The AMA's mission is "to promote the art and science of medicine and the betterment of public health." The Association also publishes the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). The AMA also publishes a list of Physician Specialty Codes which are the standard method in the U.S. for identifying physician and practice specialties.
The American Medical Association is governed by a House of Delegates as well as a board of trustees in addition to executive management. The organization maintains the AMA Code of Medical Ethics that is the guide to ethical practice of medicine and the AMA Physician Masterfile containing data on United States Physicians. The Current Procedural Terminology coding system was first published in 1966, and is maintained by the Association. It has also published works such as the Guides to Evaluation of Permanent Impairment and established the American Medical Association Foundation and the American Medical Political Action Committee.
|American Medical Association|
|Formation||May 7, 1847|
|Purpose||"To Promote the art and science of medicine and the betterment of public health"|
|Headquarters||Chicago, Illinois, U.S.|
|240,359 as of 2016|
|David O. Barbe, M.D.|
|Board Chair Gerald E. Harmon, M.D.; CEO & EVP James Madara, M.D.|
In 1847 after a report by physician Nathan Smith Davis, sometimes called the "father of the AMA", American physicians met in Philadelphia and formed the AMA as a national professional medical organization, the first of its kind in the world, going on to establish uniform standards for medical education, training, and practice, the world's first national code for ethical medical practice. Ever since, the AMA Code of Medical Ethics dictates professional conduct for practicing physicians.
In 1901, the AMA was reorganized with its central authority shifted to a House of Delegates, a board of trustees, and executive offices. The House of Delegates was modeled after the United States House of Representatives and included representatives from medical organizations across the United States as a formal, reform-minded legislative body. The organization's new president appointed a Committee on Medical Education in order to evaluate medical education in the United States and make recommendations for its improvement.
AMA created the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry in 1905 to set standards for drug manufacturing and advertising. That same year, the Association began a voluntary program of drug approval, which would remain in effect until 1955. Drug companies were required to show proof of the effectiveness of their drugs to advertise them in AMA's journal.
In 1906, the American Medical Association established a Physician Masterfile designed to contain data on physicians in the United States as well as graduates of American medical schools and international graduates who are in the United States. Each file is established when an individual either enters medical schools or enters the United States.
The AMA established the Council for the Defense of Medical Research in 1908.
AMA's Council on Medical Education and Hospitals first published its annual list of hospitals approved for internships in 1914.
The American Medical Association established a policy of opposition to compulsory health insurance by state or federal government in 1920.
In May 1922, the Woman's Auxiliary to the American Medical Association was organized. The following year, the AMA established standards for medical specialty training residency programs. The Association later published its first list of hospitals approved for residency training in 1927.
In 1927, Congress passed the Caustic Poison Act, lobbied by the American Medical Association, which required product labels to include warnings if they included lye or 10 other caustic chemicals.
The Normal Diet, a comprehensive listing of what Americans should be eating, was published by the AMA in 1938.
A formal partnership between the AMA and the Association of American Medical Colleges formed the Liaison Committee on Medical Education in 1942 in order to establish requirements for certification of medical schools. In 1951, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals was created through merging the Hospital Standardization Program with quality standards from the American College of Physicians, the American Hospital Association, and the American Medical Association. The Commission, established for evaluation and accreditation of healthcare organizations in the United States, governed by a board of commissioners including physicians, consumers and administrators.
AMA publicly endorsed the principle of fluoridation of community and water supplies in 1951.
The Physicians Advisory Committee on Television, Radio and Motion Pictures was established by the AMA in 1955 in order to maintain medical accuracy in media. The American Medical Association's Committee on Alcoholism issued a statement in 1956 calling alcoholism an illness and encouraging medical personnel and institutions to admit and treat alcoholic patients.
In 1961, the American Medical Association opposed the King-Anderson bill proposing Medicare legislation and took out advertisements in newspapers, radio and television against government health insurance. The Association established the American Medical Political Action Committee, which was separate from AMA though the Association nominated its board of directors. The AMA's efforts to defeat Medicare legislation was called Operation Coffee Cup and included secretive meetings in which the vinyl LP "Ronald Reagan Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine" was played. The AMA created an "Eldercare" proposal rather than hospital insurance through Social Security.
The AMA first published the Current Procedural Terminology coding system in 1966. The system was created for uniform reporting of outpatient physician services. The first manual was 163 pages and contained only four-digit codes with descriptions of each. A second edition of the book was published in 1970 with a fifth digit added.
