American Film Institute

The American Film Institute (AFI) is an American film organization that educates filmmakers and honors the heritage of the motion picture arts in the United States. AFI is supported by private funding and public membership fees.

American Film Institute
American Film Institute (AFI) logo
FoundedJune 5, 1967[1]
Location
Key people
Websiteafi.com

Leadership

The institute is composed of leaders from the film, entertainment, business, and academic communities. A board of trustees chaired by Sir Howard Stringer and a board of directors chaired by Robert A. Daly guide the organization, which is led by President and CEO, film historian Bob Gazzale. Prior leaders were founding director George Stevens, Jr. (from the organization's inception in 1967 until 1980) and Jean Picker Firstenberg (from 1980 to 2007).[2]

History

The American Film Institute was founded by a 1965 presidential mandate announced in the Rose Garden of the White House by Lyndon B. Johnson—to establish a national arts organization to preserve the legacy of American film heritage, educate the next generation of filmmakers, and honor the artists and their work. Two years later, in 1967, AFI was established, supported by the National Endowment for the Arts, the Motion Picture Association of America and the Ford Foundation.[3]

The original 22-member Board of Trustees included actor Gregory Peck as chairman and actor Sidney Poitier as vice-chairman as well as director Francis Ford Coppola, film historian Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., lobbyist Jack Valenti, and other representatives from the arts and academia.[4]

The institute established a training program for filmmakers known then as the Center for Advanced Film Studies. Also created in the early years were a repertory film exhibition program at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and the AFI Catalog of Feature Films — a scholarly source for American film history. The institute moved to its current eight-acre Hollywood campus in 1981.[5] The film training program grew into the AFI Conservatory, an accredited graduate school.

AFI moved its presentation of first-run and auteur films from the Kennedy Center to the historic AFI Silver Theatre and Cultural Center, which hosts the AFI DOCS film festival, making AFI the largest nonprofit film exhibitor in the world. AFI educates audiences and recognizes artistic excellence through its awards programs and 10 Top 10 Lists.

In 2017, then-aspiring filmmaker Ilana Bar-Din Giannini claimed that the AFI expelled her after she accused Dezso Magyar of sexual harassing her in the early 1980s.[6]

List of programs in brief

AFI educational and cultural programs include:

AFI Conservatory

In 1969, the institute established the AFI Conservatory for Advanced Film Studies at Greystone, the Doheny Mansion in Beverly Hills, California. The first class included filmmakers Terrence Malick, Caleb Deschanel, and Paul Schrader.[12] That program grew into the AFI Conservatory, an accredited graduate film school located in the hills above Hollywood, California, providing training in six filmmaking disciplines: cinematography, directing, editing, producing, production design, and screenwriting. Mirroring a professional production environment, Fellows collaborate to make more films than any other graduate level program. Admission to AFI Conservatory is highly selective, with a maximum of 140 graduates per year.[13]

In 2013, Emmy and Oscar-winning director, producer, and screenwriter James L. Brooks (As Good as It Gets, Broadcast News, Terms of Endearment) joined AFI as Artistic Director of the AFI Conservatory where he provides leadership for the film program.[14] Brooks' artistic role at the AFI Conservatory has a rich legacy that includes Daniel Petrie, Jr., Robert Wise, and Frank Pierson. Award-winning director Bob Mandel served as Dean of the AFI Conservatory for nine years. Jan Schuette took over as Dean in 2014 and served until 2017. Film Producer Richard Gladstein became Dean on July 1, 2017.

Notable alumni

AFI Conservatory's alumni have careers in film, television and on the web. They have been recognized with all of the major industry awards—Academy Award, Emmy Award, guild awards, and the Tony Award.

