American Line

The American Line was a shipping company founded in 1871 and based in Philadelphia. It began as part of the Pennsylvania Railroad, although the railroad got out of the shipping business soon after founding the company. In 1902, it became part of the International Navigation Co., with the American Line generally handling traffic between the United States ports of Philadelphia and New York City and the British ports of Liverpool and Southampton. Sister company Red Star Line handled traffic between America and the European continent, primarily through Antwerp, Belgium. The company's most prominent president was Clement Griscom, who led the company from 1888 to 1902 and worked as a company executive for its entire existence. During its existence, the company was the largest American shipping company, rivalled only by the smaller, Baltimore-based Atlantic Transport Lines, although this distinction is a marginal one, as all American oceanic shipping concerns were dwarfed by British companies such as the White Star Line or Cunard Line and German ones such as HAPAG.

The company became much larger when it bought out the Inman Line in 1886. In 1902, Griscom decided to merge his company with several other lines to create the International Mercantile Marine Company. The American name continued to exist under the IMM banner, but it was not until the trust's failure in 1932 that the American pieces of the combine were once again solely under the American flag, this time in the guise of United States Lines.

American Line
FateAbsorbed into United States Lines
Founded1871 in Philadelphia, United States


  • City of Berlin, chartered to the Red Star Line 1895–1898 for seven voyages
  • City of New York
  • City of Paris (also sailed as USS Yale, SS Philadelphia, and USS Harrisburg)
  • Haverford, chartered to the Red Star Line 1901–1902 for four voyages
  • Merion, Haverford's sister ship, torpedoed and sunk in 1915 while acting as a decoy "battlecruiser"
  • Illinois, chartered to the Red Star Line 1886–1897
  • Indiana, chartered to the Red Star Line 1889
  • Kensington, chartered to the Red Star Line 1895–1903
  • Kroonland, purchased from the Red Star Line in 1923, then sold to Panama Pacific Line
  • Pennsylvania, chartered from American Line 1887–1897
  • Pittsburgh, chartered to the Red Star Line 1925–1926. Sold to the RSL 1926 and renamed Pennland, sold to Bernstein Red Star Line, Hamburg 1935
  • St. Louis
  • St. Paul
  • Southwark, chartered to the Red Star Line 1895–1903


  • Flayhart, William Henry III (2000). The American Line 1871-1902 (New York, W.W. Norton & Co.), ISBN 0-393-04710-5
  • The Ships List, Red Star
  • Naval Historical Center Online Library of Selected Images: U.S. Navy Ships

External links


Cycle-Scoot is an American line of scooters created by aircraft engineer & entrepreneur Woodrow Wilson Skirvin in 1953. The scooter was largely popular during the 1950s due to its Indianapolis "500" campaign & wide distribution across the country.

G.I. Joe

G.I. Joe is a line of action figures produced and owned by the toy company Hasbro. The initial product offering represented four of the branches of the U.S. armed forces with the Action Soldier (U.S. Army), Action Sailor (U.S. Navy), Action Pilot (Air Force), Action Marine (Marine Corps) and later on, the Action Nurse. The name derived from the usage of "G.I. Joe" for the generic U.S. soldier, itself derived from the more general term "G.I.". The development of G.I. Joe led to the coining of the term "action figure". G.I. Joe's appeal to children has made it an American icon among toys.The G.I. Joe trademark has been used by Hasbro for several different toy lines, although only two have been successful. The original 12-inch (30 cm) line introduced on February 2, 1964 centered on realistic action figures. In the United Kingdom, this line was licensed to Palitoy and known as Action Man. In 1982 the line was relaunched in a 3.75-inch (9.5 cm) scale complete with vehicles, playsets, and a complex background story involving an ongoing struggle between the G.I. Joe Team and the evil Cobra Command which seeks to take over the Free World through terrorism. As the American line evolved into the Real American Hero series, Action Man also changed, by using the same molds and being renamed as Action Force. Although the members of the G.I. Joe team are not superheroes, they all had expertise in areas such as martial arts, weapons, and explosives.G.I. Joe was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 2003.


