American Airlines

American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, revenue, scheduled passengers carried, scheduled passenger-kilometers flown, and number of destinations served. American, together with its regional partners, operates an extensive international and domestic network with an average of more than 6,700 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries.[9] American Airlines is a founding member of Oneworld alliance, the third largest airline alliance in the world. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle.[10]

American and American Eagle operates out of ten hubs, with Dallas/Fort Worth being its largest; handling more than 200 million passengers annually with an average of more than 500,000 passengers daily. American operates its primary maintenance base in Tulsa in addition to the maintenance locations located at its hubs. As of 2017, the company employs nearly 130,000 people.[8] Through the airline's parent company, American Airlines Group, it is publicly traded under NASDAQ: AAL with a market capitalization of about $25 billion as of 2017, and included in the S&P 500 index.[9]

American Airlines, Inc.
American Airlines logo
IATA ICAO Callsign
AA[1] AAL[1] AMERICAN[2]
FoundedApril 15, 1926 (earliest predecessor airline as American Airways, Inc.)
Chicago, Illinois, United States[3]
Commenced operationsJune 25, 1936[3]
AOC #AALA025A[4]
Hubs
Frequent-flyer programAAdvantage
AllianceOneworld
Fleet size965 (mainline)[5]
Destinations350[6]
Company slogan"Great is what we're going for"
Parent companyAmerican Airlines Group
Traded asNASDAQAAL
HeadquartersFort Worth, Texas, United States
Key people
RevenueSee parent
Operating incomeSee parent
Net incomeSee parent
Total assetsSee parent
Total equitySee parent
Employees126,600 (Jun 2018)[8]
Websitewww.aa.com

History

N124AA LAX (26109389861)
American Airlines Airbus A321 at Los Angeles International Airport in 2015

American Airlines was started in 1930 via a union of more than eighty small airlines.[11]

The two organizations from which American Airlines was originated were Robertson Aircraft Corporation and Colonial Air Transport. The former was first created in Missouri in 1921, with both being merged in 1929 into holding company The Aviation Corporation. This in turn, was made in 1930 into an operating company and rebranded as American Airways. In 1934, when new laws and attrition of mail contracts forced many airlines to reorganize, the corporation redid its routes into a connected system, and was renamed American Airlines. Between 1970 and 2000, the company grew into being an international carrier, purchasing Trans World Airlines in 2001.

Passenger cabin of the Flagship Knoxville, a fully restored DC-3 aircraft at the American Airlines C.R. Smith Museum on the campus of the American Airlines Flight Academy, at the southern end of DFW LCCN2015630849
DC-3 cabin

American had a direct role in the development of the DC-3, which resulted from a marathon telephone call from American Airlines CEO C. R. Smith to Donald Douglas, when Smith persuaded a reluctant Douglas to design a sleeper aircraft based on the DC-2 to replace American's Curtiss Condor II biplanes. (The existing DC-2's cabin was 66 inches (1.7 m) wide, too narrow for side-by-side berths.) Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of American's intention to purchase 20 aircraft. The prototype DST (Douglas Sleeper Transport) first flew on December 17, 1935, (the 32nd anniversary of the Wright Brothers' flight at Kitty Hawk). Its cabin was 92 in (2.3 m) wide, and a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3. There was no prototype DC-3; the first DC-3 built followed seven DSTs off the production line and was delivered to American Airlines.[12] American Airlines inaugurated passenger service on June 26, 1936, with simultaneous flights from Newark, New Jersey and Chicago, Illinois.[13]

In 2011, due to a downturn in the airline industry, American Airlines' parent company AMR Corporation filed for bankruptcy protection. In 2013, American Airlines merged with US Airways but kept the American Airlines name, as it was the better recognized brand internationally; the combination of the two airlines resulted in the creation of the largest airline in the United States, and ultimately the world.[14]

Destinations and hubs

Destinations

N834AA taking off from Sydney Airport July 2018
An American Airlines Boeing 787-9 taking off from Sydney Airport in July 2018
American Airlines aircraft at PHX (N657AW, N837AW, N604AW, N845NN) - Quintin Soloviev
American Airlines aircraft at Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport.

As of December 2018, American Airlines flies to 95 domestic destinations and 95 international destinations in 55 countries in five continents.[15]

Hubs

American Hubs
Map of American Airlines hubs

American currently operates ten hubs.[16]

