Amen

The word amen (/ˌɑːˈmɛn/, /ˌeɪˈmɛn/)[a] (Hebrew אָמֵן, Greek ἀμήν, Arabic آمِينَ) is a declaration of affirmation[1][2] found in the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament. It is found in Jewish, Christian and Muslim worship as a concluding word or response to prayers.[2] Common English translations of the word amen include "verily" and "truly". It can also be used colloquially to express strong agreement,[2] as in, for instance, amen to that.[3]

Pronunciation

In English, the word amen has two primary pronunciations, ah-men (/ɑːˈmɛn/) or ay-men (/eɪˈmɛn/),[4] with minor additional variation in emphasis (the two syllables may be equally stressed instead of placing primary stress on the second).

In anglophone North America the ah-men pronunciation is used in performances of classical music, in churches with more formalized rituals and liturgy and in liberal to mainline Protestant denominations, as well as almost every Jewish congregation, in line with modern Hebrew pronunciation. The ay-men pronunciation, a product of the Great Vowel Shift dating to the 15th century, is associated with Irish Protestantism and conservative Evangelical denominations generally, and is the pronunciation typically used in gospel music.

In Arabic the pronunciation ah-meen (ʾĀmīn) is used upon completing a supplication to God or when concluding recitation of the first surah Al Fatiha in prayer.[5]

Etymology

Amen in East Syriac Aramaic language
"Amen" in contemporary (Madnhāyā) Syriac script.

The usage of Amen, meaning "so be it", as found in the early scriptures of the Bible is said to be of Hebrew origin;[6] however, the basic triconsonantal root from which the word was derived is common to a number of languages, such as Aramaic, in the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. The word was imported into the Greek of the early Church from Judaism.[1][7] From Greek, amen entered the other Western languages. According to a standard dictionary etymology, amen passed from Greek into Late Latin, and thence into English.[8] Rabbinic scholars from medieval France believed the standard Hebrew word for faith emuna comes from the root amen. Although in English transliteration they look different, they are both from the root aleph-mem-nun. That is, the Hebrew word amen derives from the same ancient triliteral Hebrew root as does the verb ʾāmán.[9]

Grammarians frequently list ʾāmán under its three consonants (aleph-mem-nun), which are identical to those of ʾāmēn (note that the Hebrew letter א aleph represents a glottal stop sound, which functions as a consonant in the morphology of Hebrew).[8] This triliteral root means to be firm, confirmed, reliable, faithful, have faith, believe.

In Arabic, the word is derived from its triliteral common root word ʾĀmana (Arabic: آمن‎), which has the same meanings as the Hebrew root word.

Popular among some theosophists,[10] proponents of Afrocentric theories of history,[11] and adherents of esoteric Christianity[12][13] is the conjecture that amen is a derivative of the name of the Egyptian god Amun (which is sometimes also spelled Amen). Some adherents of Eastern religions believe that amen shares roots with the Hindu Sanskrit word, Aum.[14][15][16][17] Such external etymologies are not included in standard etymological reference works. The Hebrew word, as noted above, starts with aleph, while the Egyptian name begins with a yodh.[18]

The Armenian word ամեն (amen) means "every"; however it is also used in the same form at the conclusion of prayers, much as in English.[19] In French, the Hebrew word amen is sometimes translated as Ainsi soit-il, which means "So be it."[19]

The linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann argues that, as in the case of Hallelujah, the word Amen is usually not replaced by a translation due to the speakers’ belief in iconicity, their perception that there is something intrinsic about the relationship between the sound of the signifier (the word) and what it signifies (its meaning).[20]:62

Hebrew Bible

The word first occurs in the Hebrew Bible in Numbers 5:22 when the Priest addresses a suspected adulteress and she responds “Amen, Amen”. Overall, the word appears in the Hebrew Bible 30 times.

