Ambrose

Aurelius Ambrosius[a] (c. 340–397), better known in English as Ambrose (/ˈæmbroʊz/), was a bishop of Milan who became one of the most influential ecclesiastical figures of the 4th century. He was the Roman governor of Liguria and Emilia, headquartered in Milan, before being made bishop of Milan by popular acclamation in 374. Ambrose was a staunch opponent of Arianism.

Ambrose was one of the four original Doctors of the Church, and is the patron saint of Milan. He is notable for his influence on Augustine of Hippo.

Traditionally, Ambrose is credited with promoting "antiphonal chant", a style of chanting in which one side of the choir responds alternately to the other, as well as with composing Veni redemptor gentium, an Advent hymn.

Saint

Ambrose
Archbishop of Milan
AmbroseOfMilan
Early mosaic of Ambrose that might be an actual portrait.
SeeMediolanum
AppointedAD 374
Term ended4 April 397
PredecessorAuxentius
SuccessorSimplician
Orders
Consecration7 December 374
Personal details
Bornc. 337–340
Augusta Treverorum,
Gallia Belgica, Roman Empire
(modern Trier, Germany)
Died4 April 397 (aged 56 or 57)
Mediolanum,
Roman Italy, Roman Empire
(modern Milan, Italy)
Sainthood
Feast dayDecember 7[1]
Venerated inCatholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodoxy
Anglican Communion
Lutheranism
Title as SaintConfessor and Doctor of the Church
AttributesBeehive, a child, whip, bones
PatronageBee keepers; bees; bishops; candle makers; domestic animals; French Commissariat; geese; learning; livestock; Milan; police officers; students; wax refiners
ShrinesBasilica of Sant'Ambrogio

Life

Early life

Ambrose was born into a Roman Christian family about 340 and was raised in Gallia Belgica, the capital of which was Augusta Treverorum.[2] His father is sometimes identified with Aurelius Ambrosius,[3][4] a praetorian prefect of Gaul;[1] but some scholars identify his father as an official named Uranius who received an imperial constitution dated 3 February 339 (addressed in a brief extract from one of the three emperors ruling in 339, Constantine II, Constantius II, or Constans, in the Codex Theodosianus, book XI.5).[5][6][7]

His mother was a woman of intellect and piety[8] and a member of the Roman family, Aurelii Symmachi[9] and thus Ambrose was cousin of the orator Quintus Aurelius Symmachus. He was the youngest of three children, who included Marcellina and Satyrus (who is the subject of Ambrose's De excessu fratris Satyri), also venerated as saints.[10] There is a legend that as an infant, a swarm of bees settled on his face while he lay in his cradle, leaving behind a drop of honey. His father considered this a sign of his future eloquence and honeyed tongue. For this reason, bees and beehives often appear in the saint's symbology.

After the early death of his father, Ambrose went to Rome, where he studied literature, law, and rhetoric. He then followed in his father's footsteps and entered public service. Praetorian Prefect Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus first gave him a place in the council and then in about 372 made him governor of Liguria and Emilia, with headquarters at Milan.[1] In 286 Diocletian had moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum (Milan).

Ambrose was the Governor of Aemilia-Liguria in northern Italy until 374, when he became the Bishop of Milan. He was a very popular political figure, and since he was the Governor in the effective capital in the Roman West, he was a recognizable figure in the court of Valentinian I.

Bishop of Milan

In the late 4th century there was a deep conflict in the diocese of Milan between the Nicene Church and Arians.[11][12] In 374 the bishop of Milan, Auxentius, an Arian, died, and the Arians challenged the succession. Ambrose went to the church where the election was to take place, to prevent an uproar, which was probable in this crisis. His address was interrupted by a call, "Ambrose, bishop!", which was taken up by the whole assembly.[12]

Ambrose was known to be Nicene Christian in belief, but also acceptable to Arians due to the charity shown in theological matters in this regard. At first he energetically refused the office, for which he was in no way prepared: Ambrose was neither baptized nor formally trained in theology.[1] Upon his appointment, Ambrose fled to a colleague's home seeking to hide. Upon receiving a letter from the Emperor Gratian praising the appropriateness of Rome appointing individuals evidently worthy of holy positions, Ambrose's host gave him up. Within a week, he was baptized, ordained and duly consecrated bishop of Milan.