  • Charlotte – American's hub for the Southeast.[17] About 42 million passengers fly through CLT on American every year, or about 115,000 people per day.[17] American has about 91% of the market share at CLT, making it the airport's largest airline.[17]
  • Chicago–O'Hare – American's hub for the Midwest.[18] About 28 million passengers fly on American through O'Hare every year, or about 77,000 people per day.[18] American has about 35% of the market share at O'Hare making it the airport's second-largest airline after United.[18]
  • Dallas/Fort Worth – American's hub for the South.[19] American currently has about 84% of the market share and flies approximately 57 million passengers through DFW every year, which is about 156,000 people per day making it the busiest airline at the airport.[19] American's corporate headquarters are also in Fort Worth near the airport.[19] DFW serves as American's primary gateway to Mexico, and secondary gateway to Latin America.[19]
  • Los Angeles – American's hub for the West Coast and its transpacific gateway.[20] About 16.5 million passengers fly through LAX on American every year, or about 45,000 people per day.[20] American has about 19% of the market share at LAX, making it the largest carrier at the airport.[20]
  • Miami – American's primary Latin American hub.[21] About 30 million passengers fly through MIA every year on American, which is about 79,000 people per day.[21] American has about 68% of the market share at Miami International, making it the largest airline at the airport.[21]
  • New York–JFK – American's secondary transatlantic hub.[22] About 7 million passengers fly through JFK on American every year, or about 19,000 people per day.[22] American has about 12% of the market share at JFK, making it the third-largest carrier at the airport behind Delta and JetBlue.[22] Since 2017, American has been reducing its international operations at JFK, opting to expand its Philadelphia hub instead.[23][24] JFK also serves as a major connecting point for other Oneworld carriers.[25]
  • New York–LaGuardia – American's second New York hub.[26] About 8.5 million passengers fly through LGA on American every year, or about 23,000 people per day.[26] The airport also serves as a base for American Airlines Shuttle. American has about 27% of the market share at LGA, and is the second-largest carrier behind Delta.[26]
  • Philadelphia – American's primary transatlantic hub.[27] American flies approximately 20.5 million passengers a year through PHL, which is about 56,000 people per day.[27] American has about 70% of the market share at PHL, making it the airport's largest airline.[27]
  • Phoenix–Sky Harbor – American's western hub.[28] American flies approximately 20 million passengers a year through PHX, which is about 55,000 people per day.[28] Currently American has about 46% of the market share at PHX, making it the airport's largest airline.[28]
  • Washington–National – American's hub for the capital of the United States. The airport also serves as a base for American Airlines Shuttle.[29] About 12 million passengers fly through DCA on American every year, or about 33,000 people per day.[29] American has about 49% of the market share at DCA, making it the largest carrier at the airport.[29]

Alliance and codeshare agreements

American Airlines is a member of the Oneworld alliance and has codeshares with the following airlines:[30]

Joint ventures

In addition to the above codeshares, American has entered into joint ventures with the following airlines:[33][34][35]

American DC-3
American DC-3 used in a 1943 war film

Fleet

Boeing 777-323(ER) American Airlines N718AN, LHR London, England (Heathrow Airport), United Kingdom PP1367675556
American Airlines Boeing 777-300ER landing at London Heathrow Airport in 2013.

On July 20, 2011, American announced an order for 460 narrowbody jets including 260 Airbus A320s.[36] The order broke Boeing's monopoly with the airline and forced Boeing into the re-engined 737 MAX.[37] As this sale included a Most-Favoured-Customer Clause.[38]

On April 6, 2018, adding to its previous order for 42, American has ordered an additional 47 Boeing 787 which includes 22 787-8 and 25 787-9, for over $12 billion at list prices.[39]

As of July 2018, American Airlines operates a fleet of 956 aircraft,[40][41] making it the largest commercial fleet in the world. It primarily operates a mix of Airbus and Boeing planes, with an assortment of Embraer and McDonnell Douglas aircraft.

Over two thirds of American's aircraft are narrow-bodies, mainly Airbus A320 series and Boeing 737-800s. It also operates Boeing 757s, Embraer 190s, and McDonnell Douglas MD-82/83s, but most of them are planned to be retired by 2019 and 2020 as they will be replaced by the Boeing 737 MAX 8 and the Airbus A321neo aircraft[42], whose first flight departed from Hamburg to Pittsburgh on February 2019.[43][44]

Its wide-body aircraft are mainly Boeing airliners. It is the third-largest operator of the Boeing 767 series and the fifth-largest operator of the Boeing 777 series. It also operates the Airbus A330.[45]

Cabins

American Airlines 777-200ER First Class
Former First class on American Airlines 777-200 at Dallas/Fort Worth Airport, 2013
Flagship First

Flagship First is American's international first class product. It is only offered on the Boeing 777-300ERs in the fleet. The seats are fully lie-flat and offer direct aisle access in a 1-2-1 reverse herringbone configuration. As with the airline's other premium cabins, Flagship First offers wider food and beverage options, larger seats, and more amenities at certain airports, e.g., lounge access.

Flagship Business

Flagship Business is a premium cabin offered on some Boeing 757-200s and all Airbus A330-200s, Airbus A330-300s, Boeing 767-300ERs, Boeing 777-200ERs, Boeing 777-300ERs, Boeing 787-8s, and Boeing 787-9s. All Flagship Business seats are fully lie-flat.[46] Only the Boeing 757-200 does not offer direct aisle access from each seat.

Transcontinental
American A321T First Class (11424575675)
American A321T business class (11424746783)
First and business class seats on an A321 Transcontinental (top and bottom, respectively)

American has dedicated 17 Airbus A321s (A321T) in its fleet for the specific use of flying transcontinental routes between New York JFKLos Angeles and New York JFK – San Francisco. These aircraft offer two premium cabins, Flagship First and Flagship Business, which are unique among domestic mainline aircraft in American's fleet. Both cabins feature lie-flat seats; Flagship First also includes direct aisle access from each seat.

Domestic First Class

First Class is offered on all domestic mainline aircraft, as well as regional aircraft with more than 50 seats. When such aircraft are used on flights to international destinations including Canada, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, the First Class cabin is branded as Business Class. Seats range from 19–21 inches (48–53 cm) in width and have 37–42 inches (94–107 cm) of pitch.[47] Dining options include free snacks, beverages, and alcohol on all flights, with three-course meals offered on flights 900 miles (1,400 km) or longer (some routes under 900 miles also offer meal service).[48]

Premium Economy

On December 9, 2015, American announced a new Premium Economy cabin for most long-haul widebody aircraft. The cabin debuted on the airline's Boeing 787-9s in late 2016 and is also available on Boeing 777-200s and -300s, some Boeing 787-8s, and Airbus A330-200s. Premium Economy seats are wider than seats in Main Cabin (American's economy cabin) and provide more amenities: Premium Economy customers get two free checked bags, priority boarding, and enhanced food and drink service including free alcohol. This product made American Airlines the first U.S. carrier to offer a four-cabin aircraft.[49]

