism at a later date when the Aryan race would need it the most. These esoteric beliefs led to disputes with the World Union of National Socialists, which Rockwell had founded and whose leader, Danish neo-Nazi Povl Riis-Knudsen, had been appointed by Koehl. Undaunted, Koehl continued to recast the party as a new religion in formation. Public rallies were gradually phased out in favor of low-key gatherings in private venues. On Labor Day 1979, in a highly unpopular move for some members, Koehl disbanded the party's paramilitary "Storm Troopers."

On November 3, 1979, some members of the NSWPP and a Ku Klux Klan group attacked a Communist Workers' Party protest march in Greensboro, North Carolina. The alliance of neo-Nazis and Klansmen shot and killed five marchers. Forty Klansmen and neo-Nazis were involved in the shootings with sixteen Klansmen and neo-Nazis being arrested. The six strongest cases were brought to trial first, but the two criminal trials resulted in the acquittal of the defendants by all-white juries. However, in a 1985 civil lawsuit, the survivors won a $350,000 judgment against the city, the Klansmen, and the neo-Nazis for violating the civil rights of the demonstrators. The shootings became known as the "Greensboro Massacre."

New Order

The Koehl organization changed its name to New Order on January 1, 1983, reflecting the group's Nazi mysticism, and it is still known by that name today.[21]

The organization briefly attracted the media's attention in October 1983, when it held a private meeting at Yorktown High School in Arlington, Virginia.[22] A non-uniformed gathering of members was held indoors while the police kept a crowd of counter-protesters at bay outside. This event marked the last publicized appearance of Koehl and the New Order in Arlington. From that point forward the only outward sign that the group was still operational was the annual appearance of the swastika and Betsy Ross American Revolutionary War flags flying from the party's nondescript headquarters building on North Franklin Road every April 20 (Hitler's birthday).

In 1982 the Internal Revenue Service took action to foreclose on the group's headquarters in Arlington, Virginia.[23] Koehl ceased printing the organization's White Power newspaper, sold its Arlington, Virginia real estate holdings, and dispersed the group's various operations to scattered locations in Wisconsin and Michigan. A secluded 88-acre (360,000 m2) rural property called "Nordland" was purchased in New Berlin, Wisconsin, to serve as living quarters and to host annual meetings and ceremonial events.

Today the New Order operates quietly far from the public spotlight, eschewing the confrontational public rallies that were once a hallmark of its previous incarnations. It maintains a web page and a Milwaukee, Wisconsin post office box providing information and template material promoting National Socialism. It has no members but rather "registered supporters" who pledge to mail in donations on a monthly basis. Financing is also obtained through sales of books and other merchandise under an affiliate business, NS Publications of Wyandotte, Michigan. The NS Bulletin, a newsletter, is sent to supporters on a quarterly basis. The group holds occasional ceremonial gatherings at undisclosed private locations such as an annual observance of Hitler's birthday each April 20.

New Order's Chief of Staff, Martin Kerr, claims that the group is no longer a white supremacist group and focuses on advocating "in favor of [white] people, not against other races or ethnicities. ... We consider the white people of the world to be a gigantic family of racial brothers and sisters, united by ties of common ancestry and common heritage. Being for our own family does not mean that we hate other families." The SPLC still classifies them as neo-Nazis and as a "hate group".[24][25]

Namesake organizations

Since the late 1960s, there have been a number of small groups that have used the name "American Nazi Party."