Three distinct Biblical usages of amen may be noted:[1]

  1. Initial amen, referring back to words of another speaker and introducing an affirmative sentence, e.g. 1 Kings 1:36.[1]
  2. Detached amen, again referring to the words of another speaker but without a complementary affirmative sentence, e.g. Nehemiah 5:13.[1]
  3. Final amen, with no change of speaker, as in the subscription to the first three divisions of Psalms.[1]

New Testament

There are 52 amens in the Synoptic Gospels and 25 in John. The five final amens (Matthew 6:13, 28:20, Mark 16:20, Luke 24:53 and John 21:25), which are wanting in certain manuscripts, simulate the effect of final amen in the Hebrew Psalms. All initial amens occur in the sayings of Jesus. These initial amens are unparalleled in Hebrew literature, according to Friedrich Delitzsch, because they do not refer to the words of a previous speaker but instead introduce a new thought.[21]

The uses of amen ("verily" or "I tell you the truth", depending on the translation) in the Gospels form a peculiar class; they are initial, but often lack any backward reference.[22] Jesus used the word to affirm his own utterances, not those of another person, and this usage was adopted by the church. The use of the initial amen, single or double in form, to introduce solemn statements of Jesus in the Gospels had no parallel in Jewish practice.[23]

In the King James Bible, the word amen is preserved in a number of contexts. Notable ones include:

  • The catechism of curses of the Law found in Deuteronomy 27.[1]
  • A double amen ("amen and amen") occurs in Psalm 89 (Psalm 41:13; 72:19; 89:52), to confirm the words and invoke the fulfillment of them.[24]
  • Amen occurs in several doxology formulas in Romans 1:25, 9:5, 11:36, 15:33, and several times in Chapter 16.[1] It also appears in doxologies in the Psalms (41:14; 72:19; 89:53; 106:48). This liturgical form from Judaism.[25]
  • It concludes all of Paul's general epistles.
  • In Revelation 3:14, Jesus is referred to as, "the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of God's creation." The whole passage reads as "And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God;".
  • Amen concludes the New Testament at Rev. 22:21.

Religious use

Judaism

Although amen, in Judaism, is commonly stated as a response to a blessing, it is also often used as an affirmation of any declaration.

Jewish rabbinical law requires an individual to say amen in a variety of contexts.[26]

With the rise of the synagogue during the Second Temple period, amen became a common response, especially to benedictions. It is recited communally to affirm a blessing made by the prayer reader. It is also mandated as a response during the kaddish doxology. The congregation is sometimes prompted to answer 'amen' by the terms ve-'imru (Hebrew: ואמרו‎) = "and [now] say (pl.)," or, ve-nomar (ונאמר) = "and let us say." Contemporary usage reflects ancient practice: As early as the 4th century BCE, Jews assembled in the Temple responded 'amen' at the close of a doxology or other prayer uttered by a priest. This Jewish liturgical use of amen was adopted by the Christians.[23] But Jewish law also requires individuals to answer amen whenever they hear a blessing recited, even in a non-liturgical setting.

The Talmud teaches homiletically that the word amen is an acronym for אל מלך נאמן (ʾEl melekh neʾeman, "God, trustworthy King"),[27] the phrase recited silently by an individual before reciting the Shma.

Jews usually approximate the Hebrew pronunciation of the word: /ɑːˈmɛn/ ah-MEN (Israeli-Ashkenazi and Sephardi) or /ɔːˈmeɪn/ aw-MAYN (non-Israeli Ashkenazi).[28]

Christianity

The use of "amen" has been generally adopted in Christian worship as a concluding word[29] for prayers and hymns and an expression of strong agreement.[23] The liturgical use of the word in apostolic times is attested by the passage from 1 Corinthians cited above, and Justin Martyr (c. 150) describes the congregation as responding "amen" to the benediction after the celebration of the Eucharist.[1][29] Its introduction into the baptismal formula (in the Eastern Orthodox Church it is pronounced after the name of each person of the Trinity) was probably later.[30][29]

In Isaiah 65:16, the authorized version has "the God of truth" ("the God of amen" in Hebrew). Jesus often used amen to put emphasis to his own words (translated: "verily" or "truly"). In John's Gospel, it is repeated, "Verily, verily" (or "Truly, truly"). Amen is also used in oaths (Numbers 5:22; Deuteronomy 27:15–26; Nehemiah 5:13; 8:6; 1 Chronicles 16:36) and is further found at the end of the prayer of primitive churches (1 Corinthians 14:16).[24]

In some Christian churches, the "amen corner" or "amen section" is any subset of the congregation likely to call out "Amen!" in response to points in a preacher's sermon.[31] Metaphorically, the term can refer to any group of heartfelt traditionalists or supporters of an authority figure.