Main Cabin Extra

American's economy plus product (not to be confused with premium economy), Main Cabin Extra, is available on most of the mainline fleet and American Eagle regional aircraft with more than 50 seats. Main Cabin Extra seats include greater pitch than is available in Main Cabin,[47] along with free alcoholic beverages.[50] American retained Main Cabin Extra when the new Premium Economy product entered service in late 2016.[49]

Main Cabin
American Airlines.Boeing 737-800.Cabin.2010
American Airlines Boeing 737-800 economy class cabin on an international flight YUL-MIA in April 2010

Main Cabin is American's economy product, and is found on all mainline and regional aircraft in its fleet. Seats range from 17–18.5 inches (43–47 cm) in width and have 30–32 inches (76–81 cm) of pitch.[51]

American Airlines marketed increased legroom in economy class as "More Room Throughout Coach", also referred to as "MRTC", starting in February 2000.[52] Two rows of economy class seats were removed on Boeing 737 and McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft.[53] Amid financial losses, this scheme was discontinued in 2004.[53][54]

On some routes, American also offers Basic Economy, the airline's lowest main cabin fare. Basic economy is located in main cabin, but comes with restrictions. These restrictions include waiting until check-in for a seat assignment, no upgrades or refunds, and boarding in the last group.[55]

In May 2017, American announced it would be adding more seats to some of its Boeing 737 MAX jetliners and reducing overall legroom in the basic economy class. The last three rows will lose 2 inches (5.1 cm), going from the current 31 inches (79 cm) to 29 inches (74 cm). The remainder of the economy cabin will have 30 inches (76 cm) of legroom.[56]

Cabin fume events

A National Transportation Safety Board inquiry into American Airlines flight 132 to Nashville in 1988 found that the flight crew ignored the cabin crew's warning of smoke in the cabin since in a previous flight there was a fume event due to the Auxiliary power unit; however, the event was caused by improperly packaged hazardous materials, and the flight crew persisted in ignoring the cabin crew also when the cabin floor became soft exposing the crew and passenger to the threat of smoke and fire longer than necessary.[57][58] In 2011, an American Airlines former flight attendant reached a settlement with Boeing over toxic fume events that according to the lawsuit caused memory loss, tremors, and severe headaches. The health condition was triggered by a 2007 event in which oil fumes and toxic smoke leaked into the cabin while the aircraft taxied to the gate.[59] In a January 2017 incident on flight 1896, seven flight attendants were hospitalized. The Airbus A330 involved subsequently underwent a "thorough maintenance inspection", having been involved in three fume events in three months.[60][61] In January 2019, two pilots and three flight attendants on Flight 1897 from Philadelphia to Fort Lauderdale were hospitalized following complaints of a strange odor.[62][63]

In 2009, Mike Holland, deputy chairman for radiation and environmental issues at the Allied Pilots Association and an American Airlines pilot, said that the pilot union had started alerting pilots of the danger of contaminated bleed air, including contacting crew members that the union thinks were exposed to contamination based on maintenance records and pilot logs. [64] In August 2018, American Airlines flight attendant picketed in front of the Fort Worth company headquarters over a change in sick day policy, complaining that exposure to ill passengers, toxic uniforms, toxic cabin air, radiation exposure, and other issues cause them to be sick.[65][66]

Discrimination

On 24 October 2017, the NAACP issued a travel advisory for American Airlines urging African Americans to "exercise caution" when traveling with the airline. The NAACP issued the advisory after four incidents. In one incident a black woman was moved from first class to coach while her white traveling companion was allowed to remain in first class. In another incident, a black man was forced to give up his seats after being confronted by two unruly white passengers.[67] According to the NAACP, while they did receive complaints on other airlines, most of their complaints in the year prior to their advisory were on American.[68] In July 2018 the NAACP lifted their travel advisory saying that American has made improvements to mitigate discrimination and unsafe treatment of African Americans.[69]

Reward programs

AAdvantage©

AAdvantage logo 2013
AAdvantage logo (2013-present)

AAdvantage© is the frequent flyer program for American Airlines. It was launched on May 1, 1981, and it remains the largest frequent flyer program with over 67 million members as of 2011. Miles accumulated in the program allow members to redeem tickets, upgrade service class, or obtain free or discounted car rentals, hotel stays, merchandise, or other products and services through partners. The most active members, based on the amount and price of travel booked, are designated AAdvantage© Gold, AAdvantage© Platinum, AAdvantage© Platinum Pro, and AAdvantage© Executive Platinum elite members, with privileges such as separate check-in, priority upgrade and standby processing, or free upgrades. They also receive similar privileges from AA's partner airlines, particularly those in oneworld©.[70]

AAdvantage© co-branded credit cards are also available and offer other benefits. The cards are issued by CitiCards©, a subsidiary of Citigroup, and Barclaycard in the United States, by MBNA in the United Kingdom, by Butterfield Bank and Scotiabank in the Caribbean, and by Banco Santander in Brazil.

AAdvantage© allows one-way redemption, starting at 5,000 miles.[71]

Admirals Club

The Admirals Club was conceived by AA president C.R. Smith as a marketing promotion shortly after he was made an honorary Texas Ranger. Inspired by the Kentucky colonels and other honorary title designations, Smith decided to make particularly valued passengers "admirals" of the "Flagship fleet" (AA called its aircraft "Flagships" at the time).[72] The list of Admirals included many celebrities, politicians, and other VIPs, as well as more "ordinary" customers who had been particularly loyal to the airline.