As bishop, he immediately adopted an ascetic lifestyle, apportioned his money to the poor, donating all of his land, making only provision for his sister Marcellina (who had become a nun). This raised his popularity even further, giving him considerable political leverage over even the emperor. Upon the unexpected appointment of Ambrose to the episcopate, his brother Satyrus resigned a prefecture in order to move to Milan, where he took over managing the family's affairs.[2]

Arianism

Museo del Duomo - Milan - St Ambrose of Milan - Unknown Lombard author (early 17 century)
Statue of Saint Ambrose with a scourge in Museo del Duomo, Milan. Unknown Lombard author, early 17 century.

Ambrose studied theology with Simplician, a presbyter of Rome.[8] Using his excellent knowledge of Greek, which was then rare in the West, to his advantage, he studied the Old Testament and Greek authors like Philo, Origen, Athanasius, and Basil of Caesarea, with whom he was also exchanging letters.[13] He applied this knowledge as preacher, concentrating especially on exegesis of the Old Testament, and his rhetorical abilities impressed Augustine of Hippo, who hitherto had thought poorly of Christian preachers.

In the confrontation with Arians, Ambrose sought to theologically refute their propositions, which were contrary to the Nicene creed and thus to the officially defined orthodoxy. The Arians appealed to many high level leaders and clergy in both the Western and Eastern empires. Although the western Emperor Gratian supported orthodoxy, the younger Valentinian II, who became his colleague in the Empire, adhered to the Arian creed.[14] Ambrose did not sway the young prince's position. In the East, Emperor Theodosius I likewise professed the Nicene creed; but there were many adherents of Arianism throughout his dominions,[8] especially among the higher clergy.

In this contested state of religious opinion, two leaders of the Arians, bishops Palladius of Ratiaria and Secundianus of Singidunum, confident of numbers, prevailed upon Gratian to call a general council from all parts of the empire. This request appeared so equitable that he complied without hesitation. However, Ambrose feared the consequences and prevailed upon the emperor to have the matter determined by a council of the Western bishops. Accordingly, a synod composed of thirty-two bishops was held at Aquileia in the year 381. Ambrose was elected president and Palladius, being called upon to defend his opinions, declined. A vote was then taken, when Palladius and his associate Secundianus were deposed from their episcopal offices.[8]

Nevertheless, the increasing strength of the Arians proved a formidable task for Ambrose. In 385[14] or 386 the emperor and his mother Justina, along with a considerable number of clergy and laity, especially military, professed Arianism. They demanded two churches in Milan, one in the city (the Basilica of the Apostles), the other in the suburbs (St Victor's), be allocated to the Arians.[14] Ambrose refused and was required to answer for his conduct before the council.[1] He went, his eloquence in defense of the Church reportedly overawing the ministers of Valentinian, so he was permitted to retire without making the surrender of the churches. The day following, when he was performing divine service in the basilica, the prefect of the city came to persuade him to give up at least the Portian basilica in the suburbs. As he still refused, certain deans or officers of the court were sent to take possession of the Portian basilica, by hanging up in it imperial escutcheons[14] to prepare for the arrival of the emperor and his mother at the ensuing festival of Easter.[15]

In spite of Imperial opposition, Ambrose declared, "If you demand my person, I am ready to submit: carry me to prison or to death, I will not resist; but I will never betray the church of Christ. I will not call upon the people to succour me; I will die at the foot of the altar rather than desert it. The tumult of the people I will not encourage: but God alone can appease it."[15]

In 386 Justina and Valentinian received the Arian bishop Auxentius the younger, and Ambrose was again ordered to hand over a church in Milan for Arian usage. Ambrose and his congregation barricaded themselves inside the church, and the imperial order was rescinded.[16]

Imperial relations

The imperial court was displeased with the religious principles of Ambrose, however his aid was soon solicited by the Emperor. When Magnus Maximus usurped the supreme power in Gaul, and was meditating a descent upon Italy, Valentinian sent Ambrose to dissuade him from the undertaking, and the embassy was successful.[15]