Amen is also used in standard, international French, but in Cajun French Ainsi soit-il ("so be it") is used instead.

Amen is used at the end of the Lord's Prayer,[32] which is also called the Our Father or the Pater Noster.

Islam

Ameen
ʾĀmīn in Arabic.

ʾĀmīn (Arabic: آمين‎) is the Arabic form of Amen. In Islam, it is used with the same meaning as in Judaism and Christianity; when concluding a prayer, especially after a supplication (du'a) or reciting the first surah Al Fatiha of the Qur'an (salat), and as an assent to the prayers of others.[33][34]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Hebrew: אָמֵן, Modern: amen, Tiberian: ʾāmēn; Greek: ἀμήν; Arabic: آمِينَ‎, ʾāmīna; "So be it; truly"

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wikisource-logo.svg Thurston, Herbert (1907). "Amen" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ a b c Harper, Douglas. "amen". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
  3. ^ Microsoft Encarta Dictionary Tools. Retrieved 20 August 2007
  4. ^ "amen - definition of amen in English by Oxford Dictionaries". oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  5. ^ https://bustedhalo.com/podcasts/two-ways-pronouncing-amen
  6. ^ Paul Joüon, SJ, A Grammar of Biblical Hebrew, trans. and revised by T. Muraoka, vol. I, Rome: Editrice Pontificio Instituto Biblico, 2000.
  7. ^ "Amen". Jewish Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  8. ^ a b "Amen". American Heritage Dictionary. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  9. ^ "King James Bible Strong's Hebrew Dictionary". Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
  10. ^ "COLLATION OF THEOSOPHICAL GLOSSARIES – Amen". Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
  11. ^ The Origin of the Word Amen, Ed. by Issa & Faraji, Amen Ra Theological Seminary Press. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 16 February 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) as quoted in the Lexington Herald-Leader, "Scholar traces origins of 'Amen' He says word is of African, not Hebrew, origin", December 2007, [1]
  12. ^ "Assembly of Yahweh, Cascade (an Assembly of True Israel, of the Diaspora) – Words and Definitions critical to the correct understanding of the Scriptures and Christianity". Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
  13. ^ "Amen". The Assembly of IaHUShUA MaShIaChaH. 15 December 2005. Archived from the original on 6 February 2008. Retrieved 13 March 2008.
  14. ^ Yogananda, Paramahansa. Autobiography of a Yoga, 1946, chapter 26.
  15. ^ Sri H.W.L Poonja, 'The Truth is', Published by Samuel Weiser, 2000, ISBN 1-57863-175-0
  16. ^ Mandala Yoga Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ "Hindu Culture - Omkar and Swastika". hindubooks.org. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  18. ^ Erman, Adolf & Grapow, Hermann: Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, Im Auftrage der Deutschen Akademien, Berlin: Akademie Verlag (1971), p.85
  19. ^ a b "Amen: Behind the word and meaning". ASH. 12 August 2018. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  20. ^ Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003), Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403917232 / ISBN 9781403938695 [2]
  21. ^ "Amen", Encyclopedia Biblica
  22. ^ "Amen". Jewish Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  23. ^ a b c "Amen". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2008.
  24. ^ a b "Bible Dictionary: Amen". eastonsbibledictionary.com. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  25. ^ cf. John L. McKenzie, SJ, "Dictionary of the Bible", New York: MacMillan Publ. Co., Inc., 1965. Entry: "Amen," p. 25)
  26. ^ Orach Chaim 56 (amen in kaddish); O.C. 124 (amen in response to blessings recited by the prayer reader); O.C. 215 (amen in response to blessings made by any individual outside of the liturgy).
  27. ^ Tractate Shabbat 119b and Tractate Sanhedrin 111a
  28. ^ To Pray as a Jew: A Guide to the Prayer Book and the Synagogue Service, Hayim Halevy Donin
  29. ^ a b c Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Amen" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 804.
  30. ^ Among certain Gnostic sects, Amen became the name of an angel.
  31. ^ Hovda, Robert W. (1983). "The amen corner". Worship. 57 (2): 150–156.
  32. ^ Wycliffe. "Matthew 6:9– 15". Wycliffe Bible.
  33. ^ Hastings, James (2004) [1901]. A Dictionary of Christ and the Gospels: Volume I. The Minerva Group, Inc. p. 52.
  34. ^ Glassé, Cyril (2003). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Stacey International. p. 48.