In 1969, AMA proposed the Medicredit program. The program was created to be flexible so that all people had an option for health insurance.
The American Medical Association published the first Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment in 1971. The guides were later republished in 1977 before the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs created 12 committees to review the guides before the second edition was published in 1984.
The AMA spoke out against gender discrimination in medical institutions in the 1970s. In the 1970s, the AMA spoke out against gender discrimination in medical institutions. In 1972, the AMA launched a "war on smoking" and supported legislation that would prohibit tobacco sample disbursement. The following year, in 1973, the AMA urged physicians to combat hypertension through a national program. In 1975, the American Medical Association adopted a policy stating that "unequivocal-discrimination based on sexual orientation is improper and unacceptable by any part of the federation of medicine." It adopted a resolution to repeal all state sodomy laws.
In 1976, the AMA began encouraging all public facilities to have handicap access.
The AMA released a survey in 1981 that found two short-term effects of dioxin on humans and recommended further studies. By 1983, the Association accused the news media of conducting a "witch hunt" against the toxic chemical and launched a public information campaign to counter media hysteria.
In the early 1980s, the American Medical Association advocated for raising the national legal drinking age to 21. The Supreme Court of the United States upheld Federal Trade Commission order that allowed doctors and dentists to advertise without professional associations interfering in 1982. The order restrained the American Medical Association from obstructing agreements between physicians and health maintenance organizations.
In May 1983, the Journal of the American Medical Association published a report that reviewed cases of childhood AIDS. The American Medical Association called for a ban on advertising and promotion of all tobacco products in any form of media. The AMA also proposed declaring snuff and chewing tobacco a health hazard, increasing the tax on cigarettes, prohibiting smoking on public transportation and urged medical facilities to ban smoking on their premises.
A Federal district judge ruled that the AMA had violated the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1987 by depriving chiropractors access to the Association. The lawsuit, filed by four chiropractors, accused AMA of conspiring to prevent chiropractors from practicing in the United States.
In 1990, AMA published Health Assess America, which proposed improved access to affordable health care for citizens without healthcare insurance.
The Journal of the American Medical Association first documented that Joe Camel cartoons reached more children than adults in December 1991. The Association called for the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company to stop using the Joe Camel character in its advertising because of its appeal to youth.
In 1995, Lonnie R. Bristow became the first African-American president of the American Medical Association. Before he became president, Bristow was the first African-American member of the Board of Trustees and first African-American chairman of the Board. The AMA campaigned against health plan "gag clauses" in 1996, stating that the stipulations inhibit the communication of information and restrict the care doctors can give their patients. The clauses were removed from 5 leading providers, and laws prohibiting such clauses were passed in 16 states.
In 1997, the AMA established the National Patient Safety Foundation as an independent, nonprofit research and education organization focused on patient safety. Nancy W. Dickey was named president of the American Medical Association in June 1998. She was the first woman to head the organization and had been part of AMA's leadership since 1977.
In 2002, the American Medical Association released a report that found a medical liability insurance crisis in at least a dozen states forcing physicians to either close practices or limit services. The association called for Congress to take action and campaigned for national reform. The American Medical Association launched the "Voice for the Uninsured" campaign in 2007 to promote coverage for uninsured citizens.
In 2007, AMA called for state and federal agencies to investigate potential conflicts of interest between the retail clinics and pharmacy chains. The American Medical Association issued a formal apology for previous policies that excluded African-Americans from the organization and announced increased efforts to increase minority physician participation in the AMA in 2008.
In 2009, the American Medical Association released a public letter to the United States Congress and President Barack Obama endorsing his proposed overhaul to the public health care system, including universal health coverage. The following year, it offered "qualified support" for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
The AMA officially recognized obesity as a disease in 2013 in an attempt to change how the medical community approaches the issue. In 2014, the Association created the AMA Opioid Task Force to evaluate prescription opioid use and abuse. The American Medical Association supported the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 which introduced Medicare reforms and replaced the SGR formula with increased Medicare physician reimbursement.
In 2015, the AMA declared there is no medically valid reason to exclude transgender individuals from serving in the U.S. military. The Human Rights Campaign lauded the decision. The Association announced its opposition to replacing the federal health care law in March 2017, claiming millions of Americans would lose health care coverage.