A second later embassy was unsuccessful. The enemy entered Italy and Milan was taken. Justina and her son fled but Ambrose remained at his post and did good service to many of the sufferers by causing the plate of the church to be melted for their relief.[15]

Theodosius I, the emperor of the East, espoused the cause of Justina, and regained the kingdom. Theodosius was excommunicated by Ambrose for the massacre of 7,000 people at Thessalonica in 390,[15] after the murder of the Roman governor there by rioters.[1] Ambrose told Theodosius to imitate David in his repentance as he had imitated him in guilt[15]  – Ambrose readmitted the emperor to the Eucharist only after several months of penance. This shows the strong position of a bishop in the Western part of the empire, even when facing a strong emperor  – the controversy of John Chrysostom with a much weaker emperor a few years later in Constantinople led to a crushing defeat of the bishop.

In 392, after the death of Valentinian II and the fall of Eugenius, Ambrose supplicated the emperor for the pardon of those who had supported Eugenius after Theodosius was eventually victorious.[15]

AmbroseGiuLungara
Saint Ambrose with scourge and book, a painting in the church of San Giuseppe alla Lungara, Rome

Attitude towards Jews

In his treatise on Abraham, Ambrose warns against intermarriage with pagans, Jews, or heretics.[17] In 388, Emperor Theodosius the Great was informed that a crowd of Christians, led by their bishop, had destroyed the synagogue at Callinicum on the Euphrates, in retaliation for the burning of their church by the Jews. He ordered the synagogue rebuilt at the expense of the bishop,[18] but Ambrose persuaded Theodosius to retreat from this position.[19] He wrote to the Emperor, pointing out that he was thereby "exposing the bishop to the danger of either acting against the truth or of death"; in the letter "the reasons given for the imperial rescript are met, especially by the plea that the Jews had burnt many churches".[20] In the course of the letter Ambrose speaks of the clemency that the emperor had shown with regard to the many houses of wealthy people and churches that had been destroyed by unruly mobs, with many then still not restored and then adds: "There is, then, no adequate cause for such a commotion, that the people should be so severely punished for the burning of a building, and much less since it is the burning of a synagogue, a home of unbelief, a house of impiety, a receptacle of folly, which God Himself has condemned. For thus we read, where the Lord our God speaks by the mouth of the prophet Jeremiah: 'And I will do to this house, which is called by My Name, wherein ye trust, and to the place which I gave to you and to your fathers, as I have done to Shiloh, and I will cast you forth from My sight, as I cast forth your brethren, the whole seed of Ephraim. And do not thou pray for that people, and do not thou ask mercy for them, and do not come near Me on their behalf, for I will not hear thee. Or seest thou not what they do in the cities of Judah?'[21] God forbids intercession to be made for those."[20][22] Yet, Ambrose did not oppose punishing those who were directly responsible for destroying the synagogue.

In his exposition of Psalm 1, Ambrose says: "Virtues without faith are leaves, flourishing in appearance, but unproductive. How many pagans have mercy and sobriety but no fruit, because they do not attain their purpose! The leaves speedily fall at the wind's breath. Some Jews exhibit purity of life and much diligence and love of study, but bear no fruit and live like leaves."[23]

Attitude towards pagans

Under his influence, emperors Gratian, Valentinian II and Theodosius I carried on a persecution of Paganism;[24][25][26][27] Theodosius issued the 391 "Theodosian decrees," which with increasing intensity outlawed Pagan practices.[25][28] The Altar of Victory was removed by Gratian. Ambrose prevailed upon Gratian, Valentinian and Theodosius to reject requests to restore the Altar.

Later years and death

Sant'Ambrogio Cript in Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio, Milan
Embossed silver urn with the body of Ambrose (with white vestments) in the crypt of Sant'Ambrose, with the skeletons of Gervase, and Protase.