Further reading

Schnitker, Thaddeus A. "Amen." In The Encyclopedia of Christianity, edited by Erwin Fahlbusch and Geoffrey William Bromiley, 43–44. Vol. 1. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1999. ISBN 0802824137

External links

Amen.

Amen. is a 2002 historical drama film, co-written and directed by Costa-Gavras and starring Ulrich Tukur, Mathieu Kassovitz, Sebastian Koch and Ulrich Mühe. The film examines the links between the Vatican and Nazi Germany.

Amen (American band)

Amen is an American Hardcore Punk band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1994. The band was founded by front man and singer Casey Chaos and combines elements of punk rock, hardcore, and heavy metal. Amen has released four studio albums, one live album, and the songs "Coma America", "The Price of Reality", and "California's Bleeding". The band saw continuous changes in membership, with Casey Chaos remaining the sole original member. In 2007, Amen went on hiatus and returned in 2014 with an appearance at that year's Knotfest.

Amen (Liora song)

"Amen" (Hebrew: אמן‎) was the Israeli entry in the Eurovision Song Contest 1995, performed in Hebrew by Liora.

The song is a prayer to God for protection, with the title being derived from the word Amen, which is repeated frequently in the prayer.

The song was performed 21st on the night (following Slovenia's Darja Švajger with "Prisluhni mi" and preceding Malta's Mike Spiteri with "Keep Me In Mind"). At the close of voting, it had received 81 points, placing 8th in a field of 23. In the pre-selection show in Israel Liora performed the song with candles on the stage. The Irish production, however, declined the Israeli candles staging due to "safety problems".

Due to the rapidly expanding size of the Contest, entry to the 1996 Contest was determined through an internal preselection in which judges listened to recordings of the proposed entries. Israel did not progress through this stage. Entry to the 1997 Contest was restricted to those countries with the best average scores over the previous five years, a group which did not include Israel. The country did, however, participate as a "passive participant", by screening the Contest live. This earned Israel the right to re-enter the Contest in 1998. Hence, the song was succeeded as Israeli representative at the 1998 Contest by Dana International with "Diva".

Amen (Meek Mill song)

"Amen" is a song by American hip hop recording artist Meek Mill, released as the lead single from his debut studio album Dreams and Nightmares, on June 19, 2012. The song features fellow rapper and Canadian recording artist Drake with uncredited vocals from R&B singer Jeremih. It was produced by Key Wane and Jahlil Beats. The song samples the Doobie Brothers song "Minute by Minute".

Throughout time, "Amen" remains one of the only three songs (along with "R.I.C.O." and "Going Bad") that Mill and Drake would ever collaborate for, since they have engaged in a well-known feud that started in 2015. However, their beef ended in mid 2018 when Drake brought Mill during the Aubrey and the Three Migos Tour.

Amen (TV series)

Amen is an American sitcom produced by Carson Productions that aired on NBC from September 27, 1986 to May 11, 1991. Set in Sherman Hemsley's real-life hometown of Philadelphia, Amen stars Hemsley as the deacon of a church and was part of a wave of successful sitcoms on NBC in the 1980s and early 1990s which featured predominantly black casts – others included The Cosby Show, A Different World, The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air, and 227.

Amen Corner (band)

Amen Corner were a Welsh rock group, formed in late 1966 in Cardiff, Wales.

Amen Edore Oyakhire

Prince Amen Edore Oyakhire was the Military Administrator of Taraba State, Nigeria between August 1996 and August 1998 during the military regime of General Sani Abacha. He was then administrator of Oyo State during the transitional regime of General Abdulsalami Abubakar, handing over to the elected civilian governor Lam Onaolapo Adesina in May 1999 at the start of the Nigerian Fourth Republic.

Amen break

The Amen break is a drum break in the 1969 track "Amen, Brother" by the soul group the Winstons. The track was released as the B-side of the Winstons' 1969 single "Color Him Father". The drum break lasts about seven seconds and was performed by Gregory Coleman.

