American Cancer Society

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer. Established in 1913, the society is organized into eleven geographical divisions of both medical and lay volunteers operating in more than 900 offices throughout the United States.[2][4] Its home office is located in the American Cancer Society Center in Atlanta, Georgia. The ACS publishes the journals Cancer, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians and Cancer Cytopathology.[5]

American Cancer Society
American Cancer Society Logo
FoundedMay 22, 1913
Focus"To save lives by helping people stay well, helping people get well, by finding cures, and fighting back."[1]
Location
OriginsNew York City, New York, U.S.
Area served
United States
MethodCancer research, public policy, education and service.[2]
Key people
Gary M. Reedy, CEO[3]
Websitewww.cancer.org

History

The society was founded on May 22, 1913, by 10 physicians and five businessmen in New York City under the name American Society for the Control of Cancer (ASCC).[6][7] The current name was adopted in 1944.[4][8] According to Charity Navigator the ACS is one of the oldest and largest volunteer health organizations.[4]

At the time of founding, it was not considered appropriate to mention the word cancer in public. Information concerning this illness was cloaked in a climate of fear and denial. Over 75,000 people died each year of cancer in just the United States. The top item on the founders' agenda was to raise awareness of cancer, before any other progress could be made in funding research. Therefore, a frenetic writing campaign was undertaken to educate doctors, nurses, patients and family members about cancer. Articles were written for popular magazines and professional journals. The ASCC undertook to publish their own journal, Campaign Notes, which was a monthly bulletin with information about cancer. They began recruiting doctors from all over the United States to help educate the public about cancer.

In 1936, Marjorie Illig, an ASCC field representative, suggested the creation of a network consisting of new volunteers for the purpose of waging "war on cancer". From 1935 to 1938 the number of people involved in cancer control in the US grew from 15,000 to 150,000. According to Working to Give, The Women's Field Army, a group of volunteers working for the ASCC was primarily responsible for this increase.[9]

The sword symbol, adopted by the American Cancer Society in 1928, was designed by George E. Durant of Brooklyn, New York. According to Durant, the two serpents forming the handle represent the scientific and medical focus of the society's mission and the blade expresses the "crusading spirit of the cancer control movement".[10]

In 2013 the American Cancer Society embarked on a nationwide reorganization. The organization centralized its operations and consolidated, merging previous regional affiliates into the parent organization. It also required all employees to reapply for their jobs.[11][12]

Activities and fund allocation

Its activities include providing grants to researchers, including funding 47 Nobel Laureate researchers, discovering the link between smoking and cancer, and serving one million callers every year through its National Cancer Information Center. The 47 Nobel Prize laureates include James D. Watson, Mario Capecchi, Oliver Smithies, Paul Berg, E. Donnall Thomas, and Walter Gilbert.[13] The American Cancer Society's website contained a chronological listing of specific accomplishments in the fight against cancer, for example the unipod technological device of UTD, that the ACS had a hand in, including the funding of various scientists who went on to discover life-saving cancer treatments, and advocating for increased use of preventative techniques.[14] More than two million people volunteer with the ACS which has over 3,400 local offices.[4]

It also runs public health advertising campaigns, and organizes projects such as the Relay For Life and the Great American Smokeout. It operates a series of thrift stores to raise money for its operations. The ACS participates in the Hopkins 4K for Cancer, a 4000-mile bike ride from Baltimore to San Francisco to raise money for the society's Hope Lodge.[15][16]

Cancer ad 1938
1938 American Society for the Control of Cancer poster

The society's allocation of funds for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2015, lists 75% of funds for Program Services (Patient Support 37%, Research 16%, Prevention 13.1%, Detection and Treatment 9.2%). The remaining 25% are allocated for supporting services (Fundraising 19.1%, and Management, General administration 5.5%).[17] This meets the Better Business Bureau's Standards for Charity Accountability: Standard 8 (Program Service Expense Ratio) of at least 65% of total expenses spent on program activities.[18]

In 2012 the American Cancer Society raised $934 million and spent $943 million prompting a national consolidation and cost-cutting reorganization.[11]