  • Perhaps the first was led by James Warner and Allen Vincent and it consisted of members of the California branch of the NSWPP.[26] This group announced its existence on January 1, 1968. In 1982 James Burford formed another "American Nazi Party" from disaffected branches of the National Socialist Party of America.[27] This Chicago-based group remained in existence until at least 1994.[28]
  • A small American Nazi Party operated from Davenport, Iowa led by John Robert Bishop until 1985.[29][17][30]
  • The name "American Nazi Party" has also been adopted by a group run by Rocky J. Suhayda, a member of Rockwell's original ANP in 1967. Although Suhayda's ANP states that Rockwell was its founder, there is no direct legal or financial link between it and Rockwell's legacy organization, now a low-key Hitlerian religious group called the New Order. Headquartered in Westland, Michigan, Suhayda's ANP website sells nostalgic reprints of Rockwell's 1960s-era magazine The Stormtrooper. 2008 National Socialist presidential candidate John Taylor Bowles was a member. Suhayda holds semi-private yearly meetings at his home, and a national convention in California. His followers do not wear uniforms, except for the SA, or Security Arm, and they eschew public demonstrations, frequently criticizing the rival organization the National Socialist Movement for "outing" its members with excessive media exposure. Rocky Suhayda was purported to have taken up the cause of the American Nazi Party, even as he attempted to differentiate its politics from the predecessor organization.[31]

Notable former members

See also

References

Informational notes

  1. ^ Despite sharing ideological roots, the phrase 'American Nazi Party' should not be confabulated with the German American Bund or German American Federation (German: Amerikadeutscher Bund; Amerikadeutscher Volksbund, AV), which was an American Nazi organization established in 1936 to succeed Friends of New Germany (FONG), the new name being chosen to emphasize the group's American credentials after press criticism that the organisation was unpatriotic.[6][7] The Bund was to consist only of American citizens of German descent.[8] Reportedly, it had about 20,000 adherents.[6]
  2. ^ "The line between the American Nazi Party, the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacists has always been blurry."[6]
  3. ^ The actual date of the change in name is unclear. Kaplan reports it as being in 1966, while Goodrick-Clarke and Green and Stabler report it as occurring on January 1, 1967.[17][18][6]

Citations

  1. ^ Michigan, NSM (2016). "A BRIEF HISTORY OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SOCIALISM" (PDF). National Socialist Movement.
  2. ^ WETA. "Nazis in Arlington: George Rockwell and the ANP". Boundary Stones: WETA's Washington DC History Blog. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
  3. ^ Holley, Peter (August 6, 2016). "Top Nazi leader: Trump will be a 'real opportunity' for white nationalists". The Washington Post.
  4. ^ Rockwell, George Lincoln. From Ivory Tower to Privy Wall: On The Art of Propaganda Archived 2014-08-03 at the Wayback Machine c.1966
  5. ^ Potok, Mark (August 29, 2001). "The Nazi International". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Green & Stabler 2015, p. 390.
  7. ^ Wolter & Masters 2004, p. 65.
  8. ^ Van Ells, Mark D. (August 2007). Americans for Hitler – The Bund. America in WWII. 3. pp. 44–49. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  9. ^ "Death of an Arlington Nazi". www.northernvirginiamag.com. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
  10. ^ "A Guide to the American Nazi Party Recruiting Materials, c.1966 American Nazi Party Recruiting Materials Ms2015-060". 2016-08-12. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
  11. ^ Loeser Consulting. "American Nazi Party (USA), Historical Flags of Our Ancestors - Flags of Extremism - Part 1 (a-m)". www.loeser.us. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
  12. ^ "The National Socialist Movement Implodes". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
  13. ^ a b Schmaltz 2013.
  14. ^ Fenston, Jacob (September 6, 2013). "Arlington's Uneasy Relationship With Nazi Party Founder". WAMU. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  15. ^ Weingarten, Gene. "It's Just Nazi Same Place" Washington Post (February 10, 2008)
  16. ^ Cooper, Rebecca A. "Java Shack glimpses its past as Nazi headquarters" TDB.com (March 8, 2011)
  17. ^ a b c d e Kaplan 2000, pp. 1-3.
  18. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2003, p. 14.
  19. ^ Haley, Alex (1966). "Playboy Interview: George Lincoln Rockwell". Playboy Magazine. Retrieved May 12, 2016 – via Internet archive.
  20. ^ "1967: 'American Hitler' shot dead". BBC News. August 25, 1967. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
  21. ^ "Death of an Arlington Nazi". www.northernvirginiamag.com. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  22. ^ "Swastikas on Wilson - Arlington Magazine". Arlington Magazine. 2013-08-12. Retrieved 2018-03-27.
  23. ^ Kaplan 2000, p. 156.
  24. ^ "A look at Wisconsin's 'hate' groups | WisconsinWatch.org". www.wisconsinwatch.org. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
  25. ^ "Across Wisconsin, recent rises in hate, bias incidents spark concern". Retrieved 2018-04-28.
  26. ^ Kaplan 2000, pp. 1-3, 558-62.
  27. ^ Kaplan 2000, pp. 3, 33.
  28. ^ Anti-Defamation League. Danger: Extremism New York; Anti-Defamation League 1996 p.177
  29. ^ "Special Collections Manuscript Collections | Special Collections | Bishop (John Robert) papers, 1951-1977 and undated". augustana.libraryhost.com. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
  30. ^ Marks 1996, p. 58.
  31. ^ Rucke, Katie (February 26, 2014). "The Rebirth of American Nazism". Mint Press News. Retrieved May 12, 2015.

