American (word)

The meaning of the word American in the English language varies according to the historical, geographical, and political context in which it is used. American is derived from America, a term originally denoting all of the New World (also called the Americas). In some expressions, it retains this Pan-American sense, but its usage has evolved over time and, for various historical reasons, the word came to denote people or things specifically from the United States of America.

In modern English, American generally refers to persons or things related to the United States of America; among native English speakers this usage is almost universal, with any other use of the term requiring specification.[1] However, this usage is seen by some as a semantic "misappropriation" by those who argue that "American" should be widened in English to also include people or things from anywhere in the American continents.[2][3]

The word can be used as either an adjective or a noun (viz. a demonym). In adjectival use, it means "of or relating to the United States"; for example, "Elvis Presley was an American singer" or "the man prefers American English". In its noun form, the word generally means a resident or citizen of the US, or occasionally someone whose ethnic identity is simply "American". The noun is rarely used in English to refer to people not connected to the United States.[1] When used with a grammatical qualifier, the adjective American can mean "of or relating to the Americas", as in Latin American or Indigenous American. Less frequently, the adjective can take this meaning without a qualifier, as in "American Spanish dialects and pronunciation differ by country", or the name of the Organization of American States. A third use of the term pertains specifically to the indigenous peoples of the Americas, for instance, "In the 16th century, many Americans died from imported diseases during the European conquest".

Compound constructions such as "African Americans" likewise refer exclusively to people in or from the United States of America, as does the prefix "Americo-". For instance, the Americo-Liberians and their language Merico derive their name from the fact that they are descended from African American settlers, i.e. former slaves in the United States of America.

Other languages

French, German, Italian, Japanese,[a] Hebrew, Arabic, and Russian[b] speakers may use cognates of American to refer to inhabitants of the Americas or to U.S. nationals. They generally have other terms specific to U.S. nationals, such as the German US-Amerikaner,[6] French étatsunien,[7] Japanese beikokujin (米国人),[8] Arabic amrīkānī (أمريكاني‎ as opposed to amrīkī أمريكي‎),[9] and Italian statunitense.[10] These specific terms may be less common than the term American.[7]

In French, états-unien, étas-unien or étasunien, from États-Unis d'Amérique ("United States of America"), is a rarely used word that distinguishes U.S. things and persons from the adjective américain, which denotes persons and things from the United States, but may also refer to "the Americas".[7]

Likewise, German's use of U.S.-amerikanisch and U.S.-Amerikaner[6] observe said cultural distinction, solely denoting U.S. things and people. Note that in normal parlance, the adjective "American" and its direct cognates are usually used if the context renders the nationality of the person clear.

This differentiation is prevalent in German-speaking countries, as indicated by the style manual of the Neue Zürcher Zeitung (one of the leading German-language newspapers in Switzerland) which dismisses the term U.S.-amerikanisch as both ′unnecessary′ and ′artificial′ and recommends replacing it with amerikanisch.[11] The respective guidelines of the foreign ministries of Austria, Germany and Switzerland all prescribe Amerikaner and amerikanisch in reference to the United States for official usage, making no mention of U.S.-Amerikaner or U.S.-amerikanisch.[12]

Portuguese has americano, denoting both a person or thing from the Americas and a U.S. national.[13] For referring specifically to a U.S. national and things, some words used are estadunidense (also spelled estado-unidense, "United States person"), from Estados Unidos da América, and ianque ("Yankee")—both usages exist in Brazil, but are uncommon in Portugal—but the term most often used, and the only one in Portugal, is norte-americano, even though it could, as with its Spanish equivalent, apply to Canadians, Mexicans, etc. as well.

In Spanish, americano denotes geographic and cultural origin in the New World, as well as (infrequently) a U.S. citizen;[14][15][c] the more common term is estadounidense ("United States person"), which derives from Estados Unidos de América ("United States of America"). The Spanish term norteamericano ("North American") is frequently used to refer things and persons from the United States, but this term can also denote people and things from Canada and Mexico.[17] Among Spanish-speakers, North America generally doesn't include Central America or the Caribbean.

In other languages, however, there is no possibility for confusion. For example, the Chinese word for "U.S. national" is měiguórén (simplified Chinese: 美国人; traditional Chinese: 美國人)[18][d] is derived from a word for the United States, měiguó, where měi is an abbreviation for Yàměilìjiā ("America") and guó is "country".[19][20][21] The name for the American continents is měizhōu, from měi plus zhōu ("continent").[22] Thus, a měizhōurén is an American in the continent sense, and a měiguórén is an American in the U.S. sense.[e]

Conversely, in Czech, there is no possibility for disambiguation. Američan (m.) and američanka (f.) can refer to persons from the United States or from the continents of the Americas, and there is no specific word capable of distinguishing the two meanings. For this reason, the latter meaning is very rarely used, and word američan(ka) is used almost exclusively to refer to persons from the United States. The usage is exactly parallel to the English word.