Garanimals is an American line of children's related clothing separates, created by Seymour Lichtenstein in 1972 for Garan Incorporated. Each item of clothing features a hang-tag depicting one of several animal characters called Garanimals.

In February 2008 the brand was relaunched in the US, and is sold exclusively by Walmart, in its stores and online. Garan is currently owned by Berkshire Hathaway, which also owns Fruit of the Loom.

Hamburg America Line

The Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft (HAPAG), often referred to as Hamburg America Line, was a transatlantic shipping enterprise established in Hamburg, in 1847. Among those involved in its development were prominent citizens such as Albert Ballin (Director General), Adolph Godeffroy, Ferdinand Laeisz, Carl Woermann, August Bolten, and others, and its main financial backers were Berenberg Bank and H. J. Merck & Co. It soon developed into the largest German, and at times the world's largest, shipping company, serving the market created by German immigration to the United States and later immigration from Eastern Europe. On 1 September 1970, after 123 years of independent existence, HAPAG merged with the Bremen-based North German Lloyd to form Hapag-Lloyd AG.

Line of scrimmage

In American and Canadian football, a line of scrimmage is an imaginary transverse line (across the width of the football field) beyond which a team cannot cross until the next play has begun. Its location is based on the spot where the ball is placed after the end of the most recent play and following the assessment of any penalty yards.

A line of scrimmage is parallel to the goal lines and touches one edge of the ball where it sits on the ground prior to the snap. Under NCAA, and NFHS rules, there are two lines of scrimmage at the outset of each play: one that restricts the offense and one that restricts the defense. The area between the two lines (representing the length of the ball as extended to both sidelines) is called the neutral zone. Only the offensive player who snaps the ball (usually the center or long snapper) is allowed to have any part of his body in the neutral zone. In order for there to be a legal beginning of a play, at least seven players on the offensive team, including two eligible receivers, must be at, on or within a few inches of their line of scrimmage.

In American football, the set distance of the line of scrimmage between the offense and defense is 11 inches (28 cm), the length of the ball. In Canadian football, the set distance of the line of scrimmage is 1 yard (91 cm), almost three times as long as the American line.

Many fans and commentators refer colloquially to the entire neutral zone as the "line of scrimmage," although this is technically not correct. In the NFL rulebook, only the defensive-side restraining line is officially considered a line of scrimmage. Referees, when explaining a penalty, will refer to "the previous spot" instead of the "line of scrimmage" in order to avoid confusion.

Modern video techniques enable broadcasts of American football to display a visible line on the screen representing the line of scrimmage. The line is tapered according to camera angle and gets occluded by players and other objects as if the line were painted on the field. The line may represent the line of scrimmage or the minimum distance that the ball must be moved for the offensive team to achieve a first down.

The line of scrimmage first came into use in 1880. Developed by Walter Camp (who introduced many innovations that are part of the modern game of American football), it replaced a contested scrimmage that had descended from the game's rugby roots. This uncontested line of scrimmage would set into motion many more rules that led to the formation of the modern form of American football.

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 277

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 277 of the United States Reports:

Blodgett v. Silberman, 277 U.S. 1 (1928)

Williams v. Great Southern Lumber Co., 277 U.S. 19 (1928)

Brooke v. Norfolk, 277 U.S. 27 (1928)

Coffin Brothers & Co. v. Bennett, 277 U.S. 29 (1928)

Louisville Gas & Elec. Co. v. Coleman, 277 U.S. 32 (1928)

Gainesville v. Brown-Crummer Investment Co., 277 U.S. 54 (1928)

Dugan v. Ohio, 277 U.S. 61 (1928)

Compañia de Navegacion Interior, S. A. v. Firemen's Fund Ins. Co., 277 U.S. 66 (1928)

Gaines v. Washington, 277 U.S. 81 (1928)

Ferry v. Ramsey, 277 U.S. 88 (1928)

L. P. Larson, Jr., Co. v. Wm. Wrigley, Jr., Co., 277 U.S. 97 (1928)

King Mfg. Co. v. City Council of Augusta, 277 U.S. 100 (1928)

Sultan Railway & Timber Co. v. Department of Labor and Industries of Wash., 277 U.S. 135 (1928)

Hamburg-American Line Terminal & Nav. Co. v. United States, 277 U.S. 138 (1928)