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Schmaltz, William H. (2000). Hate: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party (Paperback). Washington, D.C.: Brassey's Inc. ISBN 1574882627. ISBN 978-1574882629.
  • Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas. Hitler's Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism. New York: New York University Press, 1998; ISBN 0-8147-3111-2
  • ---- Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York: New York University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-8147-3155-4
  • Simonelli, Frederick J. American Fuehrer: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999; ISBN 0-252-02285-8 and ISBN 0-252-06768-1

External links

1965 Virginia gubernatorial election

In the 1965 Virginia gubernatorial election, incumbent Governor Albertis S. Harrison, Jr., a Democrat, was unable to seek re-election due to term limits. A. Linwood Holton, Jr., an attorney from Roanoke, was nominated by the Republican Party to run against Democratic Lieutenant Governor of Virginia Mills E. Godwin, Jr..

George Lincoln Rockwell, an avowed White Supremacist and founder/leader of the American Nazi Party, ran as an independent candidate.

Christic Institute

The Christic Institute was a public interest law firm founded in 1980 by Daniel Sheehan, his wife Sara Nelson, and their partner, William J. Davis, a Jesuit priest, after the successful conclusion of their work on the Silkwood case. Based on the ecumenical teachings of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, and on the lessons they learned from their experience in the Silkwood fight, the Christic Institute combined investigation, litigation, education and organizing into a unique model for social reform in the United States. In 1992 the firm lost its non-profit status after having a federal case dismissed by the court in 1988 and being penalized for filing a "frivolous lawsuit". The IRS said that the Christic Institute had acted for political reasons. The case was related to journalists injured in relation to the Iran–Contra Affair. The group was succeeded by a new firm, the Romero Institute.

Christic notably represented victims of the nuclear disaster at Three Mile Island; they prosecuted KKK and American Nazi Party members for killing communist workers party demonstrators in the 1979 Greensboro Massacre, as well as police and federal agents whom they said had known about potential violence and had not adequately protected the victims; and they defended Catholic workers providing sanctuary to Salvadoran refugees (American Sanctuary Movement). Its headquarters were in Washington, D.C., with offices in several other major United States cities. The Institute received funding from a nationwide network of grassroots donors, as well as organizations like the New World Foundation.

Writing for the Columbia Journalism Review, Chip Berlet described the Christic Institute as "something of a rarity among advocacy groups: starting out on the left of the political spectrum, over the years it was drawn into the conspiracy theories woven by the radical right."