There was no physical Admirals Club until shortly after the opening of LaGuardia Airport. During the airport's construction, New York Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia had an upper-level lounge set aside for press conferences and business meetings. At one such press conference, he noted that the entire terminal was being offered for lease to airline tenants; after a reporter asked whether the lounge would be leased as well, LaGuardia replied that it would, and a vice president of AA immediately offered to lease the premises. The airline then procured a liquor license and began operating the lounge as the "Admirals Club" in 1939.

The second Admirals Club opened at Washington National Airport. Because it was illegal to sell alcohol in Virginia at the time, the club contained refrigerators for the use of its members, so they could store their own liquor at the airport. For many years, membership in the Admirals Club (and most other airline lounges) was by the airline's invitation. After a passenger sued for discrimination,[73] the Club (and most other airline lounges) switched to a paid membership program.

Flagship Lounge

Though affiliated with the Admirals Club and staffed by many of the same employees, the Flagship Lounge is a separate lounge specifically designed for customers flying in First Class and Business Class on international flights and transcontinental domestic flights, as well as AAdvantage Concierge Key, Executive Platinum, Platinum Pro, and Platinum, as well as Oneworld Emerald and Sapphire frequent flyers. As of May 2019, Flagship Lounges are located at five airports: New York-JFK.[74] Chicago-O'Hare,[75] Miami International,[76] Los Angeles,[77] and Dallas/Fort Worth.[78] Flagship Lounges are planned for London-Heathrow and Philadelphia.[74]

Corporate affairs

Headquarters

American Airlines is headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, adjacent to the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport.[79] The headquarters is located in two office buildings in the CentrePort office complex and these buildings together have about 1,400,000 square feet (130,000 m2) of space. As of 2014 over 4,300 employees work at this complex.[80]

Before it was headquartered in Texas, American Airlines was headquartered at 633 Third Avenue in the Murray Hill area of Midtown Manhattan, New York City.[81][82] In 1979, American moved its headquarters to a site at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, which affected up to 1,300 jobs. Mayor of New York City Ed Koch described the move as a "betrayal" of New York City.[83] American moved to two leased office buildings in Grand Prairie, Texas.[84] On January 17, 1983, the airline finished moving into a $150 million ($377,000,000 when adjusted for inflation), 550,000-square-foot (51,000 m2) facility in Fort Worth; $147 million (about $370,000,000 when adjusted for inflation) in Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport bonds financed the headquarters. The airline began leasing the facility from the airport, which owns the facility.[84] Following the merger of US Airways and American Airlines, US Airways consolidated the corporate headquarters of the new company in Fort Worth, leaving their current headquarters in Phoenix, AZ, which had also been the headquarters of the airline that brought US Airways out of bankruptcy, America West Airlines.

As of 2015, American Airlines is the corporation with the largest presence in Fort Worth.[85]

In 2015, the airline announced it will build a new headquarters in Fort Worth. Groundbreaking began in the spring of 2016 and occupancy is scheduled for summer 2019.[86] The airline plans to house 5,000 new workers in the building.[85]

It will be located on a 41-acre (17 ha) property adjacent to the airline's flight academy and conference and training center, west of Texas State Highway 360, 2 miles (3.2 km)[86] west from the current headquarters. The airline will lease a total of 300 acres (120 ha) from Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport and this area will include the headquarters.[85] Construction of the new headquarters began after the demolition of the Sabre facility, previously on the site.[86]

The airline considered developing a new headquarters in Irving,TX on the old Texas Stadium site, before deciding to keep the headquarters in Fort Worth.[85]

Branding

American Airlines logo
American Airlines' fourth logo, used from 1967 to January 16, 2013

In 1931, Goodrich Murphy, an American employee, designed the AA logo.[87] The logo was redesigned by Massimo Vignelli in 1967.[88][89] Thirty years later, in 1997, American Airlines was able to make its logo Internet-compatible by buying the domain AA.com. AA is also American's two-letter IATA airline designator.[90]

On January 17, 2013, American launched a new rebranding and marketing campaign with FutureBrand dubbed, "A New American". This included a new logo replacing the logo used since 1967. American Airlines calls the new logo the "Flight Symbol, incorporating the eagle, star, and the letter “A” of the classic logo.[91]

On June 3, 2016, American Airlines sought to register their 2013 logo with the United States Copyright Office.[92] However, in October of that year, the Copyright Office ruled that the logo was ineligible for copyright protection, as it did not pass the threshold of originality.[92] American submitted multiple requests for the Copyright Office to reconsider their determination. However, on January 8, 2018, the Copyright Office made a final decision that affirmed its initial determination that American's new logo was ineligible for copyright protection and is thus in the public domain.[92][93]

American's early liveries varied widely, but a common livery was adopted in the 1930s, featuring an eagle painted on the fuselage.[94] The eagle became a symbol of the company and inspired the name of American Eagle Airlines. Propeller aircraft featured an international orange lightning bolt running down the length of the fuselage, which was replaced by a simpler orange stripe with the introduction of jets.

American Airlines Astrojet N951AA
A Boeing 737 in the Astrojet livery

In the late 1960s, American commissioned designer Massimo Vignelli to develop a new livery. The original design called for a red, white, and blue stripe on the fuselage, and a simple "AA" logo, without an eagle, on the tail; instead, Vignelli created a highly stylized eagle, which remained the company's logo until January 16, 2013. In 1999, American painted a new Boeing 757 (N679AN) in its 1959 international orange livery. One Boeing 777 and one Boeing 757 were painted in standard livery with a pink ribbon on the sides and on the tail, in support of Susan G. Komen for the Cure. One Boeing 757 is painted with a yellow ribbon on the tailfin on the aircraft and on the side of the body says "Flagship Freedom". American Eagle, the airline's regional airline has the same special livery on ERJ-145 aircraft.