Long v. Rockwood, 277 U.S. 142 (1928)

Plamals v. S. S. "Pinar Del Rio", 277 U.S. 151 (1928)

St. Louis & Southwestern R. Co. v. Nattin, 277 U.S. 157 (1928)

Standard Pipe Line Co. v. Miller County Highway & Bridge Dist., 277 U.S. 160 (1928)

Sprout v. South Bend, 277 U.S. 163 (1928)

Great Northern R. Co. v. United States, 277 U.S. 172 (1928)

Nectow v. Cambridge, 277 U.S. 183 (1928)

Springer v. Philippine Islands, 277 U.S. 189 (1928)

Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Columbia v. Mitchell, 277 U.S. 213 (1928)

Panhandle Oil Co. v. Mississippi ex rel. Knox, 277 U.S. 218 (1928)

Buzynski v. Luckenbach S. S. Co., 277 U.S. 226 (1928)

United States v. Goldman, 277 U.S. 229 (1928)

Reinecke v. Gardner, 277 U.S. 239 (1928)

Holland Furniture Co. v. Perkins Glue Co., 277 U.S. 245 (1928)

Jenkins v. National Surety Co., 277 U.S. 258 (1928)

Ex parte Williams, 277 U.S. 267 (1928)

Willing v. Chicago Auditorium Assn., 277 U.S. 274 (1928)

Baltimore & Ohio R. Co. v. United States, 277 U.S. 291 (1928)

McCoy v. Shaw, 277 U.S. 302 (1928)

Southern Pacific Co. v. Haglund, 277 U.S. 304 (1928)

Stipcich v. Metropolitan Life Ins. Co., 277 U.S. 311 (1928)

The Malcolm Baxter, Jr., 277 U.S. 323 (1928)

Mellon v. Goodyear, 277 U.S. 335 (1928)

Midland Nat. Bank of Minneapolis v. Dakota Life Ins. Co., 277 U.S. 346 (1928)

Ribnik v. McBride, 277 U.S. 350 (1928)

Reed v. Commissioners of Delaware Cty., 277 U.S. 376 (1928)

Quaker City Cab Co. v. Pennsylvania, 277 U.S. 389 (1928)

National Leather Co. v. Massachusetts, 277 U.S. 413 (1928)

Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands of Sioux Indians v. United States, 277 U.S. 424 (1928)

Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 438 (1928)

Kinney-Coastal Oil Co. v. Kieffer, 277 U.S. 488 (1928)

National Life Ins. Co. v. United States, 277 U.S. 508 (1928)

Hemphill v. Orloff, 277 U.S. 537 (1928)

Williamsport Wire Rope Co. v. United States, 277 U.S. 551 (1928)

Ex parte Collins, 277 U.S. 565 (1928)

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 291

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 291 of the United States Reports:

Connell v. Walker, 291 U.S. 1 (1934)

Wolfle v. United States, 291 U.S. 7 (1934)

Federal Compress & Warehouse Co. v. McLean, 291 U.S. 17 (1934)

City Bank Farmers Trust Co. v. Schnader, 291 U.S. 24 (1934)

Freuler v. Helvering, 291 U.S. 35 (1934)

Whitcomb v. Helvering, 291 U.S. 53 (1934)

R. H. Stearns Co. v. United States, 291 U.S. 54 (1934)

FTC v. Algoma Lumber Co., 291 U.S. 67 (1934)

Morrison v. California, 291 U.S. 82 (1934)

Snyder v. Massachusetts, 291 U.S. 97 (1934)

Pigeon River Improvement, Slide & Boom Co. v. Charles W. Cox, Ltd., 291 U.S. 138 (1934)

Helvering v. Canfield, 291 U.S. 163 (1934)

Williams v. Union Central Life Ins. Co., 291 U.S. 170 (1934)

Helvering v. Falk, 291 U.S. 183 (1934)

Reynolds v. Cooper, 291 U.S. 192 (1934)

Brown v. Helvering, 291 U.S. 193 (1934)

Moore v. Chesapeake & Ohio R. Co., 291 U.S. 205 (1934)

United States v. Chambers, 291 U.S. 217 (1934)