Among the alumni of AFI are Andrea Arnold, (Red Road, Fish Tank), Darren Aronofsky (Requiem for a Dream, Black Swan), Carl Colpaert (Gas Food Lodging, Hurlyburly, Swimming with Sharks), Doug Ellin (Entourage), Todd Field (In the Bedroom, Little Children), Jack Fisk (Badlands, Days of Heaven, There Will Be Blood), Carl Franklin (One False Move, Devil in a Blue Dress, House of Cards), Patty Jenkins (Monster, Wonder Woman), Janusz Kamiński (Lincoln, Schindler's List, Saving Private Ryan), Matthew Libatique (Noah, Black Swan), David Lynch (Mulholland Drive, Blue Velvet), Terrence Malick (Days of Heaven, The Thin Red Line, The Tree of Life), Victor Nuñez, (Ruby in Paradise, Ulee's Gold), Wally Pfister (Memento, The Dark Knight, Inception), Robert Richardson (Platoon, JFK, Django Unchained), and many others.[15]

AFI programs

AFI Catalog of Feature Films

The AFI Catalog, started in 1968, is a web-based filmographic database. A research tool for film historians, the catalog consists of entries on more than 60,000 feature films and 17,000 short films produced from 1893–2011, as well as AFI Awards Outstanding Movies of the Year from 2000 through 2010. Early print copies of this catalog may also be found at your local library.[16]

AFI Awards

Each year the AFI Awards honor the ten outstanding films ("Movies of the Year") and ten outstanding television programs ("TV Programs of the Year").[17] The awards are a non-competitive acknowledgement of excellence.

The Awards are announced in December and a private luncheon for award honorees takes place the following January.

AFI 100 Years... series

The AFI 100 Years... series, which ran from 1998 to 2008 and created jury-selected lists of America's best movies in categories such as Musicals, Laughs and Thrills, prompted new generations to experience classic American films. The juries consisted of over 1,500 artists, scholars, critics and historians. Citizen Kane was voted the greatest American film twice.

AFI film festivals

AFI operates two film festivals: AFI Fest in Los Angeles, and AFI Docs (formally known as Silverdocs) in Silver Spring, Maryland, and Washington, D.C..

AFI Fest

AFI Fest is the American Film Institute's annual celebration of artistic excellence. The festival is a showcase for the best festival films of the year and an opportunity for master filmmakers and emerging artists to come together with audiences in the movie capital of the world. AFI Fest is the only festival of its stature that is free to the public. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences recognizes AFI Fest as a qualifying festival for the Short Films category for the annual Academy Awards.

The festival has paid tribute to numerous influential filmmakers and artists over the years, including Agnès Varda, Pedro Almodóvar and David Lynch as guest artistic directors, and has screened scores of films that have produced Oscar nominations and wins. The American Film Market (AFM) is the market partner of AFI Fest. Audi is the festival's presenting sponsor. Additional sponsors include American Airlines and Stella Artois.

AFI Docs

Held annually in June, AFI Docs (formerly Silverdocs) is a documentary festival in Washington, D.C.. The festival attracts over 27,000 documentary enthusiasts.

AFI Silver Theatre and Cultural Center

The AFI Silver Theatre and Cultural Center is a moving image exhibition, education and cultural center located in Silver Spring, Maryland. Anchored by the restoration of noted architect John Eberson's historic 1938 Silver Theatre, it features 32,000 square feet of new construction housing two stadium theatres, office and meeting space, and reception and exhibit areas.

The AFI Silver Theatre and Cultural Center presents film and video programming, augmented by filmmaker interviews, panels, discussions,and musical performances.

The AFI Directing Workshop for Women

The Directing Workshop for Women is a training program committed to educating and mentoring participants in an effort to increase the number of women working professionally in screen directing. In this tuition-free program, each participant is required to complete a short film by the end of the year-long program.[18]

Alumnae of the program include Maya Angelou, Anne Bancroft, Dyan Cannon, Ellen Burstyn, Jennifer Getzinger, Lesli Linka Glatter, and Nancy Malone.[19]

AFI Directors Series

AFI released a set of hour-long programs reviewing the career of acclaimed directors. The Directors Series content was copyrighted in 1997 by Media Entertainment Inc and The American Film Institute, and the VHS and DVDs were released between 1999 and 2001 on Winstar TV and Video.[20]

Directors featured included:

In popular culture

Indian investigative journalist Rana Ayyub posed as Maithili Tyagi, a student from the institute.