AA Flagship Freedom
AA "Flagship Freedom" Boeing 757-200, labeled with a "yellow awareness ribbon" symbol, representing support of the United States Armed Forces overseas operations.

On January 17, 2013, American unveiled a new livery.[95] Before then, American had been the only major U.S. airline to leave most of its aircraft surfaces unpainted. This was because C. R. Smith hated painted aircraft, and refused to use any liveries that involved painting the entire plane. Robert "Bob" Crandall later justified the distinctive natural metal finish by noting that less paint reduced the aircraft's weight, thus saving on fuel costs.[96]

US Airways A319-112 LAS N717UW
Airbus A319 of US Airways wearing Carolina Panthers livery

In January 2013, American launched a new rebranding and marketing campaign dubbed, "The New American". In addition to a new logo, American Airlines introduced a new livery for its fleet. The airline calls the new livery and branding "a clean and modern update".[91] The current design features an abstract American flag on the tail, along with a silver-painted fuselage, as a throw-back to the old livery. The new design was painted by Leading Edge Aviation Services in California.[97] Doug Parker, the incoming CEO indicated that the new livery could be short-lived, stating that "maybe we need to do something slightly different than that ... The only reason this is an issue now is because they just did it right in the middle, which kind of makes it confusing, so that gives us an opportunity, actually, to decide if we are going to do something different because we have so many airplanes to paint".[98]

In the end, American let its employees decide the new livery's fate. On an internal website for employees, American posted two options, one the new livery and one a modified version of the old livery. All of the American Airlines Group employees (including US Airways and other affiliates) were able to vote.[99] American ultimately decided to keep the new look. Parker announced that American would keep a US Airways and America West heritage aircraft in the fleet, with plans to add a heritage TWA aircraft and a heritage American plane with the old livery.[100]

Labor unions

Environmental record

Violations occurring over a 4½ year period—from October 1993 to July 1998—targeted American Airlines for using high-sulfur fuel in motor vehicles at 10 major airports around the country. Under the federal Clean Air Act high sulfur fuel cannot be used in motor vehicles. American Airlines promptly identified and corrected these violations of the Clean Air Act.[106]

American Airlines' wastewater treatment plant recycles water used at the base to wash aircraft, process rinse water tanks, and irrigate landscape. That alone has saved almost $1 million since 2002. In addition to that, American Airlines has also won the award for the reduction of hazardous waste that saved them $229,000 after a $2,000 investment. A bar code system is used to track hazardous waste. It has led to reduction of waste by 50 percent since 2000.[107]

Accidents and incidents

As of March 2019, the airline has had almost sixty aircraft hull losses due to all causes since the crash of an American Airways Ford 5-AT-C Trimotor in August 1931.[108][109] Of these most were propeller driven aircraft, including three Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprop aircraft (of which one, the crash in 1959 of Flight 320, resulted in fatalities).[109] Seventeen jet aircraft have been written off due to crashes – including Flight 587 in 2001, Flight 965 in 1995, Flight 191 in 1979, Flight 1 in 1962.

Two aircraft were hijacked and destroyed in the September 11 attacks: Flight 11 crashed into the north facade of the North Tower of the World Trade Center, and Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon; both were bound for Los Angeles International Airport.[110]

Other accidents include the Flight 383 engine failure and fire in 2016. There were two training flights in which only the crew were killed and six that resulted in no fatalities.[109] Another four jet aircraft have been written off due to incidents while they were parked between flights or while undergoing maintenance.[109]

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Capozzi, John M. (2001). A Spirit of Greatness. JMC. ISBN 978-0-9656410-3-6.
  • Bedwell, Don (1999). Silverbird: The American Airlines Story. Airways. ISBN 978-0-9653993-6-4.
  • Casey, Al (1997). Casey's Law. Arcade. ISBN 978-1-55970-307-9.
  • Forty, Simon (1997). ABC American Airlines. Ian Allan. ISBN 978-1-882663-21-7.
  • Reed, Dan (1993). The American Eagle: The Ascent of Bob Crandall and American Airlines. St. Martin's. ISBN 978-0-312-08696-1.
  • Serling, Robert J. (1985). Eagle. St. Martin's. ISBN 978-0-312-22453-0.
  • International Directory of Company Histories. St. James Press.
  • Hieger, Linda H. (2010) With Wings of Silver and Gold ISBN 978-1-60458-271-0

External links

American Airlines Arena

The American Airlines Arena is a sports and entertainment arena located in Downtown Miami, Florida along Biscayne Bay. It was constructed beginning in 1998 as a replacement for the Miami Arena and designed by the architecture firms Arquitectonica and 360 Architecture. The Arena is home to the Miami Heat of the National Basketball Association.

The American Airlines Arena is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at Government Center station via free transfers to Metromover Omni Loop, providing direct service to Freedom Tower and Park West stations. The Arena is also within walking distance from the Historic Overtown/Lyric Theatre Metrorail station.

The American Airlines Arena has 2,105 club seats, 80 luxury suites, and 76 private boxes. The Waterfront Theater is Florida's largest theater which is housed within the arena, that can seat between 3,000 and 5,800. The theater can be configured for concerts, family events, musical theatre and other stage shows. American Airlines which has a hub at Miami International Airport maintains the American Airlines Arena Travel Center at the venue.The airline also holds the naming rights for another NBA venue, the American Airlines Center for the Dallas Mavericks and the Dallas Stars, which opened in 2001.