In April 393 Arbogast, magister militum of the West and his puppet Emperor Eugenius marched into Italy to consolidate their position in regard to Theodosius I and his son, Honorius, whom Theodosius had appointed Augustus to govern the western portion of the empire. Arbogast and Eugenius courted Ambrose's support by very obliging letters; but before they arrived at Milan, he had retired to Bologna, where he assisted at the translation of the relics of Saints Vitalis and Agricola. From there he went to Florence, where he remained until Eugenius withdrew from Milan to meet Theodosius in the Battle of the Frigidus in early September 394.[29]

Soon after acquiring the undisputed possession of the Roman Empire, Theodosius died at Milan in 395, and two years later (4 April 397) Ambrose also died. He was succeeded as bishop of Milan by Simplician.[15] Ambrose's body may still be viewed in the church of Saint Ambrogio in Milan, where it has been continuously venerated  – along with the bodies identified in his time as being those of Saints Gervase and Protase.

Character

AmbroseStatue
Drawing based on a statue of Saint Ambrose

Many circumstances in the history of Ambrose are characteristic of the general spirit of the times. The chief causes of his victory over his opponents were his great popularity and the reverence paid to the episcopal character at that period. But it must also be noted that he used several indirect means to obtain and support his authority with the people.[15]

It was his custom to comment severely in his preaching on the public characters of his times; and he introduced popular reforms in the order and manner of public worship. It is alleged, too, that at a time when the influence of Ambrose required vigorous support, he was admonished in a dream to search for, and found under the pavement of the church, the remains of two martyrs, Gervasius and Protasius. The saints, although they would have had to have been hundreds of years old, looked as if they had just died. The applause of the people was mingled with the derision of the court party.[15]

Theology

Ambrose ranks with Augustine, Jerome, and Gregory the Great, as one of the Latin Doctors of the Church. Theologians compare him with Hilary, who they claim fell short of Ambrose's administrative excellence but demonstrated greater theological ability. He succeeded as a theologian despite his juridical training and his comparatively late handling of Biblical and doctrinal subjects.[15]

Ambrose's intense episcopal consciousness furthered the growing doctrine of the Church and its sacerdotal ministry, while the prevalent asceticism of the day, continuing the Stoic and Ciceronian training of his youth, enabled him to promulgate a lofty standard of Christian ethics. Thus we have the De officiis ministrorum, De viduis, De virginitate and De paenitentia.[15]

Ambrose displayed a kind of liturgical flexibility that kept in mind that liturgy was a tool to serve people in worshiping God, and ought not to become a rigid entity that is invariable from place to place. His advice to Augustine of Hippo on this point was to follow local liturgical custom. "When I am at Rome, I fast on a Saturday; when I am at Milan, I do not. Follow the custom of the church where you are."[30][31] Thus Ambrose refused to be drawn into a false conflict over which particular local church had the "right" liturgical form where there was no substantial problem. His advice has remained in the English language as the saying, "When in Rome, do as the Romans do."

One interpretation of Ambrose's writings is that he was a Christian universalist.[32] It has been noted that Ambrose's theology was significantly influenced by that of Origen and Didymus the Blind, two other early Christian universalists.[32] One quotation cited in favor of this belief:

Our Savior has appointed two kinds of resurrection in the Apocalypse. 'Blessed is he that hath part in the first resurrection,' for such come to grace without the judgment. As for those who do not come to the first, but are reserved unto the second resurrection, these shall be disciplined until their appointed times, between the first and the second resurrection.[33]

One could interpret this passage as being another example of the mainstream Christian belief in a general resurrection (both for those in heaven and for those in hell). Several other works by Ambrose clearly teach the mainstream view of salvation. For example: "The Jews feared to believe in manhood taken up into God, and therefore have lost the grace of redemption, because they reject that on which salvation depends."[34]

Giving to the poor

He was also interested in the condition of contemporary Italian society.[35] Ambrose considered the poor not a distinct group of outsiders, but a part of the united, solidary people. Giving to the poor was not to be considered an act of generosity towards the fringes of society but a repayment of resources that God had originally bestowed on everyone equally and that the rich had usurped.[36]

Mariology

The theological treatises of Ambrose of Milan would come to influence Popes Damasus, Siricius and Leo XIII. Central to Ambrose is the virginity of Mary and her role as Mother of God.[37]