Clark's Ferry Bridge Co. v. Public Serv. Comm'n of Pa., 291 U.S. 227 (1934)

Standard Oil Co. of Cal. v. California, 291 U.S. 242 (1934)

Texas & Pacific R. Co. v. Pottorff, 291 U.S. 245 (1934)

City of Marion v. Sneeden, 291 U.S. 262 (1934)

United States v. Provident Trust Co., 291 U.S. 272 (1934)

Alabama v. Arizona, 291 U.S. 286 (1934)

Teamsters v. United States, 291 U.S. 293 (1934)

Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Co. v. Seattle, 291 U.S. 300 (1934)

FTC v. R. F. Keppel & Bro., Inc., 291 U.S. 304 (1934)

Murray v. Joe Gerrick & Co., 291 U.S. 315 (1934)

Manhattan Properties, Inc. v. Irving Trust Co., 291 U.S. 320 (1934)

Booth v. United States, 291 U.S. 339 (1934)

Hartford Accident & Indemnity Co. v. N. O. Nelson Mfg. Co., 291 U.S. 352 (1934)

New Jersey v. Delaware, 291 U.S. 361 (1934)

United States v. Jefferson Elec. Mfg. Co., 291 U.S. 386 (1934)

Best v. District of Columbia, 291 U.S. 411 (1934)

Hamburg-American Line v. United States, 291 U.S. 420 (1934)

Helvering v. American Chicle Co., 291 U.S. 426 (1934)

Chase Nat. Bank v. Norwalk, 291 U.S. 431 (1934)

Miguel v. McCarl, 291 U.S. 442 (1934)

United States v. Illinois Central R. Co., 291 U.S. 457 (1934)

Trinityfarm Constr. Co. v. Grosjean, 291 U.S. 466 (1934)

Pagel v. Pagel, 291 U.S. 473 (1934)

Globe Indemnity Co. v. United States, 291 U.S. 476 (1934)

Helvering v. Newport Co., 291 U.S. 485 (1934)

Landress v. Phoenix Mut. Life Ins. Co., 291 U.S. 491 (1934)

Nebbia v. New York, 291 U.S. 502 (1934)

Hansen v. Haff, 291 U.S. 559 (1934)

Life & Casualty Ins. Co. of Tenn. v. McCray, 291 U.S. 566 (1934)

Life & Casualty Ins. Co. of Tenn. v. Barefield, 291 U.S. 575 (1934)

Travelers Protective Assn. of America v. Prinsen, 291 U.S. 576 (1934)

Chassaniol v. City of Greenwood, 291 U.S. 584 (1934)

Arrow-Hart & Hegeman Elec. Co. v. FTC, 291 U.S. 587 (1934)

Massey v. United States, 291 U.S. 608 (1934) (per curiam)

Ex parte Baldwin, 291 U.S. 610 (1934)

Puget Sound Power & Light Co. v. Seattle, 291 U.S. 619 (1934)

Seattle Gas Co. v. Seattle, 291 U.S. 638 (1934)

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 294

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 294 of the United States Reports:

Smith v. Snow, 294 U.S. 1 (1935)

Waxham v. Smith, 294 U.S. 20 (1935)

McCrea v. United States, 294 U.S. 23 (1935)

Central Vt. Transp. Co. v. Durning, 294 U.S. 33 (1935)

Keystone Driller Co. v. Northwest Engineering Corp., 294 U.S. 42 (1935)

United States ex rel. Chicago Great Western R. Co. v. ICC, 294 U.S. 50 (1935)

West Ohio Gas Co. v. Public Util. Comm'n of Ohio#1, 294 U.S. 63 (1935)

West Ohio Gas Co. v. Public Util. Comm'n of Ohio#2, 294 U.S. 79 (1935)

Detroit Int'l Bridge Co. v. Corporation Tax Appeal Bd. of Mich., 294 U.S. 83 (1935)

Fox v. Standard Oil Co. of N. J., 294 U.S. 87 (1935)

Mooney v. Holohan, 294 U.S. 103 (1935) (per curiam)

Lerner v. First Wis. Nat. Bank of Milwaukee, 294 U.S. 116 (1935)