American Airlines Center

American Airlines Center (AAC) is a multi-purpose arena, located in the Victory Park neighborhood in downtown Dallas, Texas. The arena serves as the home to the Dallas Mavericks of the National Basketball Association, and the Dallas Stars of the National Hockey League. The arena is also used for concerts and other live entertainment. It opened in 2001 at a cost of $420 million.

American Airlines Flight 11

American Airlines Flight 11 was a domestic passenger flight that was hijacked by five al-Qaeda members on September 11, 2001, as part of the September 11 attacks. Mohamed Atta deliberately crashed the plane into the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing all 92 people aboard and an unknown number in the building's impact zone. The aircraft involved, a Boeing 767-223ER, registration N334AA, was flying American Airlines' daily scheduled morning transcontinental service from Logan International Airport in Boston to Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles.

Fifteen minutes into the flight, the hijackers injured at least three people (possibly killing one), forcibly breached the cockpit, and overpowered the captain and first officer. Atta, an al-Qaeda member and licensed commercial pilot, took over the controls. Air-traffic controllers noticed the flight was in distress when the crew was no longer responding. They realized the flight had been hijacked when Mohamed Atta's announcements for passengers were transmitted to air traffic control. On board, flight attendants Amy Sweeney and Betty Ong contacted American Airlines, and provided information about the hijackers and injuries to passengers and crew.

The aircraft crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 08:46:40 local time. Countless people in the streets of New York City witnessed the strike, but few video recordings captured the moment. Documentary film maker Jules Naudet captured the only known footage of the initial impact from start to finish. Before the hijacking was confirmed, news agencies began to report on the incident and speculated that the crash had been an accident. The impact and subsequent fire caused the North Tower to collapse 102 minutes after the crash, resulting in hundreds of additional casualties. During the recovery effort at the World Trade Center site, workers recovered and identified dozens of remains from Flight 11 victims, but many body fragments could not be identified.

American Airlines Flight 191

American Airlines Flight 191 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight operated by American Airlines from O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois to Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. On May 25, 1979, the McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10 operating this flight was taking off from runway 32R when it crashed into the ground. All 258 passengers and 13 crew on board were killed, along with two people on the ground. With 273 fatalities, it is the deadliest aviation accident to have occurred in the United States.

The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) found that as the aircraft was beginning its takeoff rotation, engine number one (the left engine) separated from the left wing, flipping over the top of the wing and landing on the runway. As the engine separated from the aircraft, it severed hydraulic fluid lines that locked the wing's leading-edge slats in place and damaged a three-foot section of the left wing's leading edge. Aerodynamic forces acting on the wing resulted in an uncommanded retraction of the outboard slats. As the aircraft began to climb, the damaged left wing — with no engine — produced far less lift (stalled) than the right wing, with its slats still deployed and its engine providing full takeoff thrust. The disrupted and unbalanced aerodynamics of the aircraft caused it to roll abruptly to the left until it was partially inverted, reaching a bank angle of 112 degrees, before crashing in an open field by a trailer park near the end of the runway. The engine separation was attributed to damage to the pylon structure holding the engine to the wing, caused by improper maintenance procedures used at American Airlines.

American Airlines Flight 587

American Airlines Flight 587 was a regularly scheduled international passenger flight from New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport to Las Américas International Airport in Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic. On November 12, 2001, the Airbus A300B4-605R flying the route crashed shortly after takeoff into the Belle Harbor neighborhood of Queens, a borough of New York City. All 260 people aboard the plane (251 passengers and 9 crew members) were killed, along with 5 people on the ground.

The location of the accident and the fact that it took place two months and one day after the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in Manhattan initially spawned fears of another terrorist attack. Terrorism was officially ruled out as the cause by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), which instead attributed the disaster to the first officer's overuse of rudder controls in response to wake turbulence, or jet wash, from a Japan Airlines (JAL) Boeing 747-400 that took off minutes before it. According to the NTSB, the aggressive use of the rudder controls by the co-pilot caused the vertical stabilizer to snap off the plane, along with the plane's two engines separating from intense forces before impact.

American Airlines Flight 77

American Airlines Flight 77 was a scheduled American Airlines domestic transcontinental passenger flight from Washington Dulles International Airport in Dulles, Virginia, to Los Angeles International Airport in Los Angeles, California. The Boeing 757-223 aircraft serving the flight was hijacked by five men affiliated with al-Qaeda on September 11, 2001, as part of the September 11 attacks. They deliberately crashed the plane into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, near Washington, D.C., killing all 64 people on board, including the five hijackers and six crew, as well as 125 people in the building.

Less than 35 minutes into the flight, the hijackers stormed the cockpit and forced the passengers, crew, and pilots to the rear of the aircraft. Hani Hanjour, one of the hijackers who was trained as a pilot, assumed control of the flight. Unknown to the hijackers, passengers aboard made telephone calls to friends and family and relayed information on the hijacking.

The hijackers crashed the aircraft into the western side of the Pentagon at 09:37 EDT. Many people witnessed the crash, and news sources began reporting on the incident within minutes. The impact severely damaged an area of the Pentagon and caused a large fire. A portion of the building collapsed; firefighters spent days working to fully extinguish the blaze. The damaged sections of the Pentagon were rebuilt in 2002, with occupants moving back into the completed areas that August. The 184 victims of the attack are memorialized in the Pentagon Memorial adjacent to the crash site. The 1.93-acre (7,800 m2) park contains a bench for each of the victims, arranged according to their year of birth, ranging from 1930 to 1998.