  • The virgin birth is worthy of God. Which human birth would have been more worthy of God, than the one, in which the Immaculate Son of God maintained the purity of his immaculate origin while becoming human?[38]
  • We confess, that Christ the Lord was born from a virgin, and therefore we reject the natural order of things. Because not from a man she conceived but from the Holy Spirit.[39]
  • Christ is not divided but one. If we adore him as the Son of God, we do not deny his birth from the virgin... But nobody shall extend this to Mary. Mary was the temple of God but not God in the temple. Therefore, only the one who was in the temple can be worshipped.[40]
  • Yes, truly blessed for having surpassed the priest (Zechariah). While the priest denied, the Virgin rectified the error. No wonder that the Lord, wishing to rescue the world, began his work with Mary. Thus she, through whom salvation was being prepared for all people, would be the first to receive the promised fruit of salvation.[41]

Ambrose viewed celibacy as superior to marriage and saw Mary as the model of virginity.[42]

Writings

Divi Ambrosii Episcopi Mediolanensis Omnia Opera
Divi Ambrosii Episcopi Mediolanensis Omnia Opera (1527)

In matters of exegesis he is, like Hilary, an Alexandrian. In dogma he follows Basil of Caesarea and other Greek authors, but nevertheless gives a distinctly Western cast to the speculations of which he treats. This is particularly manifest in the weightier emphasis which he lays upon human sin and divine grace, and in the place which he assigns to faith in the individual Christian life.[15]

  • De fide ad Gratianum Augustum (On Faith, to Gratian Augustus)
  • De Officiis Ministrorum (On the Offices of Ministers, an ecclesiastical handbook modeled on Cicero's De Officiis.[43])
  • De Spiritu Sancto (On the Holy Ghost)
  • De incarnationis Dominicae sacramento (On the Sacrament of the Incarnation of the Lord)
  • De mysteriis (On the Mysteries)
  • Expositio evangelii secundum Lucam (Commentary on the Gospel according to Luke)
  • Ethical works: De bono mortis (Death as a Good); De fuga saeculi (Flight From the World); De institutione virginis et sanctae Mariae virginitate perpetua ad Eusebium (On the Birth of the Virgin and the Perpetual Virginity of Mary); De Nabuthae (On Naboth); De paenitentia (On Repentance); De paradiso (On Paradise); De sacramentis (On the Sacraments); De viduis (On Widows); De virginibus (On Virgins); De virginitate (On Virginity); Exhortatio virginitatis (Exhortation to Virginity); De sacramento regenerationis sive de philosophia (On the Sacrament of Rebirth, or, On Philosophy [fragments])
  • Homiletic commentaries on the Old Testament: the Hexaemeron (Six Days of Creation); De Helia et ieiunio (On Elijah and Fasting); De Iacob et vita beata (On Jacob and the Happy Life); De Abraham; De Cain et Abel; De Ioseph (Joseph); De Isaac vel anima (On Isaac, or The Soul); De Noe (Noah); De interpellatione Iob et David (On the Prayer of Job and David); De patriarchis (On the Patriarchs); De Tobia (Tobit); Explanatio psalmorum (Explanation of the Psalms); Explanatio symboli (Commentary on the Symbol).
  • De obitu Theodosii; De obitu Valentiniani; De excessu fratris Satyri (funeral orations)
  • 91 letters
  • A collection of hymns on the Creation of the Universe.
  • Fragments of sermons
  • Ambrosiaster or the "pseudo-Ambrose" is a brief commentary on Paul's Epistles, which was long attributed to Ambrose.
Sergio de Castro, Verrière de la Création du Monde, 1956-59

Stained-glass window by Sergio de Castro based on the Ambrosian hymns about the Creation of the universe, Church of the Benedictines at Couvrechef – La Folie (Caen), 1956–59.

Sergio de Castro, 7e jour de la Création, Le Repos Divin, 1956-59

Detail of the Seventh Day of Creation: divine rest with the Ambrosian hymns.

Church music

Saint Ambrose in His Study 1
Saint Ambrose in His Study, c. 1500. Spanish, Palencia. Wood with traces of polychromy. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

Ambrose is traditionally credited but not actually known to have composed any of the repertory of Ambrosian chant also known simply as "antiphonal chant", a method of chanting where one side of the choir alternately responds to the other. (The later pope Gregory I the Great is not known to have composed any Gregorian chant, the plainsong or "Romish chant".) However, Ambrosian chant was named in his honor due to his contributions to the music of the Church; he is credited with introducing hymnody from the Eastern Church into the West.