Dan Burros

Daniel Burros (March 5, 1937 – October 31, 1965) was a Jewish American who was a former member of the American Nazi Party. Later, after a falling-out with founder George Lincoln Rockwell, Burros became a Kleagle, or recruiter, for the New York State branch of the United Klans of America, the most violent Klan group of the time.Burros committed suicide on October 31, 1965, hours after his Jewish heritage was made public. He shot himself in the chest and then the head. At the time, he was reportedly listening to music composed by Richard Wagner.

David I. Shapiro

David Israel Shapiro (June 17, 1928 – October 1, 2009) was an American 1st Amendment attorney and civil liberties activist, known best in the United States for his key roles defending people against accusations by the House Committee on Un-American Activities, his representation of the American Nazi Party in a free speech case, and his pioneering in class action lawsuits.

Don Black (white supremacist)

Stephen Donald Black (born July 28, 1953) is an American white supremacist. He is the founder, and webmaster of the anti-Semitic, neo-Nazi, white supremacist, Holocaust denial and racist Stormfront internet forum. He was a Grand Wizard in the Ku Klux Klan and a member of the American Nazi Party in the 1970s, though at the time he was a member it was known as the 'National Socialist White Peoples' Party'. He was convicted in 1981 of attempting an armed overthrow of the government in the island of Dominica in violation of the U.S. Neutrality Act.

Frank Collin

Francis Joseph Collin (born November 3, 1944) is an American former political activist and Midwest coordinator with the National Socialist White People's Party, later known as the American Nazi Party. After being ousted for being partly Jewish (which he denied), in 1970, Collin founded the National Socialist Party of America. In the late 1970s, its plan to march in the predominantly Jewish suburb of Skokie, Illinois was challenged; however, the American Civil Liberties Union defended its freedom of speech and assembly in a case that reached the United States Supreme Court. The court in National Socialist Party of America v. Village of Skokie (1979), a major decision, ruled that the party had a right to march and to display a swastika, despite local opposition, due to the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. After Collin was convicted and sentenced in 1979 for child molestation, he lost his position in the party.After being released early on parole from prison, Collin created a new career as a writer, publishing numerous books under the pen name Frank Joseph. He wrote New Age and "hyperdiffusionist" works supporting the pseudoarchaeological idea that Old World peoples had migrated to North America in ancient times and created its complex societies of indigenous peoples. This thesis is rejected by mainstream scholars.

George Lincoln Rockwell

George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 – August 25, 1967) was an American politician and neo-Nazi. In 1959, he was discharged from the United States Navy because of his political views and founded the American Nazi Party.

Rockwell denied The Holocaust and believed that Martin Luther King Jr. was a tool for Jewish communists wanting to rule the white community. He regarded Hitler as "the White savior of the twentieth century". He regarded blacks as a "primitive, lethargic race who desired only simple pleasures and a life of irresponsibility" and supported the resettlement of all American Negroes in a new African state to be funded by the U.S. government. He blamed the civil rights movement on the Jews. As a supporter of racial segregation, he agreed with and quoted many leaders of the Black nationalism movement such as Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X. In later years, Rockwell became increasingly aligned with other neo-Nazi groups, leading the World Union of National Socialists.

In August 1967, Rockwell was murdered by John Patler in Arlington County, Virginia. Patler had been expelled by Rockwell from his party in March 1967 for Marxist leanings.

Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission

The Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established in 2004 based on the events of November 3, 1979. On that date, the Communist Workers Party (CWP) led by Robert Johnson gathered at the Morningside Homes in Greensboro, North Carolina, to protest for social and economic justice along with protesting against the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). The chant that united the 40–50 protesters was “death to the Klan”. Shortly after 11 am, a nine-vehicle convoy that contained 37 members of the KKK and the American Nazi Party arrived. After a short skirmish, the KKK and American Nazis retrieved their firearms and 88 seconds later, five protesters lay dead and ten others were wounded. During the marking of the 20th anniversary of the events that became known as the “Greensboro massacre”, the idea was raised to bring closure and to bring to light the truth to the events of November 3, 1979. Within five years, The Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission was formed by mainly private and local donations. The seven commissioners in 2006 released their report, which condemned not only the KKK and the American Nazi Party, but also the Greensboro Police Department and the city itself for being responsible for the events of November 3, 1979, and the subsequent cover-up.