Korean and Vietnamese also use unambiguous terms, with Korean having Migug (미국(인)) for the country versus Amerika (아메리카) for the continents,[23] and Vietnamese having Hoa Kỳ for the country versus Châu Mỹ for the continents. Japanese has such terms as well (beikoku(jin) [米国(人) versus beishū(jin) [米洲人]), but they are found more in newspaper headlines than in speech, where amerikajin predominates.[a]

In Swahili, Marekani means specifically the United States, and Mwamarekani is a U.S. national, whereas the international form Amerika refers to the continents, and Mwaamerika would be an inhabitants thereof.[24][25][26][f] Likewise, the Esperanto word Ameriko refers to the continents. For the country there is the term Usono. Thus, a citizen of the United States is an usonano, whereas an amerikano is an inhabitant of the Americas.[28][29][30][31]

In Hungarian the term amerikai (American) refers to a person or a thing from the United States.

History

Amerigo Vespucci (with turban)
America is named after Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci.[32]

The name America was coined by Martin Waldseemüller from Americus Vespucius, the Latinized version of the name of Amerigo Vespucci (1454–1512), the Italian explorer who mapped South America's east coast and the Caribbean Sea in the early 16th century. Later, Vespucci's published letters were the basis of Waldseemüller's 1507 map, which is the first usage of America. The adjective American subsequently denoted the New World.

16th-century European usage of American denoted the native inhabitants of the New World.[33] The earliest recorded use of this term in English is in Thomas Hacket's 1568 translation of André Thévet's book France Antarctique; Thévet himself had referred to the natives as Ameriques.[33] In the following century, the term was extended to European settlers and their descendants in the Americas. The earliest recorded use of "English-American" dates to 1648, in Thomas Gage's The English-American his travail by sea and land: or, a new survey of the West India's.[33]

In English, American was used especially for people in the British America. Samuel Johnson, the leading English lexicographer, wrote in 1775, before the United States declared independence: "That the Americans are able to bear taxation is indubitable."[33] The Declaration of Independence of July 1776 refers to "[the] unanimous Declaration of the thirteen United States of America" adopted by the "Representatives of the United States of America" on July 4, 1776.[34] The official name of the country was reaffirmed on November 15, 1777, when the Second Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, the first of which says, "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'". The Articles further state:

In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia in the State of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy-Eight, and in the Third Year of the independence of America.

Bowen America
British map of the Americas in 1744

Sam Haselby, a history professor in Lebanon and Egypt, claims it was British officials who first called the colonists "Americans". When the drafters of the DeclarationThomas Jefferson from Virginia, for example, or John Adams from Massachusetts—talked about "my country", they meant Virginia or Massachusetts, respectively. This situation was changed by the Revolution and the impulse toward nationalism.[35] Jefferson, newly elected president in May 1801 wrote, "I am sure the measures I mean to pursue are such as would in their nature be approved by every American who can emerge from preconceived prejudices; as for those who cannot, we must take care of them as of the sick in our hospitals. The medicine of time and fact may cure some of them."[36]

In The Federalist Papers (1787–88), Alexander Hamilton and James Madison used the adjective American with two different meanings: one political and one geographic; "the American republic" in Federalist No. 51 and in Federalist No. 70,[37][38] and, in Federalist No. 24, Hamilton used American to denote the lands beyond the U.S.'s political borders.[39]

Early official U.S. documents show inconsistent usage; the 1778 Treaty of Alliance with France used "the United States of North America" in the first sentence, then "the said United States" afterwards; "the United States of America" and "the United States of North America" derive from "the United Colonies of America" and "the United Colonies of North America". The Treaty of Peace and Amity of September 5, 1795, between the United States and the Barbary States contains the usages "the United States of North America", "citizens of the United States", and "American Citizens".[40]

U.S. President George Washington, in his 1796 Farewell Address, declaimed that "The name of American, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation."[41] Political scientist Virginia L. Arbery notes that, in his Farewell Address:

"...Washington invites his fellow citizens to view themselves now as Americans who, out of their love for the truth of liberty, have replaced their maiden names (Virginians, South Carolinians, New Yorkers, etc.) with that of “American”. Get rid of, he urges, “any appellation derived from local discriminations.” By defining himself as an American rather than as a Virginian, Washington set the national standard for all citizens. "Over and over, Washington said that America must be something set apart. As he put it to Patrick Henry, 'In a word, I want an American character, that the powers of Europe may be convinced we act for ourselves and not for others.'"[42]

As the historian Garry Wills has noted: "This was a theme dear to Washington. He wrote to Timothy Pickering that the nation 'must never forget that we are Americans; the remembrance of which will convince us we ought not to be French or English'."[43] Washington's countrymen subsequently embraced his exhortation with notable enthusiasm.