See also

References

  1. ^ Howe, Desson (June 5, 1987). "Film Notes". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 10, 2017. And the AFI was born June 5, 1967 -- exactly 20 years ago.
  2. ^ "AFI Board of Trustees etc". American Film Institute. October 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
  3. ^ "AFI Conservatory: Still the Program of Choice". MovieMaker. June 21, 2002.
  4. ^ "Jean Picker Firstenberg". Mount Holyoke College.
  5. ^ "AFI's departing chief looks back". Variety. June 6, 2007.
  6. ^ "I Was Harassed by a Director at the AFI and Kicked Out When I Reported It (Guest Column)". Hollywoodreporter.com. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  7. ^ "About the AFI Catalog of Feature Films". American Film Institute. Retrieved September 13, 2014.
  8. ^ "AFI Conservatory Ranked #1 Film School in the World by The Hollywood Reporter". PR Newswire. July 28, 2011.
  9. ^ "The AFI Life Achievement Awards". American Film Institute. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  10. ^ "AFI's 100 Years..." American Film Institute.
  11. ^ "AFI Silver Theater and Cultural Arts Center". Silver Spring's Downtown.
  12. ^ "AFI to Honor Cinematograher Caleb Deschanel". Variety. May 27, 2015.
  13. ^ "Hana Kazim, first Emirati to graduate from renowned AFI Conservatory, shares her experiences". The National. July 6, 2014.
  14. ^ "James L. Brooks Joins AFI Conservatory as Artistic Director (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. June 17, 2013.
  15. ^ "American Film Institute Conservatory Alumni". American Film Institute.
  16. ^ American Film Institute. (1971). Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Feature Films. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  17. ^ "AFI Awards". American Film Institute. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  18. ^ "DWW: The Program". American Film Institute.
  19. ^ "AFI Expands Workshop for Women Directors". Variety. August 21, 2014.
  20. ^ "WinStar TV and Video (Firm)". WorldCat Identities.

External links

AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars

Part of the AFI 100 Years... series, AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars is a list of the top 25 male and 25 female greatest screen legends of American film history. The list was unveiled by the American Film Institute on June 15, 1999, in a CBS special hosted by Shirley Temple, with 50 current actors making the presentations.

The American Film Institute defined an "American screen legend" as an actor or a team of actors during the Classical Hollywood cinema era with a significant screen presence in American feature-length (40 min or more) films whose screen debut occurred in or before 1950, or whose screen debut occurred after 1950, but whose death has marked a completed body of work.

The top stars of their respective gender are Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn. They starred together in the classic adventure 1951 film The African Queen, for which Bogart won his only Academy Award. Kirk Douglas, Sidney Poitier, and Sophia Loren are the only surviving members mentioned on the list.

AFI's 10 Top 10

AFI's 10 Top 10 honors the ten greatest US films in ten classic film genres. Presented by the American Film Institute (AFI), the lists were unveiled on a television special broadcast by CBS on June 17, 2008. In the special, various actors and directors, among them Clint Eastwood, Quentin Tarantino, Kirk Douglas, Harrison Ford, Martin Scorsese, Steven Spielberg, George Lucas, Roman Polanski, and Jane Fonda, discussed their admiration for and personal contributions to the films cited.

The entire list of 500 nominated films is available on the American Film Institute website.

To date, this is the final program in AFI's countdown specials.

AFI Catalog of Feature Films

The AFI Catalog of Feature Films, also known as the AFI Catalog is an ongoing project by the American Film Institute to catalog all commercially made and theatrically exhibited American motion pictures, from the earliest days of the industry to the present. It has begun as a series of hardcover books known as The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures, and subsequently became an online database exclusively.

Each entry in the catalog typically includes the film's title, physical description, production and distribution companies, production and release dates, personal credits, a plot summary, and notes on the film's history. The films are indexed by personal credits, production and distribution companies, year of release, and major and minor plot subjects.

To qualify for the "Feature Films" volumes, a film must have been commercially made by an American company, and given a theatrical release in 35 mm or larger gauge to the general public, with a running time of at least 40 minutes.

AFI Conservatory

The AFI Conservatory is a private not-for-profit graduate film school in the Hollywood Hills district of Los Angeles. Students (called "Fellows") learn from the masters in a collaborative, hands-on production environment with an emphasis on storytelling. The Conservatory is a program of the American Film Institute founded in 1969.

AFI Docs

The AFI Docs (formerly Silverdocs) documentary film festival is an American international film festival created by the American Film Institute and the Discovery Channel. It is held every year in Silver Spring, Maryland and Washington, D.C.. Started in 2003, the festival is held for five days in June at the AFI Silver Theatre as well as several landmark locations in Washington, DC. AFI Docs is dedicated to showcasing the best in documentary films.