Wilber Nat. Bank of Oneonta v. United States, 294 U.S. 120 (1935)

Jurney v. MacCracken, 294 U.S. 125 (1935)

Helvering v. Grinnell, 294 U.S. 153 (1935)

Forrest v. Jack, 294 U.S. 158 (1935)

Seabury v. Green, 294 U.S. 165 (1935)

Wiloil Corp. v. Pennsylvania, 294 U.S. 169 (1935)

Pennsylvania v. Williams, 294 U.S. 176 (1935)

Gordon v. Ominsky, 294 U.S. 186 (1935)

Penn Central Casualty Co. v. Pennsylvania ex rel. Schnader, 294 U.S. 189 (1935)

Domenech v. National City Bank of N. Y., 294 U.S. 199 (1935)

Douglas v. Cunningham, 294 U.S. 207 (1935)

Clark v. Williard, 294 U.S. 211 (1935)

Jennings v. United States Fidelity & Guaranty Co., 294 U.S. 216 (1935)

Old Company's Lehigh, Inc. v. Meeker, 294 U.S. 227 (1935)

Adams v. Champion, 294 U.S. 231 (1935)

Norman v. Baltimore & Ohio R. Co., 294 U.S. 240 (1935)

Nortz v. United States, 294 U.S. 317 (1935)

Perry v. United States, 294 U.S. 330 (1935)

McCrea v. United States, 294 U.S. 382 (1935)

Cooney v. Mountain States Telephone & Telegraph Co., 294 U.S. 384 (1935)

Aktieselskabet Cuzco v. The Sucarseco, 294 U.S. 394 (1935)

Nashville, C. & St. L. R. Co. v. Walters, 294 U.S. 405 (1935)

Miller v. United States, 294 U.S. 435 (1935)

Manufacturers' Finance Co. v. McKey, 294 U.S. 442 (1935)

Schoenamsgruber v. Hamburg American Line, 294 U.S. 454 (1935)

Great Northern R. Co. v. Sullivan, 294 U.S. 458 (1935)

Paramount Publix Corp. v. American Tri-Ergon Corp., 294 U.S. 464 (1935)

Altoona Publix Theatres, Inc. v. American Tri-Ergon Corp., 294 U.S. 477 (1935)

The Ansaldo San Giorgio I v. Rheinstrom Brothers Co., 294 U.S. 494 (1935)

United States v. Chicago, M., St. P. & P. R. Co., 294 U.S. 499 (1935)

Baldwin v. G. A. F. Seelig, Inc., 294 U.S. 511 (1935)

Swinson v. Chicago, St. P., M. & O. R. Co., 294 U.S. 529 (1935)

Alaska Packers Assn. v. Industrial Accident Comm'n of Cal., 294 U.S. 532 (1935)

Stewart Dry Goods Co. v. Lewis, 294 U.S. 550 (1935)

Metropolitan Casualty Ins. Co. v. Brownell, 294 U.S. 580 (1935)

Norris v. Alabama, 294 U.S. 587 (1935)

Patterson v. Alabama, 294 U.S. 600 (1935)

Semler v. Oregon Bd. of Dental Examiners, 294 U.S. 608 (1935)

Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. v. State Highway Comm'n, 294 U.S. 613 (1935)

Henry L. Doherty & Co. v. Goodman, 294 U.S. 623 (1935)

Broderick v. Rosner, 294 U.S. 629 (1935)

Continental Ill. Nat. Bank & Trust Co. v. Chicago, R. I. & P. R. Co., 294 U.S. 648 (1935)

Helvering v. Inter-Mountain Life Ins. Co., 294 U.S. 686 (1935)

MS Kungsholm (1952)

MS Kungsholm was a combined ocean liner / cruise ship built in 1953 by the De Schelde shipyard in Vlissingen, The Netherlands for the Swedish American Line. Between 1965 and 1981 she sailed for the North German Lloyd and their successor Hapag-Lloyd as MS Europa. From 1981 until 1984 she sailed for Costa Cruises as MS Columbus C. She sank in the port of Cadiz, Spain after ramming a breakwater on 29 July 1984. The vessel was refloated later that year, but sent to a Barcelona shipbreaker in 1985 for scrapping.