The AMA has one of the largest political lobbying budgets of any organization in the United States. Its political positions throughout its history have often been controversial. In the 1930s, the AMA attempted to prohibit its members from working for the health maintenance organizations established during the Great Depression, which violated the Sherman Antitrust Act and resulted in a conviction ultimately affirmed by the US Supreme Court. The American Medical Association's vehement campaign against Medicare in the 1950s and 1960s included the Operation Coffee Cup, supported by Ronald Reagan. Since the enactment of Medicare, the AMA reversed its position and now opposes any "cut to Medicare funding or shift [of] increased costs to beneficiaries at the expense of the quality or accessibility of care". However, the AMA remains opposed to any single-payer health care plan that might enact a National Health Service-style organization in the United States, such as the United States National Health Care Act. In the 1990s, the organization was part of the coalition that defeated the health care reform advanced by Hillary and Bill Clinton.
The AMA has also supported changes in medical malpractice law to limit damage awards, which, it contends, makes it difficult for patients to find appropriate medical care. In many states, high risk specialists have moved to other states that have enacted reform. For example, in 2004, all neurosurgeons had relocated out of the entire southern half of Illinois. The main legislative emphasis in multiple states has been to effect caps on the amount that patients can receive for pain and suffering. These costs for pain and suffering are only those that exceed the actual costs of healthcare and lost income. At the same time however, states without caps also experienced similar results; suggesting that other market factors may have contributed to the decreases. Some economic studies have found that caps have historically had an uncertain effect on premium rates. Nevertheless, the AMA believes the caps may alleviate what is often perceived as an excessively litigious environment for many doctors. A recent report by the AMA found that in a 12-month period, five percent of physicians had claims filed against them.
Claims that the AMA generates $70 million in revenue through its stewardship of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes appear to be a mischaracterization. The estimate is based on a distortion of the transparent financial information the AMA voluntarily offers in its Annual Report. The AMA has publicly reported this figure represents income from its complete line of books and products, which include more than 100 items, not just CPT.
The AMA sponsors the Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee which is an influential group of 29 physicians, mostly specialists, who help determine the value of different physicians' labor in Medicare prices.
During the Civil Rights Movement, the American Medical Association's policy of allowing its constituent groups to be racially segregated in areas with widespread prejudice faced opposition from doctors as well as other healthcare professionals. Pressure from organizations such as the Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) resulted in changed policies by the late 1960s. The AMA was also criticized for the lack of newly licensed foreign-trained medical professionals after Adolf Hitler came to power, who were fleeing to the U.S. from Nazi-controlled Germany and adjacent nations.
Nobel Memorial Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman as well as his wife, Rose Friedman, have claimed that the organization acts as a guild and has attempted to increase physicians' wages and fees by influencing limitations on the supply of physicians and competition from non-physicians. In the book Free to Choose, the Friedmans stated that "the AMA has engaged in extensive litigation charging chiropractors and osteopathic physicians with the unlicensed practice of medicine, in an attempt to restrict them to as narrow an area as possible." Profession and Monopoly also criticized the AMA for limiting the supply of physicians and inflating the cost of medical care in the U.S as well as its influence on hospital regulation.
In a 1987 antitrust court case, a federal district judge called the AMA's behavior toward chiropractors "systematic, long-term wrongdoing". The AMA was accused of limiting the associations between physicians and chiropractors. In the 1960s and 1970s, the association's Committee on Quackery was said to have targeted the chiropractic profession, and for many years the AMA held that it was unethical for physicians to refer patients to chiropractors or to receive referrals from chiropractors.
The AMA is composed of various internal groups that discuss policy twice a year. There is an annual meeting, always held in Chicago, IL and an Interim meeting set on a rotating schedule for different locations. Within the AMA, there are sections that can make up the total AMA. These sections include Medical Students, Resident and Fellows, Academic physicians, Medical School Deans and Faculty, Physicians in group practice setting, Retired and Senior Physicians, International Medical graduates, Woman physicians, Physician Diversity and Minority health, GLBT, USAN, AMA board of Trustees, Foundation and Council. Externally to the AMA, there are organizations that come to these meetings by sending representatives. These representatives meet two a year in the House of Delegates at the Interim and/or annual meeting. Representatives come from medical societies that are either from a state, specialty or the federal services/government services. These organizations are called AMA member organizations.
Published membership figures as reported by the AMA include:
The AMA Foundation provides approximately $1,000,000 annually in tuition assistance to financially needy students. This has to be seen on the background that in 2007, graduating medical students carried a mean debt load of $140,000 which rose to $220,000 after four years of negative amortization during residency medical student debt has increased by 7% each successive year. By the time debt is paid off, it is sometimes almost half a million dollars.
AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors is the style guide of the American Medical Association. It is written by the editors of JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) and the Archives journals and is most recently published by Oxford University Press. It specifies the writing and citation styles for use in the journals published by the American Medical Association. The manual was first published in 1962, and its current edition, the 10th, came out in 2007. It covers a breadth of topics for authors and editors in medicine and related health fields. The online edition also has updates (style points that have changed since the last print edition), a blog, monthly tips from the editors, quizzes, and an SI unit conversion calculator.
AMA style is widely used, either entirely or with modifications, by hundreds of other scientific journals (including medical and other public health journals), in many textbooks, and in academia (for papers written in classes). Along with APA style and CSE style, it is one of the major style regimes for such work. Many publications have small local style guides that cascade over AMA, APA, or CSE style (for example, "follow AMA style unless otherwise specified herein" or "for issues not addressed herein, follow AMA style").American College of Physicians
The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internists, who specialize in the diagnosis, treatment, and care of adults. With 154,000 members, ACP is the largest medical-specialty organization and second-largest physician group in the United States, after the American Medical Association. Its flagship journal, the Annals of Internal Medicine, is considered one of the five top medical journals in the United States and Britain.Current Procedural Terminology
The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code set is a medical code set maintained by the American Medical Association through the CPT Editorial Panel. The CPT code set (copyright protected by the AMA) describes medical, surgical, and diagnostic services and is designed to communicate uniform information about medical services and procedures among physicians, coders, patients, accreditation organizations, and payers for administrative, financial, and analytical purposes.
New editions are released each October. The current version is the CPT 2018. It is available in both a standard edition and a professional edition.CPT coding is similar to ICD-9 and ICD-10 coding, except that it identifies the services rendered, rather than the diagnosis on the claim (ICD-10-CM was created for diagnostic coding- it took the place of Volume 3 of the ICD-9). The ICD code sets also contain procedure codes (ICD-10-PCS codes), but these are only used in the inpatient setting.CPT is currently identified by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as Level 1 of the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System.
The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) was developed by the American Medical Association (AMA).Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System
The Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS, often pronounced by its acronym as "hick picks") is a set of health care procedure codes based on the American Medical Association's Current Procedural Terminology (CPT).Hubert Work
Hubert Work (July 3, 1860 – December 14, 1942) was a U.S. administrator and physician. He served as the U.S. Postmaster General from 1922 until 1923 during the presidency of Warren G. Harding. He served as the U.S. Secretary of the Interior from 1923 until 1928 during the administrations of Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge.JAMA (journal)
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association. It publishes original research, reviews, and editorials covering all aspects of the biomedical sciences. The journal was established in 1883 with Nathan Smith Davis as the founding editor. The journal's current editor-in-chief is Howard Bauchner of Boston University, who succeeded Catherine DeAngelis on July 1, 2011.JAMA Internal Medicine
JAMA Internal Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal published monthly by the American Medical Association. It was established in 1908 as the Archives of Internal Medicine and obtained its current title in 2013.JAMA Neurology
JAMA Neurology is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Medical Association. It was established in 1960 as Archives of Neurology and obtained its current name in 2013. The journal publishes research on the nervous system as well as the various mechanisms of neurological disease. The editor-in-chief is S. Andrew Josephson. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal's 2017 impact factor is 11.560, ranking it 5th out of 197 journals in the category "Clinical Neurology".JAMA Ophthalmology
JAMA Ophthalmology (formerly Archives of Ophthalmology) is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of ophthalmology. The editor-in-chief is Neil M. Bressler (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine). It is published by the American Medical Association, with which it has been affiliated since 1929.JAMA Pediatrics
JAMA Pediatrics is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Medical Association. It covers all aspects of pediatrics. The journal was established in 1911 as the American Journal of Diseases of Children, renamed in the early 1990s as Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, and obtained its current name in January 2013. The editor-in-chief is Dimitri A. Christakis, MD, MPH (University of Washington). According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal's 2017 impact factor is 10.769, ranking it 1st out of 124 journals in the category "Pediatrics".JAMA Psychiatry