With the rise of hip hop in the 1980s, the break was widely sampled and became a staple of drum and bass and jungle music. It has been used on thousands of tracks of many genres, making it one of the most sampled recordings of all time.

Amun

Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) is a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan Ogdoad. Amun was attested from the Old Kingdom together with his wife Amaunet.

With the 11th dynasty (c. 21st century BC), Amun rose to the position of patron deity of Thebes by replacing Montu.After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I (16th century BC), Amun acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra or Amun-Re.

Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom (with the exception of the "Atenist heresy" under Akhenaten).

Amun-Ra in this period (16th to 11th centuries BC) held the position of transcendental, self-created creator deity "par excellence"; he was the champion of the poor or troubled and central to personal piety. His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods.As the chief deity of the Egyptian Empire, Amun-Ra also came to be worshipped outside Egypt, according to the testimony of ancient Greek historiographers in Libya and Nubia. As Zeus Ammon, he came to be identified with Zeus in Greece.

Augusta National Golf Club

Augusta National Golf Club, located in Augusta, Georgia, is one of the most famous golf clubs in the world. Founded by Bobby Jones and Clifford Roberts on the site of the former Fruitland (later Fruitlands) Nursery, the course was designed by Jones and Alister MacKenzie and opened for play in January 1933. Its first club professional was Ed Dudley, who served in the role until 1957; Dudley was one of the top tournament professionals of his era, with 15 wins on the PGA Tour.

Since 1934, the club has played host to the annual Masters Tournament, one of the four major championships in professional golf, and the only major played each year at the same course. It was the top-ranked course in Golf Digest's 2009 list of America's 100 greatest courses and was the number ten-ranked course based on course architecture on Golfweek Magazine's 2011 list of best classic courses in the United States.Augusta National received criticism for admitting no African Americans as members until 1990 and no women as members until 2012. The club long required all caddies to be black and barred black golfers from the Masters Tournament until Lee Elder participated in 1975. In 1997, Tiger Woods became the first person of color to win the tournament; Vijay Singh later became the second.

In 2019, the course began co-hosting the Augusta National Women's Amateur.

Berakhah

In Judaism, a berakhah, bracha, brokho, brokhe (Hebrew: בְּרָכָה‎; pl. בְּרָכוֹת, berakhot, brokhoys; "benediction," "blessing," "drawing down [of spiritual energy]") is a formula of blessing or thanksgiving, recited in public or private, usually before the performance of a commandment, or the enjoyment of food or fragrance, and in praise on various occasions.

The function of a berakhah is to acknowledge God as the source of all blessing. Berakhot also have an educational function to transform a variety of everyday actions and occurrences into religious experiences designed to increase awareness of God at all times. For this purpose, the Talmudic sage, Rabbi Meir, stated that it was the duty of every Jew to recite one hundred berakhot every day (Men. 43b).The Mishnah of tractate Berakhot, and the gemara in both Talmuds contain detailed rabbinical discussions of berakhot, upon which the laws and practice of reciting blessings are founded.Berakhot typically start with the words "Blessed are You, Lord our God..."

One who hears another recite a berakhah answers with amen; but one who is engaged in prayer may at certain points be forbidden from other speech, including responding amen. With few exceptions, one does not respond amen to his or her own berakha, although other prayers—such as the kaddish—include "amen" in their text.

Cadence

In Western musical theory, a cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is "a melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of resolution [finality or pause]." A harmonic cadence is a progression of (at least) two chords that concludes a phrase, section, or piece of music. A rhythmic cadence is a characteristic rhythmic pattern that indicates the end of a phrase.A cadence is labeled more or less "weak" or "strong" depending on its sense of finality. While cadences are usually classified by specific chord or melodic progressions, the use of such progressions does not necessarily constitute a cadence—there must be a sense of closure, as at the end of a phrase. Harmonic rhythm plays an important part in determining where a cadence occurs.

Cadences are strong indicators of the tonic or central pitch of a passage or piece. Edward Lowinsky proposed that the cadence was the "cradle of tonality".