John R. Seffrin, former CEO of the American Cancer Society, received $2,401,112 salary/compensation from the charity for the 2009-2010 fiscal year.[18] This is the second most money given by any charity to the head of that charity, according to Charity Watch. The money included $1.5 million in a retention benefit approved in 2001, "to preserve management stability".[19] Mr. Seffrin's compensation for the fiscal year ending August 31, 2012 was $832,355.[20]

In 2017, it was announced that the American Cancer Society has integrated Mitek Mobile Deposit and MiSnap technology into its mobile fundraising app for iOS and Android platforms. This technology eliminates the need for participants to mail donation checks.[21]

Evaluations and controversies

Hope Lodge W32 jeh
ACS Hope Lodge in Manhattan

In 1994, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, a nonprofit industry publication, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility conducted by Nye Lavalle & Associates. The study showed that the American Cancer Society was ranked as the 10th "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 38% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "love" and "like a lot" for the American Cancer Society.[9][22][23]

The Better Business Bureau lists American Cancer Society as an accredited charity meeting all of its Standards for Charity Accountability as of January 2012.[18] Charity Navigator rates the society two of four stars for fiscal year 2011.[24] According to Charity Navigator the society is directed to "eliminating cancer" and destroying it.[4] Charity Watch rates American Cancer Society a "C", stating that the Society devotes 40% of its annual expenditures to administration, fundraising, etc., with the other 60% going to fund programs.[19]

Universal North Building
ACS offices in Washington, D.C.

In 1995, the Arizona chapter of the American Cancer Society was targeted for its extremely high overhead. Two economists, James Bennett and Thomas DiLorenzo, issued a report analyzing the chapter's financial statements and demonstrating that the Arizona chapter used about 95% of its donations for paying salaries and other overhead costs, resulting in a 22 to 1 ratio of overhead to actual money spent on the cause. The report also asserted that the Arizona chapter's annual report had grossly misrepresented the amount of money spent on patient services, inflating it by more than a factor of 10. The American Cancer Society responded by alleging that the two economists issuing the report were working for a group funded by the tobacco industry.[25]