Catching the impulse from Hilary of Arles and confirmed in it by the success of Arian psalmody, Ambrose composed several original hymns as well, four of which still survive, along with music which may not have changed too much from the original melodies. Each of these hymns has eight four-line stanzas and is written in strict iambic tetrameter (that is 4 x 2 syllables, each iamb being two syllables). Marked by dignified simplicity, they served as a fruitful model for later times.[15]

In his writings, Ambrose refers only to the performance of psalms, in which solo singing of psalm verses alternated with a congregational refrain called an antiphon.

Saint Ambrose was also traditionally credited with composing the hymn "Te Deum", which he is said to have composed when he baptised Saint Augustine of Hippo, his celebrated convert.

Augustine

Ambrose was Bishop of Milan at the time of Augustine's conversion, and is mentioned in Augustine's Confessions. It is commonly understood in the Christian Tradition that Ambrose baptized Augustine.

In a passage of Augustine's Confessions in which Augustine wonders why he could not share his burden with Ambrose, he comments: "Ambrose himself I esteemed a happy man, as the world counted happiness, because great personages held him in honor. Only his celibacy appeared to me a painful burden."[44]

Reading

In this same passage of Augustine's Confessions is an anecdote which bears on the history of reading:

When [Ambrose] read, his eyes scanned the page and his heart sought out the meaning, but his voice was silent and his tongue was still. Anyone could approach him freely and guests were not commonly announced, so that often, when we came to visit him, we found him reading like this in silence, for he never read aloud.[44]

This is a celebrated passage in modern scholarly discussion. The practice of reading to oneself without vocalizing the text was less common in antiquity than it has since become. In a culture that set a high value on oratory and public performances of all kinds, in which the production of books was very labor-intensive, the majority of the population was illiterate, and where those with the leisure to enjoy literary works also had slaves to read for them, written texts were more likely to be seen as scripts for recitation than as vehicles of silent reflection. However, there is also evidence that silent reading did occur in antiquity and that it was not generally regarded as unusual.[45][46][47]

Bibliography

Latin

  • Hexameron, De paradiso, De Cain, De Noe, De Abraham, De Isaac, De bono mortis – ed. C. Schenkl 1896, Vol. 32/1 (In Latin)
  • De Iacob, De Ioseph, De patriarchis, De fuga saeculi, De interpellatione Iob et David, De apologia prophetae David, De Helia, De Nabuthae, De Tobia – ed. C. Schenkl 1897, Vol. 32/2
  • Expositio evangelii secundum Lucam – ed. C. Schenkl 1902, Vol. 32/4
  • Expositio de psalmo CXVIII – ed. M. Petschenig 1913, Vol. 62; editio altera supplementis aucta – cur. M. Zelzer 1999
  • Explanatio super psalmos XII – ed. M. Petschenig 1919, Vol. 64; editio altera supplementis aucta – cur. M. Zelzer 1999
  • Explanatio symboli, De sacramentis, De mysteriis, De paenitentia, De excessu fratris Satyri, De obitu Valentiniani, De obitu Theodosii – ed. Otto Faller 1955, Vol. 73
  • De fide ad Gratianum Augustum – ed. Otto Faller 1962, Vol. 78
  • De spiritu sancto, De incarnationis dominicae sacramento – ed. Otto Faller 1964, Vol. 79
  • Epistulae et acta – ed. Otto Faller (Vol. 82/1: lib. 1–6, 1968); Otto Faller, M. Zelzer ( Vol. 82/2: lib. 7–9, 1982); M. Zelzer ( Vol. 82/3: lib. 10, epp. extra collectionem. gesta concilii Aquileiensis, 1990); Indices et addenda – comp. M. Zelzer, 1996, Vol. 82/4