MS Stockholm (1941)

MS Stockholm was the name of two near-identical ocean liners built by Cantieri Riuniti dell' Adriatico, Monfalcone, Italy between 1936 and 1941 for the Swedish American Line. Neither of the ships entered service for the company that had ordered them—the first ship was entirely destroyed by fire during construction in 1938, while the second was completed in 1941 but immediately sold to the Italian government as a troopship. The second ship served for three years in the Regia Marina and Kriegsmarine under the name MS Saubadia, until sunk by British bombers outside Trieste in 1944. It is unknown if she was ever actually used as a troopship.

Red Star Line

The Red Star Line was an ocean passenger line founded in 1871 as a joint venture between the International Navigation Company of Philadelphia, which also ran the American Line, and the Société Anonyme de Navigation Belgo-Américaine of Antwerp, Belgium. The company's main ports of call were Antwerp in Belgium, Liverpool and Southampton in the United Kingdom and New York City and Philadelphia in the United States.

SS City of Paris (1888)

City of Paris, was a British-built passenger liner of the Inman Line that held the Blue Riband as the fastest ship on the north Atlantic route from 1889 to 1891 and again from 1892 to 1893. A sister ship of the City of New York and a rival of the White Star Line Teutonic and Majestic, she proved to be the quickest of the pre-Campania twin-screw express liners. In 1893, she was renamed Paris and transferred to US registry when the Inman Line was merged into the American Line. She and her sister were paired with the new American built St Louis and St Paul to form one of the premier Atlantic services, known as the "big four". Paris served the US Navy as the auxiliary cruiser USS Yale during the Spanish–American War and is remembered for slipping into the harbor at San Juan, Puerto Rico under the Spanish guns of Morro Castle. After Paris returned to commercial service, she was seriously damaged in 1899 when she grounded on The Manacles off the British coast. Rebuilt and renamed Philadelphia, she sailed for the American Line until requisitioned again during World War I as the transport Harrisburg. After the war, she continued with the American Line until 1920 and was scrapped in 1923.

SS Czar

SS Czar, or Царь in Russian, was an ocean liner for the Russian American Line before World War I. The ship was later known as Estonia for the Baltic American Line, Pułaski for the Gdynia America Line and as a British Ministry of War Transport troopship, and as Empire Penryn after World War II. The liner was built in Glasgow for the Russian American Line in 1912 and sailed on North Atlantic routes from Libau to New York. On one eastbound voyage in October 1913, Czar was one of ten ships that came to the aid of the burning Uranium Line steamer Volturno.

After the Russian Revolution, the ship came under the control of the British Shipping Controller and was managed by the Wilson Line and later, the Cunard Line. Under Cunard management in 1918 as HMT Czar, she was employed as a troopship carrying United States troops to France as part of the United States Navy's Cruiser and Transport Force. After the end of World War I, the ship was returned to the East Asiatic Company, the parent company of the Russian American Line, who placed her on their Baltic American Line sailing in roundtrip passenger service to New York under the name Estonia. She was sold to the Polish Gdynia America Line in 1930, and renamed SS Pułaski the following year for Polish passenger service to North and South America.

After the outbreak of World War II, Pułaski was initially used as a French and, after the Fall of France, a British troopship. Pułaski sailed variously in the North Atlantic, between African ports, and in the Indian Ocean. In 1946, the ship's name was changed to Empire Penryn and continued trooping duties under the management of Lamport & Holt. She was scrapped in 1949 at Blyth.

SS Dwinsk

SS Dwinsk was a British-flagged ocean liner sunk by SM U-151 in World War I. The ship was previously the third Rotterdam for the Holland America Line, C.F. Tietgen for the Scandinavian America Line, and, as Dwinsk, for the Russian American Line. The ship was put under Cunard Line management in 1917, and sailed under the British flag until sunk on 18 June 1918.

SS Haverford

SS Haverford was an American transatlantic liner commissioned in 1901 for the American Line. During World War One, Haverford was utilized as a troop transport vessel in the North Atlantic Ocean. Following the war, the White Star Line purchased and recommissioned the ship. She was decommissioned in 1924 and scrapped in 1925.