The American Cancer Society was criticized in 2011 for turning down participation from the Foundation Beyond Belief in its Relay For Life "National Team" program.[26][27]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Who We Are". ACS website. Archived from the original on 2013-10-01. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  2. ^ a b "Facts about ACS". ACS website. Archived from the original on 2013-10-26. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  3. ^ Wright, Rob (7 November 2018). "Liz Barrett — Novartis Oncology's NextGen Leader". Life Science Leader. United States: VertMarkets. Getting A Biopharma Break. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e "American Cancer Society". Charity Navigator. Archived from the original on 2009-04-20. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
  5. ^ "Other American Cancer Society Resources". ACS website. Archived from the original on 2013-10-01. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  6. ^ "may+22,+1913"#v=onepage&q=cancer%20society%20"may%2022%2C%201913" "The Organization of National and Local Forces in the Campaign Against Cancer", by Curtis E. Lakeman, M.D., Executive Secretary of the American Society for the Control of Cancer, in Journal of the Missouri State Medical Association (October 1915) p455
  7. ^ Frederick L. Hoffman, The Mortality from Cancer throughout the World (Prudential Press, 1913)
  8. ^ "American Cancer Society turns 100 as cancer rates fall". Fox News. Associated Press. 2013-05-22. Archived from the original on 2013-05-28. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  9. ^ a b "American Cancer Society: History". Working to Give: Philanthropies & Philanthropic Work. Archived from the original on 2013-10-17.
  10. ^ "Our History". ACS website. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  11. ^ a b Nearing, Brian (2013-04-18). "Cancer Society chapters facing reorganization". Times Union. Albany, NY. Archived from the original on 2013-04-19. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  12. ^ Hrywna, Mark (2013-05-31). "ACS: Next 100 years". The NonProfit Times. Morris Plains, NJ. Archived from the original on 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  13. ^ "Nobel Prize Winners". Cancer.org. ACS. Archived from the original on 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2009-02-18.
  14. ^ "Milestones: American Cancer Society Accomplishments 1946-2004: Hope. Progress. Answers". Cancer.org. ACS. Archived from the original on 2008-11-19. Retrieved 2008-11-19.
  15. ^ "Hope Lodge Baltimore: News". ACS. Archived from the original on 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2008-07-28.
  16. ^ "Baltimore's Hope Lodge to Benefit from Hopkins 4K for Cancer" (Press release). Office of News and Information, Johns Hopkins University. 2004-05-24.
  17. ^ American Cancer Society, Inc.; Affiliated Entities. "Combined Financial Statements As of and for the Year Ended August 31, 2010 with summarized financial information for the Year Ended August 31, 2009 with Report of the Independent Auditors" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  18. ^ a b c "Charity Review: American Cancer Society". National Charity Reports. Better Business Bureau. January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  19. ^ a b Charity Rating Guide and Watchdog Report. CharityWatch. 59. December 2011.CS1 maint: Untitled periodical (link)
  20. ^ Pitts, Kathy: Ernst & Young US LLP (2013-05-03). "IRS Form 990: Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax for American Cancer Society, Inc. National Home Office" (PDF). Part II: p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-11-17. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  21. ^ "Mitek, American Cancer Society make collecting check donations a snap". www.mobilepaymentstoday.com. 2017-01-04. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  22. ^ "The charities Americans like most and least". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. 1996-12-13.
  23. ^ Peterson, Karen S. (1994-12-20). "Charity begins with health". USA Today (Final ed.). p. 1D.
  24. ^ "American Cancer Society". Charity Navigator. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15. Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  25. ^ Dougherty, John (1995-01-26). "Charitable taking the Arizona division of the American Cancer Society eats up 95 percent of its budget with salaries and overhead. Cancer victims get the leftover crumbs". Phoenix New Times. Archived from the original on 2012-10-08.
  26. ^ Levy, Piet (2011-10-03). "Atheists say cancer volunteering thwarted". The Christian Century. Religious News Service. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01.
  27. ^ Christina, Greta (2012-05-11). "Atheism's new clout". Salon. Archived from the original on 2013-01-01. Retrieved 2013-05-02.

External links

American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network

The American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network (ACS CAN) is a nonprofit, nonpartisan advocacy affiliate of the American Cancer Society. It was founded in September 2001 to directly lobby the goals of the American Cancer Society, which is subject to restrictions on advocacy activities because of its tax classification. ACS CAN works to make cancer a national priority. Specifically, it advocates for better access to care, cancer prevention and early detection programs, cancer research funding, regulation of tobacco by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, better quality of life for cancer patients, and attempts to raise awareness of and reduce cancer disparities. Members include cancer survivors, caregivers, patients, volunteers, and students, including Colleges Against Cancer.

American Cancer Society Center

The American Cancer Society Center is a large convention center and office building in downtown Atlanta, adjacent to Centennial Olympic Park. The building contains about 1,500,000 square feet (140,000 m2), including a partially underground parking garage and loading area. The building, originally called the Inforum Technology Center or Inforum, was designed by the prominent Atlanta architect John Portman, who previously designed the AmericasMart buildings.

ACS Center is connected via two indoor pedestrian bridges to the ground abyss of the AmericasMart building 3, across Williams Street to the east. In addition to housing the National Home Office and South Atlantic Division of the American Cancer Society, the Center also provides office space for AT&T, InComm, Internap, Turner Broadcasting System, and US South Communications. Fiber optic connectivity is available throughout the structure.

CA (journal)

CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published for the American Cancer Society by Wiley-Blackwell. The journal covers aspects of cancer research on diagnosis, therapy, and prevention.

Cancer (journal)

Cancer is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering oncology. The journal was established in 1948. It is an official journal of the American Cancer Society and is published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the society. The first editor-in-chief was Fred W. Stewart, who held that position until 1961. The current editor-in-chief is Fadlo R. Khuri. Cancer Cytopathology was published as a section from 1997 until 2008 when it was split into a separate journal.