This semantic divergence among North American anglophones, however, remained largely unknown in the Spanish-American colonies. In 1801, the document titled Letter to American Spaniards—published in French (1799), in Spanish (1801), and in English (1808)—might have influenced Venezuela's Act of Independence and its 1811 constitution.[44]

The Latter-day Saints' Articles of Faith refer to the American continents as where they are to build Zion.[45]


Common short forms and abbreviations are the United States, the U.S., the U.S.A., and America; colloquial versions include the U.S. of A. and the States. The term Columbia (from the Columbus surname) was a popular name for the U.S. and for the entire geographic Americas; its usage is present today in the District of Columbia's name. Moreover, the womanly personification of Columbia appears in some official documents, including editions of the U.S. dollar.

Usage at the United Nations

Use of the term American for U.S. nationals is common at the United Nations, and financial markets in the United States are referred to as "American financial markets".[46]

American Samoa is a recognized territorial name at the United Nations.[47]

Cultural views

Spain and Hispanic America

The use of American as a national demonym for U.S. nationals is challenged, primarily by Hispanic Americans.[2] Spanish speakers in Spain and Latin America use the term estadounidense to refer to people and things from the United States (from Estados Unidos), while americano refers to the continents as a whole.[14][48] The term gringo is also accepted in many parts of Latin America to refer to a person or something from the United States,[49] however this term may be ambiguous in certain parts. Up to and including the 1992 edition, the Diccionario de la lengua española, published by the Real Academia Española, did not include the United States definition in the entry for americano; this was added in the 2001 edition.[14][g][50] The Real Academia Española advised against using americanos exclusively for U.S. nationals:[17][51]

[Translated] It is common, and thus acceptable, to use norteamericano as a synonym of estadounidense, even though strictly speaking, the term norteamericano can equally be used to refer to the inhabitants of any country in North America, it normally applies to the inhabitants of the United States. But americano should not be used to refer exclusively to the inhabitants of the United States, an abusive usage which can be explained by the fact that in the United States, they frequently abbreviate the name of the country to "America" (in English, with no accent).[g]

Canada

Modern Canadians typically refer to people from the United States as Americans, though they seldom refer to the United States as America; they use the terms the United States, the U.S., or (informally) the States instead.[52] Canadians rarely apply the term American to themselves – some Canadians resent either being referred to as Americans because of mistaken assumptions that they are U.S. citizens or others' inability, particularly of those overseas, to distinguish Canadian from American accents.[52] Some Canadians have protested the use of American as a national demonym.[53] People of U.S. ethnic origin in Canada are categorized as "Other North American origins" by Statistics Canada for purposes of census counts.[54]

Portugal and Brazil

Generally, americano denotes "U.S. citizen" in Portugal.[13] Usage of americano to exclusively denote people and things of the U.S. is discouraged by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences, because the specific word estado-unidense (also estadunidense) clearly denotes a person from the United States. The term currently used by the Portuguese press is norte-americano.

In Brazil, the term americano is used to address both that which pertains to both American continents and, in current speech, that which pertains to the U.S.; the particular meaning is deduced from context. Alternatively, the term norte-americano ("North American") is also used in more informal contexts, while estadunidense (of the U.S.) is the preferred form in academia. Use of the three terms is common in schools, government, and media. The term América is used almost exclusively for the continents, and the U.S. is called Estados Unidos ("United States") or Estados Unidos da América ("United States of America"), often abbreviated EUA.

The Getting Through Customs website advises business travelers not to use "in America" as a U.S. reference when conducting business in Brazil.[55]

In other contexts

"American" in the 1994 Associated Press Stylebook was defined as, "An acceptable description for a resident of the United States. It also may be applied to any resident or citizen of nations in North or South America." Elsewhere, the AP Stylebook indicates that "United States" must "be spelled out when used as a noun. Use U.S. (no space) only as an adjective."[56]

The entry for "America" in The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage from 1999 reads:

[the] terms "America", "American(s)" and "Americas" refer not only to the United States, but to all of North America and South America. They may be used in any of their senses, including references to just the United States, if the context is clear. The countries of the Western Hemisphere are collectively 'the Americas'.

Media releases from the Pope and Holy See frequently use "America" to refer to the United States, and "American" to denote something or someone from the United States.[57]

International law

At least one international law uses U.S. citizen in defining a citizen of the United States rather than American citizen; for example, the English version of the North American Free Trade Agreement includes:

Only air carriers that are "citizens of the United States" may operate aircraft in domestic air service (cabotage) and may provide international scheduled and non-scheduled air service as U.S. air carriers...

Under the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, a "citizen of the United States" means:

(a) an individual who is a U.S. citizen;
(b) a partnership in which each member is a U.S. citizen; or
(c) a U.S. corporation of which the president and at least two-thirds of the board of directors and other managing officers are U.S. citizens, and at least 75 percent of the voting interest in the corporation is owned or controlled by U.S. citizens.[58]

Many international treaties use the terms American and American citizen:

U.S. commercial regulation

Products that are labeled, advertised, and marketed in the U.S. as "Made in the USA" must be, as set by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), "all or virtually all made in the U.S." The FTC, to prevent deception of customers and unfair competition, considers an unqualified claim of "American Made" to expressly claim exclusive manufacture in the U.S: "The FTC Act gives the Commission the power to bring law enforcement actions against false or misleading claims that a product is of U.S. origin."[66]