Greensboro massacre

The Greensboro massacre is the term for an event which took place on November 3, 1979, when members of the Communist Workers' Party and others demonstrated in a "Death to the Klan" march in Greensboro, North Carolina, United States. The CWP, which advocated that Klan members should be "physically beaten and chased out of town", exchanged gunfire with members of the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party. The CWP and supporters had handguns (unknown how many--estimates range from one to three) while KKK and Nazi Party members are visible on news footage from the event getting rifles from a car trunk and opening fire on CWP members. Four members of the Communist Workers' Party and one other individual were killed, and eleven other demonstrators and a Klansman were wounded. The CWP supported workers' rights activism among mostly black textile industrial workers in the area.Two criminal trials of several Klan and ANP members were conducted: six men were prosecuted in a state criminal trial in 1980; five were charged with murder. All were acquitted by an all-white jury. A second, federal criminal civil rights trial in 1984 concluded with the acquittal of the nine defendants. In the first trial, the jury concluded that the defendants acted in self-defense. In the second trial, the jury concluded that the defendant's actions were based on political, rather than racial, motivations.

Survivors filed a civil suit in 1980, led by the Christic Institute. The case in federal district court accused numerous police officers and four federal agents, as well as Klansmen and ANP members, of violating the civil rights of those killed, and it also charged the city with failure to protect the legal demonstration. The jury found the Klan/Nazi shooters liable for the death of Michael Nathan, the only non-CWP victim. The jury also held the Greensboro Police Department responsible for failing to do more to prevent the shootings, because it was told by an informant that the KKK planned violence. These groups were ordered to pay a total of $350,000 in damages. This is one of the few times in US history when "a jury held local police liable for cooperating with the Ku Klux Klan in a wrongful death."On November 3, 2004, marking the 25th anniversary of the killings, about 700 people marched through Greensboro to city hall, on the original route. That year, private citizens organized a Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission, modeled after commissions in South Africa and elsewhere. The intention was to investigate and hear testimony concerning the events of 1979. The organization failed to secure authority or local sanction when the mayor and most of the City Council voted against endorsing the undertaking. It lacked both subpoena power to compel testimony, and the ability to invoke the punishment of perjury for false testimony. The commission issued a Final Report concluding that, while both sides had contributed to the massacre by engaging in inflammatory rhetoric, the Klan and ANP members intended to inflict injury on protesters, and the police department had colluded with the Klan by allowing anticipated violence to take place. In 2009 the Greensboro City Council passed a resolution expressing regret for the deaths. In 2015 the city unveiled a historical marker to acknowledge the Greensboro Massacre. Three hundred people attended the ceremony. On August 15, 2017, the Greensboro City Council apologized for the massacre.

John Patler

John Patler (born January 6, 1938) is an American former neo-Nazi who was convicted of killing American Nazi Party leader George Lincoln Rockwell on August 25, 1967.

Joseph Tommasi

Joseph Charles Tommasi (April 15, 1951 – August 15, 1975) was an American Neo-Nazi who founded the National Socialist Liberation Front. He advocated extremism and armed guerrilla warfare against the U.S. government and what he called its "Jewish power structure". Tommasi wanted anarchy and lawlessness so that the "system" could be attacked without protection.Tommasi was derisively nicknamed "Tomato Joe" by rival neo-Nazis because of his Italian heritage and Nordic complexion.

List of fascist movements by country U–Z

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

Margrét Þóra Hallgrímsson

Margrét Þóra (Thora) Hallgrímsson (born 28 January 1930) is the wife of the businessman Björgólfur Guðmundsson and like him was a prominent figure in the cultural and business life of Iceland from around 2002–2008. She is also the former wife of American Nazi Party founder George Lincoln Rockwell.