American Airlines Flight 965

American Airlines Flight 965 was a regularly scheduled flight from Miami International Airport in Miami, Florida, to Alfonso Bonilla Aragón International Airport in Cali, Colombia. On December 20, 1995, the Boeing 757-200 flying this route (registration N651AA) crashed into a mountain in Buga, Colombia, killing 151 out of the 155 passengers and all eight crew members. The crash was the first U.S.-owned 757 accident and is currently the deadliest aviation accident to occur in Colombia. It was also the deadliest accident involving a Boeing 757 at that time, but was surpassed by Birgenair Flight 301 which crashed seven weeks later with 189 fatalities. Flight 965 was the deadliest air disaster involving a U.S. carrier since the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988. Five passengers, all seated within two rows of each other, survived the initial impact, but one died two days later of his injuries. In addition to the four human survivors, a dog, who had been in a carrier in the cargo hold at the time of the crash, survived the incident.

The Colombian Special Administrative Unit of Civil Aeronautics investigated the accident and determined it was caused by navigational errors by the flight crew.

American Airlines Group

American Airlines Group Inc. is an American publicly traded airline holding company headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas. It was formed December 9, 2013, in the merger of AMR Corporation, the parent company of American Airlines, and US Airways Group, the parent company of US Airways. The airline groups together form the largest airline in the world, with more than 6,700 daily flights to 350 locations in 56 countries worldwide, about $40 billion in operating revenue, over 100,000 employees, and plans to take delivery of 607 new aircraft, including 517 narrowbody aircraft and 90 widebody international aircraft. The integration of American Airlines and US Airways was completed when the Federal Aviation Administration granted a single operating certificate for both carriers on April 8, 2015. The company ranked No. 71 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

American Airlines Theatre

The American Airlines Theatre, originally the Selwyn Theatre, is a historic Italian Renaissance style Broadway theatre in New York City built in 1918. It was designed by George Keister and built by the Selwyn brothers. Used for musicals and other dramatic performances it was eventually converted for film. It was used briefly as a visitor's center but stood vacant for years until a 1997 renovation and restoration. It is located at 227 West 42nd Street.

American Airlines fleet

American Airlines operates 965 aircraft, giving it the largest commercial airline fleet in the world. It primarily operates a mix of Airbus, Boeing, and McDonnell Douglas narrow-body and wide-body aircraft, as well as one narrow-body type manufactured by Embraer. American is currently in the process of the largest fleet renewal in its history, with over 240 aircraft remaining on order from Airbus and Boeing. In 2013, American Airlines announced a new livery and has completed repainting of all of its aircraft except the McDonnell Douglas MD-80 Series.

American Eagle (airline brand)

American Eagle is an American brand name for the regional branch of American Airlines, under which seven individual regional airlines operate short- and medium-haul feeder flights. Three of these airlines, Envoy Air (formerly American Eagle Airlines), Piedmont Airlines, and PSA Airlines, are wholly owned subsidiaries of the American Airlines Group.

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (IATA: DFW, ICAO: KDFW, FAA LID: DFW) is the primary international airport serving the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex area in the U.S. state of Texas.

It is the largest hub for American Airlines, which is headquartered near the airport. It is the fourth busiest airport in the world by aircraft movements and the fourteenth busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic in 2017. It is the ninth busiest international gateway in the United States and second busiest in Texas. American Airlines at DFW is the second largest airline hub in the world and the United States, behind Delta's Atlanta hub.Located roughly halfway between the major cities of Dallas and Fort Worth, DFW spills across portions of Dallas and Tarrant counties, and includes portions of the cities of Irving, Euless, Grapevine and Coppell. At 17,207 acres (6,963 hectares; 27 square miles), DFW is larger than the island of Manhattan, and is the second largest airport by land area in the United States, after Denver International Airport. It has its own post office ZIP code, 75261, and United States Postal Service city designation ("DFW Airport, TX"), as well as its own police, fire protection and emergency medical services. The members of the airport's board of directors are appointed by the "owner cities" of Dallas and Fort Worth, with a non-voting member chosen from the airport's four neighboring cities on a rotating basis.

As of April 2019, DFW Airport has service to 249 destinations, including 62 international and 187 domestic destinations within the U.S. In surpassing 200 destinations, DFW joined a small group of airports worldwide with that distinction.

Envoy Air

Envoy Air Inc. (formerly American Eagle Airlines) is an air carrier headquartered in Irving, Texas, in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of American Airlines Group that, along with several carriers outside the group, feeds the American Airlines route network under the American Eagle brand. With over 1000 flights a day, serving 150 cities across the United States, Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean, Envoy is considered to be one of the world's largest regional airline systems. Envoy is an affiliate member of the Oneworld airline alliance.

The name "American Eagle Airlines" was also used between April 1980 and April 1981 by an unrelated air charter service that suspended operations and filed bankruptcy before flying any scheduled operations.

List of American Airlines accidents and incidents

This page lists American Airlines accidents and incidents. For lists of accidents and incidents on subsidiary carriers, see Envoy Air and American Connection.

PSA Airlines

PSA Airlines is an American regional airline headquartered at Dayton International Airport in Vandalia, Ohio, that flies under the American Eagle brand for American Airlines. PSA is a wholly owned subsidiary of American Airlines Group.

PSA Airlines operates an all-jet fleet consisting of exclusively Bombardier regional jet aircraft. The company has a team of more than 5,000 employees, operating more than 800 daily flights to nearly 100 destinations on behalf of American Airlines.

Headquartered in Dayton, Ohio, PSA also has flight crew bases located in Cincinnati, Ohio; Knoxville, Tennessee; Washington, DC; Charlotte, North Carolina; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Norfolk, Virginia.

PSA has airport maintenance facilities in Akron-Canton (CAK), Charlotte-Douglas International (CLT), Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International (CVG), Greenville-Spartanburg (GSP), Norfolk International (ORF), Savannah/Hilton Head International (SAV), Pensacola International (PNS), and Dayton International (DAY).