AFI Life Achievement Award

The AFI Life Achievement Award was established by the Board of Directors of the American Film Institute on February 26, 1973, to honor a single individual for his or her lifetime contribution to enriching American culture through motion pictures and television. The recipient is selected and honored at a ceremony annually, with the award presented by a master of ceremonies and recently, the prior year's recipient, who usually gives a brief synopsis of the awarded individual and career background including highlights and achievements.

The Trustees initially specified that the recipient must be one who fundamentally advanced the art of film and whose achievements had been acknowledged by the general public as well as by film scholars and critics and the individual's peers. The Trustees also specified that the work of the recipient must have withstood the test of time.

Barbara Stanwyck

Barbara Stanwyck (born Ruby Catherine Stevens; July 16, 1907 – January 20, 1990) was an American actress, model, and dancer. She was a film and television star, known during her 60-year career as a consummate and versatile professional with a strong, realistic screen presence, and a favorite of directors including Cecil B. DeMille, Fritz Lang, and Frank Capra. After a short, but notable, career as a stage actress in the late 1920s, she made 85 films in 38 years in Hollywood, before turning to television.

Orphaned at the age of four, and partially raised in foster homes, by 1944, Stanwyck had become the highest-paid woman in the United States. She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress four times – for Stella Dallas (1937), Ball of Fire (1941), Double Indemnity (1944), and Sorry, Wrong Number (1948). For her television work, she won three Emmy Awards – for The Barbara Stanwyck Show (1961), The Big Valley (1966), and The Thorn Birds (1983). Her performance in The Thorn Birds also won her a Golden Globe.

She received an Honorary Oscar at the 1982 Academy Award ceremony, and the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1986. She was also the recipient of honorary lifetime awards from the American Film Institute (1987), the Film Society of Lincoln Center (1986), the Los Angeles Film Critics Association (1981), and the Screen Actors Guild (1967). Stanwyck received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1960, and was ranked as the 11th greatest female star of classic American cinema by the American Film Institute. One of her directors, Jacques Tourneur, said of Stanwyck, "She only lives for two things, and both of them are work."

Feature film

A feature film or theatrical film is a film (also called a motion picture or movie) with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program. The term feature film originally referred to the main, full-length film in a cinema program that also included a short film and often a newsreel. The notion of how long a feature film should be has varied according to time and place. According to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the American Film Institute and the British Film Institute, a feature film runs for more than 40 minutes, while the Screen Actors Guild asserts that a feature's running time is 75 minutes or longer.

Most feature films are between 75 and 210 minutes long. The first narrative feature film was the 60-minute The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906, Australia). The first (proto)-feature-length adaptation was Les Misérables (1909, U.S.). Other early feature films include The Inferno (L'Inferno) (1911), Defence of Sevastopol (1911), Quo Vadis? (1913), Oliver Twist (1912), Richard III (1912), From the Manger to the Cross (1912) and Cleopatra (1912).

Florenz Ziegfeld Jr.

Florenz Edward Ziegfeld Jr. (March 21, 1867 – July 22, 1932), popularly known as Flo Ziegfeld, was an American Broadway impresario, notable for his series of theatrical revues, the Ziegfeld Follies (1907–1931), inspired by the Folies Bergère of Paris. He also produced the musical Show Boat. He was known as the "glorifier of the American girl". Ziegfeld is a member of the American Theater Hall of Fame.

Frank Capra

Frank Russell Capra (born Francesco Rosario Capra; May 18, 1897 – September 3, 1991) was an Italian-American film director, producer and writer who became the creative force behind some of the major award-winning films of the 1930s and 1940s. Born in Italy and raised in Los Angeles from the age of five, his rags-to-riches story has led film historians such as Ian Freer to consider him the "American Dream personified."Capra became one of America's most influential directors during the 1930s, winning three Academy Awards for Best Director from six nominations, along with three other Oscar wins from nine nominations in other categories. Among his leading films were It Happened One Night (1934), You Can't Take It with You (1938), and Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939); Capra was nominated as Best Director and as producer for Academy Award for Best Picture on all three films, winning both awards on the first two. During World War II, Capra served in the U.S. Army Signal Corps and produced propaganda films, such as the Why We Fight series.