Alternatives

There are a number of alternatives to the demonym American as a citizen of the United States that do not simultaneously mean any inhabitant of the Americas. One uncommon alternative is Usonian, which usually describes a certain style of residential architecture designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. Other alternatives have also surfaced, but most have fallen into disuse and obscurity. Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage says:

The list contains (in approximate historical order from 1789 to 1939) such terms as Columbian, Columbard, Fredonian, Frede, Unisian, United Statesian, Colonican, Appalacian, Usian, Washingtonian, Usonian, Uessian, U-S-ian, Uesican, United Stater.[67]

Nevertheless, no alternative to American is common.[1]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Japanese: "U.S. citizen" is amerika-jin (アメリカ人)[4]
  2. ^ Russian: "U.S. citizen" is amerikanec (американец) for males and amerikanka (американка) for females[5]
  3. ^ The first two definitions in Diccionario de la lengua española (the official dictionary in Spanish) define americano as "Native of America" [Natural de América] and "Pertaining or relating to this part of the world" [Perteneciente o relativo a esta parte del mundo], where América refers to the continent.[16] The fourth definition of americano is defined as "United States person" [estadounidense].
  4. ^ Měiguórén is the Standard Mandarin pronunciation.
  5. ^ Chinese: měiguó ("United States") is written as 美国, měizhōu ("America the continent") is written as 美洲, guó ("country") is written as , and zhōu ("continent") is written as .[19][20][21][22]
  6. ^ In Swahili, adding the prefix mwa- to a word indicates a person (wa- would indicate people).[27]
  7. ^ a b [Untranslated] Está muy generalizado, y resulta aceptable, el uso de norteamericano como sinónimo de estadounidense, ya que, aunque en rigor el término norteamericano podría usarse igualmente en alusión a los habitantes de cualquiera de los países de América del Norte o Norteamérica, se aplica corrientemente a los habitantes de los Estados Unidos. Pero debe evitarse el empleo de americano para referirse exclusivamente a los habitantes de los Estados Unidos, uso abusivo que se explica por el hecho de que los estadounidenses utilizan a menudo el nombre abreviado América (en inglés, sin tilde) para referirse a su país.