SS Kroonland

SS Kroonland was an ocean liner for International Mercantile Marine (IMM) from her launch in 1902 until she was scrapped in 1927. Kroonland was the sister ship of Finland and a near sister ship of Vaderland and Zeeland of the same company. Kroonland sailed for IMM's Red Star Line for 15 years, and also sailed for IMM's American Line and Panama Pacific Line. During World War I, the ship served as United States Army transport USAT Kroonland through April 1918, and as the Navy auxiliary USS Kroonland (ID-1541) from April 1918 to October 1919.

Announced by the Red Star Line in 1899, Kroonland was completed in 1902 by William Cramp & Sons of Philadelphia. When launched, she was the largest U.S. steamship ever built. Kroonland sailed from New York City to Antwerp on her maiden voyage in June 1902, beginning service on the route she would sail for the next twelve years. According to The New York Times, Kroonland became the first ship to issue a wireless distress call at sea when she radioed for help during a storm in 1903. In another radio first, Kroonland heard the "first real broadcast of history" in December 1906. Kroonland was one of ten ships that came to the aid of the burning liner Volturno in the mid-Atlantic in October 1913. Despite stormy seas, Kroonland was able to take aboard 89 survivors, for which captain and crew received accolades that included U.S. Congressional Gold Medals.

When the outbreak of World War I in August 1914 disrupted service to Belgium, Kroonland shifted to alternate routes. On a trip to the Mediterranean in October 1914, Kroonland was detained by British authorities at Gibraltar, and part of her cargo was confiscated amidst diplomatic wrangling between the then-neutral United States and the United Kingdom. During a chartered circumnavigation of South America in February 1915, Kroonland became the largest passenger ship to date to transit the Panama Canal. Kroonland was placed in New York – Panama Canal – San Francisco service until a landslide temporarily closed the canal to navigation. Returned to transatlantic service, Kroonland was one of the first U.S. ships armed by the Navy for defense against German submarine attacks. In May 1917 Kroonland was struck by a torpedo, which failed to detonate and only slightly damaged the ship.

After the United States entered World War I, Kroonland served as a troopship for the U.S. Army and Navy. She made six trips carrying troops to France before the Armistice and eight voyages after, transporting nearly 38,000 troops in total. Returned to IMM in late 1919, Kroonland was scorched in a shipyard fire in January 1920 while she was being refitted for passenger service. The liner resumed North Atlantic service in April, remaining there until returning to New York – San Francisco service in 1923. Kroonland inaugurated IMM's winter New York – Miami service from December 1925 to March 1926, but was laid up in Hoboken, New Jersey, when IMM did not resume the Miami service the following year. The ship was sold and scrapped at Genoa in 1927.

SS Pittsburgh

SS Pittsburgh was a transatlantic ocean liner. It was built by Harland and Wolff in Belfast for the American Line. Initial construction began in 1913, but was delayed by World War I. The ship was completed in 1920, and made its first voyage in 1922 for the White Star Line. In 1925, as Pennland, it commenced operations for the Red Star Line. The ship was refitted as a troopship for the Allies in World War II. The ship was bombed April 25, 1941 in the Gulf of Athens and sank.

Santa Fe Group

The Santa Fe Group A/S, formerly known as the East Asiatic Company (Danish: Det Østasiatiske Kompagni or ØK) is a multinational relocation service company, based in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Swedish American Line

Swedish American Line (Swedish: Svenska Amerika Linien, abbreviated SAL) is a Swedish passenger shipping line. It was founded in December 1914 under the name Rederiaktiebolaget Sverige-Nordamerika, beginning ocean liner service from Gothenburg to New York in 1915. In 1925 the company changed its name to Svenska Amerika Linien / Swedish American Line.The Swedish American Line was amongst the first companies to build liners with provisions for off-season cruising, as well as the worlds first company to build a diesel-engined transatlantic liner. Increased operational costs and stronger competition from aeroplanes forced the company to abandon passenger traffic in 1975, but cargo operations continued until the 1980s.In late 2016 the brand was resurrected as Rederi Swedish American Line AB was founded in Gothenburg, Sweden, with plans to build and operate a new cruise ship named "KUNGSHOLM 5". [1]

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