English translations

  • H. Wace and P. Schaff, eds, A Select Library of Nicene and Post–Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, 2nd ser., x [Contains translations of De Officiis (under the title De Officiis Ministrorum), De Spiritu Sancto (On the Holy Spirit), De excessu fratris Satyri (On the Decease of His Brother Satyrus), Exposition of the Christian Faith, De mysteriis (Concerning Mysteries), De paenitentia (Concerning Repentance), De virginibus (Concerning Virgins), De viduis (Concerning Widows), and a selection of letters]
  • St. Ambrose "On the mysteries" and the treatise on the sacraments by an unknown author, translated by T Thompson, (London: SPCK, 1919) [translations of De sacramentis and De mysteriis; rev edn published 1950]
  • S. Ambrosii De Nabuthae: a commentary, translated by Martin McGuire, (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America, 1927) [translation of On Naboth]
  • S. Ambrosii De Helia et ieiunio: a commentary, with an introduction and translation, Sister Mary Joseph Aloysius Buck, (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America, 1929) [translation of On Elijah and Fasting]
  • S. Ambrosii De Tobia: a commentary, with an introduction and translation, Lois Miles Zucker, (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America, 1933) [translation of On Tobit]
  • Funeral orations, translated by LP McCauley et al., Fathers of the Church vol 22, (New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc., 1953) [by Gregory of Nazianzus and Ambrose],
  • Letters, translated by Mary Melchior Beyenka, Fathers of the Church, vol 26, (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America, 1954) [Translation of letters 1–91]
  • Saint Ambrose on the sacraments, edited by Henry Chadwick, Studies in Eucharistic faith and practice 5, (London: AR Mowbray, 1960)
  • Hexameron, Paradise, and Cain and Abel, translated by John J Savage, Fathers of the Church, vol 42, (New York: Fathers of the Church, 1961) [contains translations of Hexameron, De paradise, and De Cain et Abel]
  • Saint Ambrose: theological and dogmatic works, translated by Roy J. Deferrari, Fathers of the church vol 44, (Washington: Catholic University of American Press, 1963) [Contains translations of The mysteries, (De mysteriis) The holy spirit, (De Spiritu Sancto), The sacrament of the incarnation of Our Lord, (De incarnationis Dominicae sacramento), and The sacraments]
  • Seven exegetical works, translated by Michael McHugh, Fathers of the Church, vol 65, (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1972) [Contains translations of Isaac, or the soul, (De Isaac vel anima), Death as a good, (De bono mortis), Jacob and the happy life, (De Iacob et vita beata), Joseph, (De Ioseph), The patriarchs, (De patriarchis), Flight from the world, (De fuga saeculi), The prayer of Job and David, (De interpellatione Iob et David).]
  • Homilies of Saint Ambrose on Psalm 118, translated by Íde Ní Riain, (Dublin: Halcyon Press, 1998) [translation of part of Explanatio psalmorum]
  • Ambrosian hymns, translated by Charles Kraszewski, (Lehman, PA: Libella Veritatis, 1999)
  • Commentary of Saint Ambrose on twelve psalms, translated by Íde M. Ní Riain, (Dublin: Halcyon Press, 2000) [translations of Explanatio psalmorum on Psalms 1, 35–40, 43, 45, 47–49]
  • On Abraham, translated by Theodosia Tomkinson, (Etna, CA: Center for Traditionalist Orthodox Studies, 2000) [translation of De Abraham]
  • De officiis, edited with an introduction, translation, and commentary by Ivor J Davidson, 2 vols, (Oxford: OUP, 2001) [contains both Latin and English text]
  • Commentary of Saint Ambrose on the Gospel according to Saint Luke, translated by Íde M. Ní Riain, (Dublin: Halcyon, 2001) [translation of Expositio evangelii secundum Lucam]
  • Ambrose of Milan: political letters and speeches, translated with an introduction and notes by JHWG Liebschuetz, (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2005) [contains Book Ten of Ambrose's Letters, including the oration on the death of Theodosius I; Letters outside the Collection (Epistulae extra collectionem); Letter 30 to Magnus Maximus; The oration on the death of Valentinian II (De obitu Valentiniani).]

Several of Ambrose's works have recently been published in the bilingual Latin-German Fontes Christiani series (currently edited by Brepols).