References

  1. ^ a b c Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). The Columbia Guide to Standard American English. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 27–28. ISBN 0-231-06989-8. View at Bartleby
  2. ^ a b Mencken, H. L. (December 1947). "Names for Americans". American Speech. 22 (4): 241–256. doi:10.2307/486658. JSTOR 486658.
  3. ^ Avis, Walter S.; Drysdale, Patrick D.; Gregg, Robert J.; Eeufeldt, Victoria E.; Scargill, Matthew H. (1983). "American". Gage Canadian Dictionary (pbk ed.). Toronto: Gage Publishing Limited. p. 37. ISBN 0-7715-9122-5.
  4. ^ "American". WordReference English-Japanese Dictionary. 2013.
  5. ^ "American". WordReference English-Russian Dictionary. 2013.
  6. ^ a b "US-Amerikaner". Wortschatz (in German). Archived from the original on 2015-01-20.
  7. ^ a b c "Etats-Uniens ou Américains, that is the question". Le Monde (in French). July 6, 2007.
  8. ^ "American". Online English-Japanese Pictorial Dictionary. Free Light Software.
  9. ^ "Arabic-English translation for "أَمْريكيّ"". Bab.la Dictionary. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
  10. ^ "statunitense". WordReference English-Italiano Dictionary. 2013.
  11. ^ Vademecum. Der sprachlich-technische Leitfaden der «Neuen Zürcher Zeitung», 13th edition. Verlag Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Zürich 2013, p. 102, s. v. US-amerikanisch.
  12. ^ Eidgenössisches Departement für auswärtige Angelegenheiten: „Liste der Staatenbezeichnungen“ Archived 2015-11-03 at the Wayback Machine; Bundesministerium für europäische und internationale Angelegenheiten: „Liste der Staatennamen und deren Ableitungen in den vom Bundesministerium für europäische und internationale Angelegenheiten verwendeten Formen“; Auswärtiges Amt: „Verzeichnis der Staatennamen für den amtlichen Gebrauch in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland“
  13. ^ a b "americano". Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa (in Portuguese).
  14. ^ a b c "americano". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). Real Academia Española.
  15. ^ Pequeño Larousse Ilustrado 1992 edition, look up word Americano: Contains the Observation: Debe evitarse el empleo de americano con el sentido de norteamericano o de los Estados Unidos [Usage of the word with the meaning of U.S. citizen or the United States must be avoided] (in Spanish).
  16. ^ "América". WordReference English-Spanish Dictionary.
  17. ^ a b "norteamericano". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (in Spanish).
  18. ^ "美国人". WordReference English-Chinese Dictionary. 2013.
  19. ^ a b "United States". WordReference English-Chinese Dictionary. 2013.
  20. ^ a b "America". WordReference English-Chinese Dictionary. 2013.
  21. ^ a b "country". WordReference English-Chinese Dictionary. 2013.
  22. ^ a b "continent". WordReference English-Chinese Dictionary. 2013.
  23. ^ "america". WordReference English-Korean Dictionary. 2013.
  24. ^ "United States". bab.la. Wasilana & Amana. Archived from the original on 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
  25. ^ "amerika". bab.la. Wasilana & Amana. Archived from the original on 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
  26. ^ "American". bab.la. Wasilana & Amana. Archived from the original on 2013-10-28. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
  27. ^ Youngman, Jeremy. "Introduction to Swahili". Masai Mara.
  28. ^ "Ameriko". Esperanto–English Dictionary.
  29. ^ "Usono". Esperanto–English Dictionary.
  30. ^ "usonano". Esperanto–English Dictionary.
  31. ^ (in Esperanto) "Reta Vortaro" [Internet Dictionary].
  32. ^ "Cartographer Put 'America' on the Map 500 years Ago". USA Today. Washington, D.C. Associated Press. April 24, 2007. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
  33. ^ a b c d (subscription required) "American". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved November 27, 2008.
  34. ^ "Declaration of Independence". National Archives. July 4, 1776.
  35. ^ Wood, Gordon S. (2015), "A Different Story of What Shaped America", New York Review of Books, July 9 issue.
  36. ^ Letter TJ to Theodore Foster, May 1801, in Paul Leicester Ford ed., The Works of Thomas Jefferson (1905) 8:50.
  37. ^ Madison, James. "The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments". The Federalist.
  38. ^ Hamilton, Alexander. "The Executive Department Further Considered". The Federalist.
  39. ^ Hamilton, Alexander. "The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered". The Federalist Papers.
  40. ^ "The Barbary Treaties: Treaty of Peace and Amity".
  41. ^ wikisource:Washington's Farewell Address
  42. ^ Arbery, Virginia L. (1999), "Washington's Farewell Address and the Form of the American Regime"; In: Gary L. Gregg II and Matthew Spalding, Patriot Sage: George Washington and the American Political Tradition, pp. 204, 206.
  43. ^ Wills, Garry (1984), Cincinnatus: George Washington and the Enlightenment, pp. 92-93.
  44. ^ Bastin, Georges L. Bastin; Castrillón, Elvia R. (2004). "La "Carta dirigida a los españoles americanos", una carta que recorrió muchos caminos." [The "Letter directed to Spanish Americans", a letter that traversed many paths...]. Hermeneus (in Spanish) (6): 276–290. Archived from the original on January 27, 2010.
  45. ^ The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. "Articles of Faith 1:10". We believe in the literal gathering of Israel and in the restoration of the Ten Tribes; that Zion (the New Jerusalem) will be built upon the American continent...
  46. ^ "Financial Reform Recommendations to General Assembly". United Nations. March 26, 2009.
  47. ^ "American Samoa". United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  48. ^ "estadounidense". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. [Translated:] 1. adj. Native of the United States of America [Original:] "1. adj. Natural de los Estados Unidos de América."
  49. ^ "gringo". Diccionario de la lengua española (in Spanish). Real Academia Española. [Translated:] 3. adj. Bol., Chile, Col., Cuba, Ec., El Salv., Hond., Nic., Par., Peru, Ur. and Ven. Native of the United States of America [Original:] "3. adj. Bol., Chile, Col., Cuba, Ec., El Salv., Hond., Nic., Par., Perú, Ur. y Ven. estadounidense."
  50. ^ "americano". Diccionario usual (in Spanish) (21st ed.). Real Academia Española. 1992. p. 89. Archived from the original on 2006-05-01. To access, click the magnifying glass in the upper left-hand corner. In the field titled "Lema", type "americano"; for the "Resultados" radio buttons, select "Diccionario"; in the field in the selection field for "Diccionarios", make sure that "1992 Academica Usual" is selected. Then click "Buscar".
  51. ^ "Estados Unidos". Real Academia Española. Retrieved 2015-11-03.
  52. ^ a b Fee, Margery; McAlpine, J. (1997). Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage. Toronto: Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 0-19-541619-8.
  53. ^ de Ford, Miriam Allen (April 1927). "On the difficulty of indicating nativity in the United States". American Speech: 315. doi:10.2307/452894.
  54. ^ "Population by selected ethnic origins, by province and territory (2006 Census)". Statistics Canada.
  55. ^ Morrison, Terri. "Doing business abroad – Brazil". Archived from the original on 2007-02-05.
  56. ^ "AP Style United States". Writing Explained. Retrieved 2019-02-20.
  57. ^ Pope Paul VI (October 4, 1965). Homily of the Holy Father Paul VI (Speech). Yankee Stadium, New York.
  58. ^ "Annex I: Reservations for Existing Measures and Liberalization Commitments (Chapters 11, 12, and 14)". North American Free Trade Agreement. October 7, 1992.
  59. ^ "Treaty between US and the Dey and Regency of Algiers, March 7, 1796". Gilder Lehrman Collection Documents. PBS.
  60. ^ "The Louisiana Purchase Treaty". Archives of The West. PBS.
  61. ^ "Treaty with The Cheyenne Tribe". July 6, 1825.
  62. ^ "The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo". La Prensa.
  63. ^ "The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the United States and Japan, 1858 (The Harris Treaty)".
  64. ^ "Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain; December 10, 1898".
  65. ^ "The United States–Thailand Treaty of Amity". Thailand Business and Legal Guide.
  66. ^ "Complying with the Made In the USA Standard". Federal Trade Commission. Archived from the original on February 16, 2006.
  67. ^ Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage. Merriam-Webster. 1994. p. 88.