After World War II, Capra's career declined as his later films, such as It's a Wonderful Life (1946), performed poorly when they were first released. In ensuing decades, however, It's a Wonderful Life and other Capra films were revisited favorably by critics. Outside of directing, Capra was active in the film industry, engaging in various political and social issues. He served as President of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, worked alongside the Writers Guild of America, and was head of the Directors Guild of America.

Frank Sinatra filmography

Frank Sinatra (1915–1998) was an American singer, actor, and producer who was one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. Over the course of his acting career he created a body of work that one biographer described as being "as varied, impressive and rewarding as that of any other Hollywood star".Sinatra began his career as a singer, initially in his native Hoboken, New Jersey, but increasing success led to a contract to perform on stage and radio across the United States. One of his earliest film roles was in the 1935 short film Major Bowes' Amateur Theatre of the Air, a spin off from the Major Bowes Amateur Hour radio show. He appeared in a full-length film in an uncredited cameo singing performance in Las Vegas Nights, singing "I'll Never Smile Again" with Tommy Dorsey's The Pied Pipers. His work with Dorsey's band also led to appearances in the full-length films Las Vegas Nights (1941) and Ship Ahoy (1942). As Sinatra's singing career grew, he appeared in larger roles in feature films, several of which were musicals, including three alongside Gene Kelly: Anchors Aweigh (1945), On the Town (1949) and Take Me Out to the Ball Game (1949). As his acting career developed further, Sinatra also produced several of the film's in which he appeared, and directed one—None but the Brave—which he also produced and in which he starred.Sinatra's film and singing careers had declined by 1952, when he was out-of-contract with both his record company and film studio. In 1953 he re-kindled his film career by targeting serious roles: he auditioned for—and won—a role in From Here to Eternity for which he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and the Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture. Other serious roles followed, including a portrayal of an ex-convict and drug addict in The Man with the Golden Arm, for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor and the British Academy Film Award for the Best Actor in a Leading Role.Sinatra received numerous awards for his film work. He won the Golden Globe for Best Actor – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy for Pal Joey (1957), and was nominated in the same category for Come Blow Your Horn (1963). Three of the films in which Sinatra appears, The House I Live In (1945), The Manchurian Candidate (1962) and From Here to Eternity (1953)—have been added to the Library of Congress's National Film Registry. The House I Live In—a film that opposes anti-Semitism and racism—was awarded a special Golden Globe and Academy Award. In 1970, at the 43rd Academy Awards, Sinatra was presented with the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award; the following year he was awarded the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award.

John R. Leonetti

John Robert Leonetti, ASC (born July 4, 1956) is an American cinematographer and film director. He is known for his collaborative work with director James Wan, with whom he has acted as cinematographer on five films. He is the younger brother of cinematographer Matthew F. Leonetti, who was the cinematographer for John's first feature-length film as director, Mortal Kombat: Annihilation.