Matthias Koehl

Matthias Koehl Jr. (January 22, 1935 – October 9/10, 2014) was an American Marine, a neo-Nazi politician and writer. He succeeded George Lincoln Rockwell as the longest serving leader of the American Nazi Party from 1967 to 2014.

Like the Chilean diplomat Miguel Serrano, Koehl was influenced by the occultism of the Greek-French writer Savitri Devi. He was also a close friend of the Dutch World War II Nazi collaborator Florentine Rost van Tonningen.

National Socialist Party of America

The National Socialist Party of America was a Chicago-based organization founded in 1970 by Frank Collin shortly after he left the National Socialist White People's Party. The NSWPP had been the American Nazi Party until shortly after the assassination of leader George Lincoln Rockwell in 1967. Collin, a follower of Rockwell, developed differences with his successor Matt Koehl.

The party's headquarters were in Chicago's Marquette Park, and its main activity in the early 1970s was organizing loud demonstrations against blacks moving into previously all-white neighborhoods. The marches and community reaction led the city of Chicago to ban all demonstrations in Marquette Park unless they paid an insurance fee of $250,000. While challenging the city's actions in the courts, the party decided to redirect its attention to Chicago's suburbs, which had no such restrictions.

Rocky Suhayda

Rocky Joe Suhayda (born 1952) is an American activist, who currently serves as Chairman of the American Nazi Party. He has held the office since at least 2000. He and his Party are based in Michigan.Suhayda graduated from Bentley High School in Livonia, Michigan, in 1969. He worked in the shipping and receiving department of the Garden City Osteopathic Hospital. Suhayda has run unsuccessfully for public office on several occasions, including for the Livonia School District and the Livonia City Council.Suhayda was a member of the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists and the National Association for the Advancement of White People, and subsequently founded his own organization under the name of the American Nazi Party. Suhayda's organization claims a connection to the American Nazi Party founded by George Lincoln Rockwell in 1959, but it is officially a separate entity. He was a member of the National White People's Party in 1976, but resigned some point before 1979. As of 1979, he was the Chairman of a 12-member group called The National Front. Suhayda has stated that he represents a Livonia chapter of the Ku Klux Klan.Shortly after the September 11 attacks, Suhayda stated that "if we were one-tenth as serious as the bin Laden terrorists, we just might start getting somewhere." In 2016, Suhayda stated on his radio show that a Donald Trump presidency could give American Nazis the chance to build a 'pro-white' political caucus similar to the Congressional Black Caucus. He publicly supported the appointment of Steve Bannon to the position of chief strategist in Donald Trump's White House.

Roy Frankhouser

Roy Everett Frankhouser, Jr. (also spelled "Frankhauser"), (November 4, 1939 – May 15, 2009) was a Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan, a member of the American Nazi Party, a government informant, and a security consultant to Lyndon LaRouche. Frankhouser was reported by federal officials to have been arrested at least 142 times. In 2003 he told a reporter, "I'm accused of everything from the sinking of the Titanic to landing on the moon." He was convicted of federal crimes in at least three cases, including dealing in stolen explosives and obstruction of justice. Irwin Suall, of the Anti-Defamation League, called Frankhouser "a thread that runs through the history of American hate groups".

The Believer (film)

The Believer is a 2001 American drama film directed by Henry Bean and written by Bean and Mark Jacobson. It stars Ryan Gosling as Daniel Balint, a Jew who becomes a neo-Nazi. The film is loosely based on the true story of Dan Burros, a member of the American Nazi Party and the New York branch of the United Klans of America. He committed suicide after being revealed as Jewish by a New York Times reporter. It won the Grand Jury Prize at the 2001 Sundance Film Festival and the Golden St. George at the 23rd Moscow International Film Festival.

World Union of National Socialists

The World Union of National Socialists (WUNS) is an organisation founded in 1962 as an umbrella group for neo-Nazi organisations across the globe.

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