Works cited

  • Allen, Irving L. (1983). The Language of Ethnic Conflict: Social Organization and Lexical Culture. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Condon, J.C. (1986). "...So near the United States". In Valdes, J.M. (ed.). Culture bound: Bridging the cultural gap in language teaching. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 85–93. ISBN 978-0-521-31045-1.
  • Herbst, Philip H. (1997). Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. ISBN 1-877864-42-0.

External links

Canada, Kentucky

Canada is an unincorporated community in Pike County, Kentucky. Canada is located on U.S. Route 119, 13.8 miles (22.2 km) northeast of Pikeville.There are two possible scenarios for the origin of the name "Canada". One possible explanation being that Canada is the Native American word for settlement, since the area once had a high population of Native Americans. The other explanation involves Zebulon Pike, a general in the War of 1812 who most of Pike County is named after. Pike died in Canada, which leads to this being a possible origin of the name "Canada".

Canisteo River

The Canisteo River is a 61.0-mile-long (98.2 km) tributary of the Tioga River in western New York in the United States. It drains a dissected plateau, a portion of the northern Allegheny Plateau southwest of the Finger Lakes region, in the far northwestern reaches of the watershed of the Susquehanna River.

It rises in the hills of northern Allegany County, approximately 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Dansville. It flows east into northern Steuben County, then generally southeast past Hornell and Canisteo. It joins the Tioga from the west in southeastern Steuben County, approximately 10 miles (16 km) north of the Pennsylvania state line and 5 miles (8 km) southwest of Corning.

The name of the river comes from a Native American word meaning either "pickerel" or "head of water". In the 19th century the river valley was the site of an early timber industry. Logs were floated down the river after being cut. As on other rivers in the Susquehanna basin, transportation on the Canisteo before the middle 19th century was often accomplished by arks up to 75 feet (23 m) long. The headwaters of the Canisteo were considered to be the farthest navigable headwaters of ark navigation in the Susquehanna watershed.

In the floods of 1936, the river overflowed and inundated parts of the Canisteo and Hornell, leading to the construction of flood control systems in both communities. The only flooding since then was from Hurricane Agnes of 1972, in which the river destroyed the Erie Railroad line south of Hornell.

Channahon State Park

Channahon State Park is an Illinois state park in Will County, Illinois, United States. The park was named after a Native American word meaning "the meeting of the waters". It lies adjacent to the confluence of the Dupage, Des Plaines, and Kankakee Rivers.

The park is near the municipality of Channahon, Illinois. It is served by U.S. Highway 6.

Hockhockson, New Jersey

Hockhockson is an unincorporated community located within Tinton Falls in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. The name Hockhockson derives from a Native American word meaning "plantation".

List of counties in Mississippi

There are 82 counties in the U.S. state of Mississippi.

Mississippi's postal abbreviation is MS and its FIPS state code is 28.

Smithsonian Trinomial county designations in Mississippi. Counties;

AD-Adams, AL-Alcorn, AM-Amite, AT-Attala,

BE-Benton, BO-Bolivar, CN-Calhoun, CA-Carroll,

CS-Chickasaw, CH-Choctaw, CB-Claiborne, CK-Clarke,

CL-Clay, CO-Coahoma, CP-Copiah, CV-Covington,

DS-DeSoto, FO-Forrest, FR-Franklin, GE-George,

GN-Greene, GR-Grenada, HA-Hancock, HR-Harrison,

HI-Hinds, HO-Holmes, HU-Humphreys, IS-Issaquena,

IT-Itawamba, JA-Jackson, JS-Jasper, JE-Jefferson,

JD-Jefferson Davis, JO-Jones, KE-Kemper, LA-Lafayette,

LM-Lamar, LD-Lauderdale, LW-Lawrence LK-Leake,

LE-Lee, LF-Leflore, LI-Lincoln, LO-Lowndes,

MD-Madison, MA-Marion, MR-Marshall, MO-Monroe,

MT-Montgomery, NE-Neshoba, NW-Newton, NO-Noxubee,

OK-Oktibbeha, PA-Panola, PR-Pearl River, PE-Perry,

PI-Pike, PO-Pontotoc, PS-Prentiss, QU-Quitman,

RA-Rankin, SC-Scott, SH-Sharkey, SI-Simpson,

SM-Smith, ST-Stone, SU-Sunflower, TL-Tallahatchie,

TA-Tate, TI-Tippah, TS-Tishomingo, TU-Tunica,

UN-Union, WL-Walthall, WR-Warren, WS-Washington,

WA-Wayne, WE-Webster, WK-Wilkinson, WI-Winston,

YA-Yalobusha, YZ-Yazoo.