PSA operates 35 Bombardier CRJ200 aircraft, 43 Bombardier CRJ700 aircraft and 54 Bombardier CRJ900 aircraft. The airline expects to add additional aircraft to bring its fleet count to 150.

Piedmont Airlines

Piedmont Airlines, Inc. is an American regional airline operating for American Eagle, formerly US Airways Express. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Airlines Group, headquartered in unincorporated Wicomico County, Maryland, near the city of Salisbury. It conducts flight operations using Embraer ERJ 145 aircraft. Piedmont Airlines, Inc. also provides ground handling and customer service for airports in the Northeastern & Western parts of the United States. Its main base is Philadelphia International Airport with an additional hub at Charlotte Douglas International Airport.

Trans World Airlines

Trans World Airlines (TWA) was a major American airline that existed from 1930 until 2001. It was formed as Transcontinental & Western Air to operate a route from New York City to Los Angeles via St. Louis, Kansas City, and other stops, with Ford Trimotors. With American, United, and Eastern, it was one of the "Big Four" domestic airlines in the United States formed by the Spoils Conference of 1930.Howard Hughes acquired control of TWA in 1939, and after World War II led the expansion of the airline to serve Europe, the Middle East, and Asia, making TWA a second unofficial flag carrier of the United States after Pan Am. Hughes gave up control in the 1960s, and the new management of TWA acquired Hilton International and Century 21 in an attempt to diversify the company's business.

As the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 led to a wave of airline failures, start-ups, and takeovers in the United States, TWA was spun off from its holding company in 1984. Carl Icahn acquired control of TWA and took the company private in a leveraged buyout in 1988. TWA became saddled with debt, sold its London routes, underwent Chapter 11 restructuring in 1992 and 1995, and was further stressed by the explosion of TWA Flight 800 in 1996.

In 2001, TWA filed for a third and final bankruptcy and was acquired by American Airlines. American laid off many former TWA employees in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks and closed its St. Louis hub in 2003.TWA was headquartered at one time in Kansas City, Missouri, and planned to make Kansas City International Airport its main domestic and international hub, but abandoned this plan in the 1970s. The airline later developed its largest hub at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport. Its main transatlantic hub was the TWA Flight Center at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, an architectural icon designed by Eero Saarinen, and completed in 1962.

US Airways

US Airways (formerly known as USAir) was a major American airline that ceased to operate independently when the Federal Aviation Administration granted a single operating certificate (SOC) for US Airways and American Airlines on April 8, 2015. Publicly, the two carriers appeared to merge when their reservations systems and booking processes were merged on October 17, 2015; however, other systems were still separate at that time. The airline had an extensive international and domestic network, with 193 destinations in 24 countries in North America, South America, Europe, and the Middle East. The airline was a member of the Star Alliance, before becoming an affiliate member of Oneworld in March 2014. US Airways utilized a fleet of 343 mainline jet aircraft, as well as 278 regional jet and turbo-prop aircraft operated by contract and subsidiary airlines under the name US Airways Express via code sharing agreements.

The carrier operated the US Airways Shuttle, a US Airways brand which provided hourly service between Logan International Airport in Boston, LaGuardia Airport in New York City, and Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in Washington, D.C. As of October 2013, US Airways employed 32,312 people worldwide and operated 3,028 daily flights (1,241 US Airways Mainline, 1,790 US Airways Express) Roughly 60% of US Airways flights were operated by US Airways Express.In 1979, after passage of the Airline Deregulation Act, Allegheny Airlines changed its name to USAir and began seeking to expand its operations. A decade later, it had acquired Piedmont Airlines and Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA), and was one of the U.S.'s seven remaining transcontinental legacy carriers. In 2005, America West Airlines carried out a reverse merger, acquiring the assets and branding of the larger US Airways while putting the America West leadership team largely in charge of the merged airline.

In February 2013, American Airlines and US Airways announced plans to merge, creating the largest airline in the world. The holding companies of American and US Airways merged effective December 9, 2013. In preparation for their eventual integration, the airlines began offering reciprocal frequent flyer benefits on January 7, 2014, and US Airways left Star Alliance to join Oneworld on March 31, 2014. The combined airline carries the American Airlines name and branding and will maintain the existing US Airways hubs in Charlotte, Philadelphia, Phoenix, and Washington for a period of at least five years under the terms of a settlement with the Department of Justice and several state attorneys general. US Airways management runs the combined airline from the American headquarters in Fort Worth, Texas. On April 8, 2015, the FAA officially granted a single operating certificate for both carriers, marking the end of US Airways as an independent carrier. The brand continued to exist until October.On July 13, 2015, American announced that it planned to discontinue the US Airways brand name on October 17, 2015. On that date, US Airways made the final flight for the airline from San Francisco to Philadelphia with stops at Phoenix and Charlotte, operating as Flight 1939—with 1939 commemorating the birth of All American Aviation, which evolved over the decades to become US Airways. However, repainting of US Airways' planes into the American Airlines scheme was expected to take until "late 2016", with new flight attendant uniforms also being introduced in 2016, at which point the US Airways brand was to no longer be displayed on any of its former planes, employees or assets.

World's largest airlines

The world's largest airlines can be defined in several ways.

American Airlines Group is the largest by its fleet size, revenue, profit, passengers carried and revenue passenger mile. Delta Air Lines is the largest by assets value and market capitalization. Lufthansa Group is the largest by number of employees, FedEx Express by freight tonne-kilometers, Turkish Airlines by number of countries served and UPS Airlines by number of destinations served (or United Airlines when excluding freight-only carriers).

American Airlines
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