Craniosacral therapy

Craniosacral therapy (CST) is a form of bodywork or alternative therapy using gentle touch to palpate the synarthrodial joints of the cranium. A practitioner of cranial-sacral therapy may also apply light touches to a patient's spine and pelvic bones. Practitioners believe that this palpation regulates the flow of cerebrospinal fluid and aids in "primary respiration". Craniosacral therapy was developed by John Upledger, D.O. in the 1970s, as an offshoot osteopathy in the cranial field, or cranial osteopathy, which was developed in the 1930s by William Garner Sutherland.According to the American Cancer Society, although CST may relieve the symptoms of stress or tension, "available scientific evidence does not support claims that craniosacral therapy helps in treating cancer or any other disease". CST has been characterized as pseudoscience, and its practice called quackery. Similarly, cranial osteopathy has no scientific basis for any claimed benefit.

Elizabeth Arden Classic

The Elizabeth Arden Classic was a golf tournament on the LPGA Tour from 1969 to 1986. It was played at several different courses in the Miami, Florida area.

Fabio Lanzoni

Fabio Lanzoni (Italian pronunciation: [ˈfaːbjo lanˈtsoːni]; known professionally simply as Fabio, is an Italian-American actor, fashion model and spokesman noted for a wide-ranging career including appearances as spokesman for I Can't Believe It's Not Butter! and the American Cancer Society; acting and television roles; and prominently as a romance novel cover model throughout the 1980s and 1990s.

Great American Smokeout

The Great American Smokeout is an annual intervention event on the third Thursday of November by the American Cancer Society. Approximately 40 million American adults still smoke, and tobacco use remains the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature death in the country. The event challenges people to quit on that day, or use the day to make a plan to quit.

If You Leave Me Now

"If You Leave Me Now" is the title of a hit ballad by the American rock group Chicago, from their album Chicago X. It was written and sung by bass guitar player Peter Cetera and released as a single on July 31, 1976. It is also the title of a Chicago compilation album released by Columbia Records (Columbia 38590) in 1983.

The single topped the US charts on October 23, 1976, and stayed there for two weeks, making it the first number one hit for the group as well as hitting number one on the Easy Listening charts. "If You Leave Me Now" was also Chicago's biggest hit internationally, topping the charts in other countries such as the UK, Australia, Ireland, Canada, and Netherlands. In the UK it maintained the number one position for three weeks. It was one of only five "non-disco" songs to make it to number one in the US in a nine-month period of 1976. According to writer Zachary Houle of PopMatters, "The song was so pervasive on radio upon its release that, reportedly, those tuning in in New York could hear the song playing on four different stations, each with varying formats, simultaneously."The song won Grammy Awards for Best Arrangement Accompanying Vocalist(s) (strings) for arranger Jimmie Haskell and producer James William Guercio and Best Pop Vocal Performance by a Duo, Group or Chorus, the first Grammy Award won by the group. It also received a Grammy nomination for Record of the Year. In addition, by August 1978 it had sold 1.4 million copies in the United States alone. It has been certified gold and platinum by the RIAA.In 2010 Chicago teamed with the American Cancer Society and offered the opportunity to bid on the chance to sing their hit, "If You Leave Me Now" with them on stage live at their concerts, with proceeds going to the American Cancer Society to fight breast cancer. The fund raising effort has continued in succeeding years.

Kalappa Muniyappa

Kalappa Muniyappa (born 8 September 1952) is an Indian molecular biologist and geneticist, known for his researches on the chromatization of DNA and gene targeting. He is a professor and chairman of the department of biochemistry of the Indian Institute of Science and an elected fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, Indian Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences, India. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the apex agency of the Government of India for scientific research, awarded him the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, one of the highest Indian science awards, in 1995, for his contributions to biological sciences.

List of unproven and disproven cancer treatments

This is a non-exhaustive list of alternative treatments that have been promoted to treat or prevent cancer in humans but which lack scientific and medical evidence of effectiveness. In many cases, there is scientific evidence that the alleged treatments are not effective. Unlike accepted cancer treatments, treatments lacking in evidence of efficacy are generally ignored or avoided by the medical community and are often pseudoscientific.