List of counties in New York

There are 62 counties in the state of New York. The original twelve counties were created immediately after the British takeover of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, although two of these counties have since been abolished. The most recent county formation in New York was in 1914, when Bronx County was created from the portions of New York City that had been annexed from Westchester County in the late 19th century and added to New York County. New York's counties are named for a variety of Native American words; British provinces, counties, cities, and royalty; early American statesmen and military personnel; and New York State politicians.The FIPS county code is the five-digit Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) code which uniquely identifies counties and county equivalents in the United States. The three-digit number is unique to each individual county within a state, but to be unique within the entire United States, it must be prefixed by the state code. This means that, for example, while Albany County is 001, Addison County, Vermont, and Alachua County, Florida, are also 001. To uniquely identify Albany County, New York, one must use the state code of 36 plus the county code of 001; therefore, the unique nationwide identifier for Albany County, New York, is 36001. The links in the column FIPS County Code are to the Census Bureau Info page for that county.

Manhattan Beach State Recreation Site

Manhattan Beach State Recreation Site is a state park in the U.S. state of Oregon. Administered by the Oregon Parks and Recreation Department, the park is open to the public and is fee-free. Amenities at the park, which is 2 miles (3 km) north of Rockaway Beach along U.S. Route 101, include picnicking, fishing, and a Pacific Ocean beach.The entrance road from the highway leads across tracks of the Southern Pacific Railroad to a site with coastal vegetation, picnic tables, and restrooms. Although the park occupies only 41 acres (17 ha), its beach forms part of a 7-mile (11 km) stretch of public beaches between Tillamook Bay on the south and Nehalem Bay on the north. Sea stacks called the Twin Rocks can be seen offshore to the south near the community of Twin Rocks. The Oregon Coast Trail passes though the park.Oregon Geographic Names (OGN) says that the name Manhattan Beach "strongly savors of real-estate activity". The Pacific Railway & Navigation Company, which opened a rail line through a nearby summer resort in 1912, named its train station "Manhattan Beach". The unincorporated community of Manhattan Beach had a post office between 1914 and 1975. In 1926, the postmaster wrote that promoters chose the name because Manhattan Beach, Oregon, was a watering place. OGN says the name might be "particularly inappropriate" considering that a native American word for Manhattan Island in New York probably meant "place of drunkenness" and that "no one gets drunk in Oregon, certainly not in watering places. No indeed."

Matunuck, Rhode Island

Matunuck is a village in South Kingstown, Rhode Island, United States near Charlestown, Rhode Island. The village is located on a point along the southern Atlantic coast of Rhode Island off U.S. Route 1. The village takes its name from a Native American word meaning "lookout" The Narragansett tribe made a summer encampment at this location before the land was sold to colonists as part of the Pettaquamscutt purchase.

Nahlin (yacht)

Nahlin is a luxury yacht and one of the last of three large steam yachts constructed in the UK. She was built for Lady Yule, heiress of Sir David Yule, and was launched in 1930. She is owned by British industrial entrepreneur Sir James Dyson, who purchased her from Sir Anthony Bamford, Chairman of JCB. The name Nahlin is taken from a Native American word meaning "fleet of foot" and the yacht has a figurehead depicting a Native American wearing a feathered headdress beneath the bowsprit.

North Pack Monadnock

This article is about a mountain located in Greenfield and Temple, New Hampshire. It Should not be confused with the nearby Mount Monadnock. For other uses, see Monadnock (disambiguation)North Pack Monadnock or North Pack Monadnock Mountain is a 2,276-foot (694 m) monadnock in south-central New Hampshire, at the northern end of the Wapack Range of mountains. It lies within Greenfield and Temple, New Hampshire; the 22-mile (35 km) Wapack Trail traverses the mountain. Ledges on the summit offer long views north to the White Mountains and west to Mount Monadnock. Pack Monadnock Mountain is directly to the south along the Wapack ridgeline. The upper elevations of the mountain are within Miller State Park.

According to local tradition, the word "pack" is a Native American word for "little"; "monadnock" is used to describe an isolated mountain summit. Thus "Pack Monadnock" (Little Monadnock) refers to its relationship to the higher Mount Monadnock, 3,165 feet (965 m), 11 miles (18 km) to the west. It should not be confused with the similarly named peak Little Monadnock Mountain, 17 miles (27 km) to the west.

The east side of the mountain drains into the Souhegan River watershed, thence into the Merrimack River and Atlantic Ocean; the west side drains into the Contoocook River, thence into the Merrimack River.

Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

Oktibbeha County is a county located in the east central portion of the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census the population was 47,671. The county seat is Starkville. The county's name is derived from a local Native American word meaning either "bloody water" or "icy creek".

Mississippi State University, a public research university and land-grant institution, is located in Oktibbeha County.