JAMA Psychiatry (until 2013: Archives of General Psychiatry) is a monthly, peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Medical Association. It publishes original articles of general interest to clinicians, scholars, and research scientists in psychiatry, mental health, behavioral sciences, and related fields. The journal seeks to inform and to educate its readers as well as to stimulate debate and further exploration into the nature, causes, treatment, and public health importance of mental illness. All clinical trials published in the journal are strictly classified according to ICMJE criteria, regardless of classification by a funding agency, and have to abide by the recommendations laid out by the ICMJE. JAMA Psychiatry is a member of the JAMA Network family of journals, which includes twelve journals, known collectively as The JAMA Network.Metanephrine
Metanephrine (metadrenaline) is a metabolite of epinephrine (adrenaline) created by action of catechol-O-methyl transferase on epinephrine. An article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, 2002, indicated that the measurement of plasma free levels of the metanephrines group of molecules (including metanephrine and normetanephrine) is the best tool in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, an adrenal medullary neoplasm.Nancy Dickey
Nancy Dickey (born September 10, 1950) is an American physician. She was the first female president of the American Medical Association (AMA), serving in 1997–98. Previously she had served as chair of the Board of Trustees of the AMA and chaired its Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. For eleven years she was president of the Texas A&M Health Science Center, the first woman to hold that position.Participation of medical professionals in American executions
Participation of medical professionals in American executions is a controversial topic, due to its moral and legal implications. The practice is proscribed by the American Medical Association, as defined in its Code of Medical Ethics. The American Society of Anesthesiologists endorses this position, stating that lethal injections "can never conform to the science, art and
practice of anesthesiology".In 2010, the American Board of Anesthesiologists, a member board of the American Board of Medical Specialties, voted to revoke the certification of anesthesiologists who participate in executing a prisoner by lethal injection. Board secretary Mark A. Rockoff defended the organization's policy, stating that participation in executions "puts anesthesiologists in an untenable position," and that physicians "can assuredly provide effective anesthesia, but doing so in order to cause a patient's death is a violation of their fundamental duty as physicians to do no harm."In at least one case, the planned execution of Michael Morales, the execution warrant was stayed indefinitely due to the objection of the contacted physicians to participate.
The topic was the subject of a 1992 review by the American Medical Association, entitled Physician Participation in Capital Punishment.
Given the ethical conflicts involved, no physician, even if employed by the state, should be compelled to participate in the process of establishing a prisoner's competence to be executed if such activity is contrary to the physician's personal beliefs. Similarly, physicians who would prefer not to be involved with the treatment of an incompetent, condemned prisoner should be excused or permitted to transfer care of the prisoner to another physician.Ronald Reagan Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine
Ronald Reagan Speaks Out Against Socialized Medicine is a 1961 LP featuring Ronald Reagan. In this more than ten-minute recording, Reagan "criticized Social Security for supplanting private savings and warned that subsidized medicine would curtail Americans' freedom" and that "pretty soon your son won't decide when he's in school, where he will go or what he will do for a living. He will wait for the government to tell him." Roger Lowenstein called the LP part of a "stealth program" conducted by the American Medical Association (see Operation Coffee Cup).The Social Transformation of American Medicine
The Social Transformation of American Medicine is a book written by Paul Starr and published by Basic Books in 1982. It won the 1984 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction as well as the Bancroft Prize.Capers Jones wrote, "Paul Starr's book detailed the attempts of the American Medical Association to improve academic training of physicians, establish a canon of professional malpractice to weed out quacks, and to improve the professional status of physicians."United States Adopted Name
United States Adopted Names are unique nonproprietary names assigned to pharmaceuticals marketed in the United States. Each name is assigned by the USAN Council, which is co-sponsored by the American Medical Association (AMA), the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), and the American Pharmacists Association (APhA).
The USAN Program states that its goal is to select simple, informative, and unique nonproprietary names (also called generic names) for drugs by establishing logical nomenclature classifications based on pharmacological or chemical relationships. In addition to drugs, the USAN Council names agents for gene therapy and cell therapy, contact lens polymers, surgical materials, diagnostics, carriers, and substances used as an excipient. The USAN Council works in conjunction with the World Health Organization (WHO) International Nonproprietary Name (INN) Expert Committee and national nomenclature groups to standardize drug nomenclature and establish rules governing the classification of new substances.Wilk v. American Medical Ass'n
Wilk v. American Medical Association, 895 F.2d 352 (7th Cir. 1990), was a federal antitrust suit brought against the American Medical Association (AMA) and 10 co-defendants by chiropractor Chester A. Wilk, DC, and four co-plaintiffs. It resulted in a ruling against the AMA.Zina Pitcher
Zina Pitcher (April 12, 1797 in Sandy Hill, New York – April 5, 1872 in Detroit) was an American physician, politician, educator, and academic administrator. He was a president of the American Medical Association, a two-time mayor of Detroit and a member of the Board of Regents of the University of Michigan.