Macrobiotic diet

A macrobiotic diet (or macrobiotics) is a diet fixed on ideas about types of food drawn from Zen Buddhism. The diet attempts to balance the supposed yin and yang elements of food and cookware. Major principles of macrobiotic diets are to reduce animal products, eat locally grown foods that are in season, and consume meals in moderation.Macrobiotics writers often claim that a macrobiotic diet is helpful for people with cancer and other chronic diseases, although there is no good evidence to support such recommendations, and the diet can be harmful. Studies that indicate positive results are of poor methodological quality. Neither the American Cancer Society nor Cancer Research UK recommend adopting the diet. Suggestions that a macrobiotic diet improves cardiovascular disease and diabetes are explained by the diet being, in part, consistent with science-based dietary approaches to disease prevention.

Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass. These cancerous cells have the ability to invade other parts of the body. There are a number of types of pancreatic cancer. The most common, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, accounts for about 85% of cases, and the term "pancreatic cancer" is sometimes used to refer only to that type. These adenocarcinomas start within the part of the pancreas which makes digestive enzymes. Several other types of cancer, which collectively represent the majority of the non-adenocarcinomas, can also arise from these cells. One to two percent of cases of pancreatic cancer are neuroendocrine tumors, which arise from the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas. These are generally less aggressive than pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Signs and symptoms of the most common form of pancreatic cancer may include yellow skin, abdominal or back pain, unexplained weight loss, light-colored stools, dark urine and loss of appetite. There are usually no symptoms in the disease's early stages, and symptoms that are specific enough to suggest pancreatic cancer typically do not develop until the disease has reached an advanced stage. By the time of diagnosis, pancreatic cancer has often spread to other parts of the body.Pancreatic cancer rarely occurs before the age of 40, and more than half of cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma occur in those over 70. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, and certain rare genetic conditions. About 25% of cases are linked to smoking, and 5–10% are linked to inherited genes. Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed by a combination of medical imaging techniques such as ultrasound or computed tomography, blood tests, and examination of tissue samples (biopsy). The disease is divided into stages, from early (stage I) to late (stage IV). Screening the general population has not been found to be effective.The risk of developing pancreatic cancer is lower among non-smokers, and people who maintain a healthy weight and limit their consumption of red or processed meat. A smoker's chance of developing the disease decreases if they stop smoking and almost returns to that of the rest of the population after 20 years. Pancreatic cancer can be treated with surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, palliative care, or a combination of these. Treatment options are partly based on the cancer stage. Surgery is the only treatment that can cure pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and may also be done to improve quality of life without the potential for cure. Pain management and medications to improve digestion are sometimes needed. Early palliative care is recommended even for those receiving treatment that aims for a cure.In 2015, pancreatic cancers of all types resulted in 411,600 deaths globally. Pancreatic cancer is the fifth most common cause of death from cancer in the United Kingdom, and the fourth most common in the United States. The disease occurs most often in the developed world, where about 70% of the new cases in 2012 originated. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma typically has a very poor prognosis: after diagnosis, 25% of people survive one year and 5% live for five years. For cancers diagnosed early, the five-year survival rate rises to about 20%. Neuroendocrine cancers have better outcomes; at five years from diagnosis, 65% of those diagnosed are living, though survival varies considerably depending on the type of tumor.

Quackwatch

Quackwatch is a United States-based website, self-described as a "network of people" founded by Stephen Barrett, which aims to "combat health-related frauds, myths, fads, fallacies, and misconduct" and to focus on "quackery-related information that is difficult or impossible to get elsewhere". Since 1996 it has operated the alternative medicine watchdog website quackwatch.org, which advises the public on unproven or ineffective alternative medicine remedies. The site contains articles and other information criticizing many forms of alternative medicine.Quackwatch cites peer-reviewed journal articles and has received several awards. The site has been developed with the assistance of a worldwide network of volunteers and expert advisors. It has received positive recognition and recommendations from mainstream organizations and sources. It has been recognized in the media, which cite quackwatch.org as a practical source for online consumer information. The success of Quackwatch has generated the creation of additional affiliated websites; as of 2013 there were 21 of them.