Daniel Amen

Daniel Gregory Amen (born 1954) is an American celebrity doctor who practices as a psychiatrist and brain disorder specialist as director of the Amen Clinics. He is a five-times New York Times best-selling author as of 2012.Amen has built a profitable business around the use of SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging for purported diagnostic purposes. His marketing of SPECT scans and much of what he says about the brain and health in his books, media appearances, and marketing of his clinics has been condemned by scientists and doctors as lacking scientific validity and as being unethical, especially since the way SPECT is used in his clinics exposes people to harmful radiation with no clear benefit.Amen has studied brain injuries affecting professional athletes, and has consulted on post-concussion issues for the National Football League.

Doxology

A doxology (Ancient Greek: δοξολογία doxologia, from δόξα, doxa, "glory" and -λογία, -logia, "saying") is a short hymn of praises to God in various forms of Christian worship, often added to the end of canticles, psalms, and hymns. The tradition derives from a similar practice in the Jewish synagogue, where some version of the Kaddish serves to terminate each section of the service.

Forever and Ever, Amen

"Forever and Ever, Amen" is a song written by Paul Overstreet and Don Schlitz, and recorded by American country music artist Randy Travis. It was released in March 1987 as the first single from the album Always & Forever and became Travis's third No. 1 single on the U.S. Billboard Hot Country Singles charts.In 1987, "Forever and Ever, Amen" won a Grammy for Best Country & Western Song and an Academy of Country Music award for Song of the Year.It was certified Gold by the RIAA on April 29, 2014, making it Travis' first solo single to earn an RIAA certification. The song has also sold 966,000 digital copies since it became available for download.

Goodbye, Farewell and Amen

"Goodbye, Farewell and Amen" is a television film that served as the 256th and final episode of the American television series M*A*S*H. Closing out the series' 11th season, the 2 hour episode first aired on CBS on February 28, 1983, ending the series' original run. The episode was written by a large number of collaborators, including series star Alan Alda, who also directed.

The episode's plot chronicles the final days of the Korean War at the 4077th MASH, and features several storylines intended to show the war's effects on the individual personnel of the unit, and to bring closure to the series. After the ceasefire goes into effect, the members of the 4077th throw a party before taking down the camp for the last time. After tear-filled goodbyes, the main characters go their separate ways, leading to the final scene of the series.

Luke Vibert

Luke Vibert (born 26 January 1973) is a British electronic musician and producer, best known for his work under several aliases such as Plug and Wagon Christ. Raised in Cornwall, Vibert began releasing projects in the 1990s across varied genres, including techno, drum 'n' bass, and trip hop. He has recorded on labels such as Rephlex, Ninja Tune, Planet Mu, and Warp.

RuPaul's Drag Race (season 5)

The fifth season of RuPaul's Drag Race began airing on January 28, 2013, with a 90-minute premiere episode. It had the most contestants since the creation of the show with fourteen.

As this season's winner, Jinkx Monsoon walked away with the title of "America's Next Drag Superstar" along with a lifetime supply of Colorevolution Cosmetics, a one-of-a-kind trip courtesy of AlandChuck.travel, a headlining spot on Logo's Drag Race Tour featuring Absolut Vodka and a cash prize of $100 000. Santino Rice and Michelle Visage were back as judges at the panel.The theme song playing during the runway every episode is "I Bring the Beat", while the song playing during the credits is "The Beginning", both songs are from RuPaul's album Glamazon.

The winner of the fifth season of RuPaul's Drag Race was Jinkx Monsoon, with Alaska and Roxxxy Andrews being the runners-up.

Alaska, Alyssa Edwards, Coco Montrese, Detox and Roxxxy Andrews competed on the second season of All Stars. Coco placed 10th, Alyssa placed 5th, Roxxxy placed 4th and Detox was runner-up with season 7 contestant Katya. Alaska won the competition.

Shannon Larkin

James Shannon Larkin (born April 24, 1967), is a musician best known as the drummer for rock band Godsmack. He replaced the previous drummer Tommy Stewart in June 2002. Prior to Godsmack, his previous bands were Amen, Candlebox, Ugly Kid Joe, and Souls at Zero (formerly Wrathchild America).

Shannon played drums for Godsmack for their albums Faceless, IV their EP The Other Side, The Oracle, 1000hp and their latest album When Legends Rise.

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