Lionel Barrymore on stage, screen and radio

Lionel Barrymore (born Lionel Herbert Blythe; 1878–1954) was an American actor of stage, screen and radio. He also directed several films, wrote scripts, created etchings, sketches and composed music. He was the eldest child of the actors Maurice Barrymore and Georgie Drew Barrymore, and his two siblings were John and Ethel; these and other family members were part of an acting dynasty. Reluctant to follow his parents' career, Barrymore appeared together with his grandmother Louisa Lane Drew in a stage production of The Rivals at the age of 15. He soon found success on stage in character roles. Although he took a break from acting in 1906–09 to train in Paris as a painter, he was not successful as an artist and returned to the US and acting. He also joined his family troupe, from 1910, in their vaudeville act.Barrymore began his film career in 1911, appearing in numerous silent films, many of which have subsequently been lost. In 1911 he signed a contract with D. W. Griffith's Biograph Company and appeared as a character actor in short films before moving into feature-length productions in 1914. He began writing scripts and directing films shortly afterwards, and for the next five years he did not act on the legitimate stage. Although he had several successes on Broadway after the First World War, he encountered strongly negative criticism in a 1921 production of Macbeth and in three productions in a row in 1925. Afterwards, he never again appeared on the New York stage. In 1925 he signed a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where he became a close friend of Louis B. Mayer and for whom he made numerous films. He directed several films from 1929 to 1931 but concentrated on acting afterwards.Barrymore became well known in curmudgeonly roles. In 1938 he broke his hip and, aggravated by arthritis, he lived the remainder of his life in a wheelchair. Mayer made sure that roles were found or written to accommodate Barrymore, who continued to act in films until 1953. During that time he appeared as Dr. Gillespie in the popular Dr. Kildare film series with Lew Ayres in the titular role, and as Mr. Potter in It's a Wonderful Life—a role that was highly placed on the American Film Institute's list of the 100 Heroes and Villains in a film that the critic Philip French described as "a complex inspirational work". Beginning in the 1930s, Barrymore increasingly worked in radio, initially as Ebenezer Scrooge in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol, which was broadcast annually from 1934 to 1953, then in Mayor of the Town beginning in 1942, and also in a radio series spun off from the Dr. Kildare films (playing the same character that he had played in the films), among others.Two of the films in which Barrymore appeared—Grand Hotel (1932) and You Can't Take It with You (1938)—won the Academy Award for Best Picture. He was considered for the Academy Award for Best Director for his 1929 film, Madame X, and won the Best Actor award for his performance in A Free Soul (1931). He was inducted to the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 8, 1960 and is, along with his two siblings, included in the American Theater Hall of Fame.

List of American films of 1929

The following is a list of American films released in 1929. The Broadway Melody won the Academy Award for Outstanding Picture at the 2nd Academy Awards, presented on April 3, 1930.

List of American films of 1930

A list of American feature films released in 1930.All Quiet on the Western Front won the Academy Award for Best Picture

Schindler's List

Schindler's List is a 1993 American epic historical period drama film directed and co-produced by Steven Spielberg and written by Steven Zaillian. It is based on the novel Schindler's Ark by Australian novelist Thomas Keneally. The film follows Oskar Schindler, a Sudeten German businessman, who saved the lives of more than a thousand mostly Polish-Jewish refugees from the Holocaust by employing them in his factories during World War II. It stars Liam Neeson as Schindler, Ralph Fiennes as SS officer Amon Göth, and Ben Kingsley as Schindler's Jewish accountant Itzhak Stern.

Ideas for a film about the Schindlerjuden (Schindler Jews) were proposed as early as 1963. Poldek Pfefferberg, one of the Schindlerjuden, made it his life's mission to tell the story of Schindler. Spielberg became interested in the story when executive Sidney Sheinberg sent him a book review of Schindler's Ark. Universal Pictures bought the rights to the novel, but Spielberg, unsure if he was ready to make a film about the Holocaust, tried to pass the project to several other directors before finally deciding to direct the film himself.

Principal photography took place in Kraków, Poland, over the course of 72 days in 1993. Spielberg shot the film in black and white and approached it as a documentary. Cinematographer Janusz Kamiński wanted to give the film a sense of timelessness. John Williams composed the score, and violinist Itzhak Perlman performs the film's main theme.

Schindler's List premiered on November 30, 1993, in Washington, D.C. and it was released on December 15, 1993, in the United States. Often listed among the greatest films ever made, it was also a box office success, earning $322 million worldwide on a $22 million budget. It was the recipient of seven Academy Awards (out of twelve nominations), including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Original Score, as well as numerous other awards (including seven BAFTAs and three Golden Globes). In 2007, the American Film Institute ranked the film 8th on its list of the 100 best American films of all time. The Library of Congress selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry in 2004.

The Godfather

The Godfather is a 1972 American crime film directed by Francis Ford Coppola and produced by Albert S. Ruddy, based on Mario Puzo's best-selling novel of the same name. It stars Marlon Brando and Al Pacino as the leaders of a fictional New York crime family. The story, spanning 1945 to 1955, chronicles the family under the patriarch Vito Corleone (Brando), focusing on the transformation of Michael Corleone (Pacino) from reluctant family outsider to ruthless mafia boss.

Paramount Pictures obtained the rights to the novel for the price of $80,000, before it gained popularity. Studio executives had trouble finding a director; their first few candidates turned down the position before Coppola signed on to direct the film. They and Coppola disagreed over who would play several characters, in particular, Vito and Michael. Filming took place on location, primarily around New York and in Sicily, and was completed ahead of schedule. The musical score was principally composed by Nino Rota, with additional pieces by Carmine Coppola.