Relay For Life

Relay For Life is a community-based fundraising event for the American Cancer Society. Each year, more than 5 000 Relay For Life events take place in over twenty countries. Events are held in local communities, campus universities and in virtual worlds. As the American Cancer Society's most successful fundraiser and the organization's signature event, the mission of Relay For Life is to raise funds to improve cancer survival, decrease the incidence of cancer, and improve the quality of life for cancer patients and their caretakers.A Relay For Life event is organized under a volunteer Relay Committee, and implemented by volunteers. It is often organized as a multi-day public gathering, spanning all day and night in a large outdoor space, and many people bring tents and camp out around the walking tracks. Currently, almost 4 million people take part in Relay events in over 5,000 communities in the United States.It is estimated that Relay For Life events have raised nearly $5 billion to date. The first team to raise over $1 million was the Rosebud Miners. The largest virtual fundraising event is Relay For Life of Second Life, which has raised more than $3,000,000 since 2005.The following countries hold Relay For Life events: Australia, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada, France, Denmark, Guatemala, Honduras, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Portugal, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States and Zambia.

Sick baby hoax

A sick baby hoax is a confidence trick where a person claims, often on a website, that they have an ill child and are struggling to pay for its medical expenses. Some versions of the hoax ask people to make a monetary donation directly, while others simply encourage people to share the story.

Professional beggars have been exploiting sick children since ancient times. The success of such scams relies on a particular compassion in people towards children. When a child is sick, this particularly touches people's hearts. An early example of this kind of hoax online is the "sick child chain letter", an email making the claim that "with every name that this [letter] is sent to, the American Cancer Society will donate 3 cents per name to her treatment".

Social media, such as Facebook, facilitate the following form of this scam. A photo of a sick child is posted online, commonly without knowledge of the relatives, accompanied by a heart-touching story and sometimes a request for donations, which are simply collected by the scammer. Often these photos become viral, so it becomes close to impossible to take them down. Since Facebook has been slow to address the problem efficiently (relying on user takedown requests and reports only), several scam- and hoax-combatting websites have worked together to raise the awareness of social media providers regarding this issue.It was observed that these may often be a mischievous modification of the true story of one Craig Shergold, a child with brain cancer, whose efforts were to enter the Guinness Book of Records for receiving most get-well greeting cards.

Ukrain

Ukrain (Ukrainian: Україн; also called celandine) is the trademarked name of a semi-synthetic substance derived from the plant Chelidonium majus and promoted as a drug to treat cancer and viral infections, including HIV and hepatitis. It was created in 1978, by a Ukrainian chemist Vasyl Novytskyi (Ukrainian: Василь Новицький). Ukrain is named after the nation of Ukraine and is produced by the Austrian company Nowicky Pharma.

According to the American Cancer Society and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, there is no evidence that Ukrain is an effective cancer treatment.

Vinca

Vinca (; Latin: vincire "to bind, fetter") is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceae, native to Europe, northwest Africa and southwest Asia. The English name periwinkle is shared with the related genus Catharanthus (and also with the common seashore mollusc, Littorina littorea).

Vulvar cancer

Vulvar cancer is a malignant, invasive growth in the vulva, or the outer portion of the female genitals. The disease accounts for only 0.6% of cancer diagnoses but 5% of gynecologic cancers in the United States. The labia majora are the most common sites involved representing about 50% of all cases, followed by the labia minora. The clitoris and Bartholin glands may rarely be involved.

Vulvar cancer is separate from vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), a superficial lesion of the epithelium that has not invaded the basement membrane—or a pre-cancer. VIN may progress to carcinoma-in-situ and, eventually, squamous cell cancer.

According to the American Cancer Society, in 2018, there were about 6,190 new cases of vulvar cancer and 1,200 estimated deaths from the disease. In the United States, the estimated number of vulvar cancer for the United States for 2018 is 6,190 cases with 1,200 deaths. The five-year survival rates for vulvar cancer is around 70%.

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