Oktibbeha County is conterminous with the Starkville, MS Micropolitian Statistical Area. The county is part of the Golden Triangle region of Mississippi.

Ponkapoag Pond

Ponkapag Pond is a 203-acre impoundment is located on the border of Canton and Randolph, Massachusetts about a half mile south of Route 128 and a half mile east of Route 138. It has a maximum depth of seven feet and an average depth of four feet. As would be expected on a pond this shallow, aquatic vegetation is pervasive and very abundant. Only a small portion of the eastern shoreline is developed; the southeastern and western shores are bordered by large expanses of marshland. There is no formal public access, but there is street-side parking and a place to launch cartop boats and canoes at the spillway on the pond's western tip.The name comes from a Native American word meaning a spring that bubbles up from red soil, sweet water, or shallow pond.Although there are some limited areas where shore fishing is possible, the heavy weeds make it difficult to cover much productive water without a boat. There are abundant bass, panfish and pickerel, though trophy fish are decidedly rare.

Rancocas, New Jersey

Rancocas is an unincorporated community located within Westampton Township in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States. The name derives from the Native American word Rankokous. which was used in the name of the Powhatan Renape Nation Indian Reservation located in Westampton Township. The name was also known as a sub-tribe of the Ancocus. The Reservation was a popular tourist destination for visitors from the Philadelphia area, New York, and local residents, before the Reservation became Rancocas State Park.

Saratoga, New York

Saratoga is a town in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 5,141 at the 2000 census. It is also the commonly used, but not official, name for the neighboring and much more populous city, Saratoga Springs. The major village in the town of Saratoga is Schuylerville which is often, but not officially, called Old Saratoga. Saratoga contains a second village named Victory.

Saratoga is an adaptation of a Native American word from the Mohawk language. It was the name of Indian hunting grounds located along both sides of the Hudson River. According to unnamed sources, it derives from 'Se-rach-ta-gue' meaning 'the hillside country of the quiet river'; however, according to linguist Marianne Mithun, it is derived from sharató:ken, which means "where you get a blister on your heels."Saratoga is located on the eastern border of the county and is located east of Saratoga Springs, and is bordered by Saratoga Lake and the Hudson River.

The town sends students to Saratoga Springs City School District, Schuylerville Central School District, and Stillwater Central School District.

Skug River

The Skug River, said to be named either for the Native American word Skug, meaning Snake, or a misspelling of Skunk River, is a 4.9-mile-long (7.9 km) river in North Andover, Andover, and North Reading, Massachusetts that constitutes part of the Ipswich River watershed.

The river arises from wetlands just south of Boston Hill in the Harold Parker State Forest, and flows mainly southwest to empty into Martin's Pond in North Reading. From there, Martin's Brook carries its waters onwards to the Ipswich River.

The river was dammed over 200 years ago for a sawmill and grist mill. Although the dam has since disappeared, the large stone walls of its millrace can still be seen in the Harold Parker State Forest and Andover Village Improvement Society Skug River Reservation, as can the old Jenkins Soapstone Quarry abutting the river.

Teewinot Mountain

Teewinot Mountain (12,330 feet (3,758 m)) is the sixth highest peak in the Teton Range, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. The name of the mountain is derived from the Shoshone Native American word meaning "many pinnacles". The peak is northeast of the Grand Teton, and the two are separated from one another by the Teton Glacier and Mount Owen. Teewinot Mountain rises more than 5,500 feet (1,700 m) above Jenny Lake. The 40 miles (64 km) long Teton Range is the youngest mountain chain in the Rocky Mountains, and began their uplift 9 million years ago, during the Miocene. Several periods of glaciation have carved Teewinot Mountain and the other peaks of the range into their current shapes. Broken Falls is one of the tallest cascades in Grand Teton National Park and descends 300 feet (91 m) down the eastern slopes of Teewinot Mountain.

Timba, California

Timba (or Orestimba) is a small unincorporated town in Stanislaus County, California, United States, about 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Newman. Timba is located at 37°20′34″N 121°01′52″W.orestimba is a native American word meaning "meeting place"

Virginville, Pennsylvania

Virginville is a census-designated place in Richmond Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania. It is located at the junction of PA 143 and Crystal Ridge Road, and is approximately 7 miles to the south of the borough of Lenhartsville. As of the 2010 census, the population was 309 residents.Maiden Creek runs through the town and it also meets up with Sacony Creek.

The origin of the name Virginville is obscure. Some say it is the English translation of a Native American word, while others believe the community was named for virgin forests in the area. "Virgin" may be an alternate translation of the Indian-named Maiden Creek.The hamlet was designated the Virginville Historic District by the National Register of Historic Places in 2000.The district encompasses 80 contributing buildings built between 1874 and 1930. It includes residential, commercial, and institutional buildings in a variety of popular architectural styles including Gothic Revival and Italianate. A primarily residential district, notable non-residential buildings include The Creamery (c. 1875), St. Paul's Chapel (1903), Virginville Hotel (1885), post office (c. 1930), and Balthasar's Garage (1921).

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