The film was the highest-grossing film of 1972, and was for a time the highest-grossing film ever made. with a gross of around $245-286 million at the box office. The film received universal acclaim from critics and audiences, with praise going towards the performances of its cast, particularly from Brando and Pacino, the directing, screenplay, cinematography, editing, score, and portrayal of the mafia. The film revitalized Brando's career, which was in decline during the 1960s before going on to star in hits such as Last Tango in Paris, Superman, and Apocalypse Now, and launch the successful careers of Coppola, Pacino, and the rest of the cast. At the 45th Academy Awards, it won the Oscars for Best Picture, Best Actor (Brando) and Best Adapted Screenplay (for Puzo and Coppola). Its seven other Oscar nominations included Pacino, James Caan, Robert Duvall (Best Supporting Actor), and Coppola for Best Director.

Since its release, The Godfather is widely regarded as one of the greatest films in world cinema and one of the most influential, especially in the gangster genre. It was selected for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry of the Library of Congress in 1990, being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" and is ranked the second-greatest film in American cinema (behind Citizen Kane) by the American Film Institute. It was followed by sequels The Godfather Part II (1974) and The Godfather Part III (1990).

The Godfather Part II

The Godfather Part II is a 1974 American crime film produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola from a screenplay co-written with Mario Puzo, starring Al Pacino and Robert De Niro. Partially based on Puzo's 1969 novel The Godfather, the film is both sequel and prequel to The Godfather, presenting parallel dramas: one picks up the 1958 story of Michael Corleone (Pacino), the new Don of the Corleone crime family, protecting the family business in the aftermath of an attempt on his life; the prequel covers the journey of his father, Vito Corleone played by De Niro, from his Sicilian childhood to the founding of his family enterprise in New York City.

Following the success of the first film, Paramount Pictures began developing a follow up to the film, with much of the same cast and crew returning. Coppola, who was given more control on the film, had wanted to make both a sequel and a prequel to the film to tell the story of the rise of Vito and the fall of Michael. Principal photography began in October 1973 and wrapped up in June 1974. It was the last major American motion picture to have release prints made with Technicolor's dye imbibition process until the late 1990s.

The Godfather Part II grossed opened on December 20, 1974 and it grossed $47.5 million in North America on a $13 million budget, falling short of the first film's box office. The film also opened to divided reviews from critics but its reputation, however, improved rapidly and it soon became the subject of critical reevaluation. It was nominated for eleven Academy Awards at the 47th Academy Awards and became the first sequel to win for Best Picture. Its six Oscar wins also included Best Director for Coppola, Best Supporting Actor for De Niro and Best Adapted Screenplay for Coppola and Puzo. Pacino won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor.

Both The Godfather Part II and its predecessor remain highly influential films, especially in the gangster genre, and the former has been reevaluated. In 1997, the American Film Institute ranked it as the 32nd-greatest film in American film history and it retained this position 10 years later. Some have deemed it superior to the 1972 original. It was selected for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry of the Library of Congress in 1993, being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". The final film in the trilogy, The Godfather Part III, was released in 1990.

The Sixth Sense

The Sixth Sense is a 1999 American supernatural horror drama film written and directed by M. Night Shyamalan. The film tells the story of Cole Sear (Haley Joel Osment), a boy who is able to see and talk to the dead, and Malcolm Crowe (Bruce Willis), a child psychologist who tries to help him. The film established Shyamalan as a writer and director, and introduced the cinema public to his traits, most notably his affinity for surprise endings.Released by Hollywood Pictures on August 6, 1999, the film was well-received by critics; praise was given to its acting performances (particularly Willis, Osment, and Toni Collette), atmosphere, and twist conclusion. The Sixth Sense was the second-highest-grossing film of 1999 (behind Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace), taking about $293 million in the US and $379 million in other markets. This made it the highest-grossing horror film (in unadjusted dollars) until 2017, when it was surpassed by It.

The film was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director and Best Original Screenplay for Shyamalan, Best Supporting Actor for Osment, and Best Supporting Actress for Collette.

American Film Institute Awards
Ceremonies

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