Several religious brotherhoods which have sprung up in and around Milan at various times since the 14th century have been called Ambrosians. Their connection to Ambrose is tenuous

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Italian: Sant'Ambrogio [ˌsantamˈbrɔːdʒo]; Lombard: Sant'Ambroeus [ˌsãːtãˈbrøːs].

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f Attwater & John 1993.
  2. ^ a b Loughlin, James. "St. Ambrose." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907.
  3. ^ Greenslade, Stanley Lawrence (1956), Early Latin theology: selections from Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose, and Jerome, Library of Christian classics, 5, Westminster: John Knox Press, p. 175
  4. ^ Paredi & Costelloe 1964, p. 380: "S. Paulinus in Vit. Ambr. 3 has the following: posito in administratione praefecturae Galliarum patre eius Ambrosio natus est Ambrosius. From this, practically all of Ambrose's biographers have concluded that Ambrose's father was praetorian prefect in Gaul. This is the only evidence we have, however, that there ever was an Ambrose as prefect in Gaul."
  5. ^ Barnes, T. D., "The Election of Ambrose of Milan", in: Johan Leemans (ed), Episcopal Elections in Late Antiquity, de Gruyter, 2011, pp. 39–60.
  6. ^ Mazzarino, S. "Il padre di Ambrogio", Helikon 13–14, 1973–1974, 111–117.
  7. ^ Mazzarino, S., "Storia sociale del vescovo Ambrogio", Problemi e ricerche di storia antica 4, Rome 1989, 79–81.
  8. ^ a b c d Grieve 1911, p. 798.
  9. ^ Leemans, Johan; Nuffelen, Peter Van; Keough, Shawn W.J.; Nicolaye, Carla (2011). Episcopal Elections in Late Antiquity. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3110268607.
  10. ^ Santi Beati (in Italian), Italy
  11. ^ Wilken, Robert (2003), The Spirit of Early Christian Thought, New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 218
  12. ^ a b Butler 1991, p. 407.
  13. ^ Schaff (ed.), Letter of Basil to Ambrose, Christian Classics Ethereal library, retrieved 8 December 2012
  14. ^ a b c d Butler 1991, p. 408.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Grieve 1911, p. 799.
  16. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, p. 106
  17. ^ De Abraham, ix. 84, xiv. 451
  18. ^ A.D. Lee, From Rome to Byzantium AD 363 to 565 (Oxford University Press 2013 ISBN 978-0-74866835-9)
  19. ^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2009), Christianity, London: Viking Penguin, p. 300
  20. ^ a b Philip Schaff (editor), Ambrose: Select Works and Letters, Letter XL
  21. ^ Jeremiah 7:14
  22. ^ "Council of Centers on Jewish–Christian Relations, "Ambrose of Milan, 'Letters about a Synagogue Burning' (August 388)"". Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  23. ^ Ambrose, Enarrationes in XII Psalmos Davidicos, "In Psalmum Primum Enarratio", coll. 987–988
  24. ^ Byfield (2003) pp. 92–94: 'In the west, such [anti-Pagan] tendencies were less pronounced, although they had one especially powerful advocate. No one was more determined to destroy paganism than Ambrose, bishop of Milan, a major influence upon both Gratian and Valentinian II. [p. 94] The man who ruled the ruler – Whether Ambrose, the senator-bureaucrat-turned-bishop, was Theodosius's mentor or his autocrat, the emperor heeded him – as did most of the fourth-century church'.
  25. ^ a b MacMullen (1984) p. 100: 'The law of June 391, issued by Theodosius [...] was issued from Milan and represented the will of its bishop, Ambrose; for Theodosius – recently excommunicated by Ambrose, penitent, and very much under his influence43 – was no natural zealot. Ambrose, on the other hand, was very much a Christian. His restless and imperious ambition for the church's growth, come what might for the non-Christians, is suggested by his preaching'. See also note 43 at p. 163, with references to Palanque (1933), Gaudemet (1972), Matthews (1975) and King (1961)
  26. ^ Roldanus (2006) p. 148
  27. ^ Hellemo (1989) p. 254
  28. ^ King (1961) p. 78
  29. ^ Butler, Alban. "St. Ambrose, Bishop and Confessor, Doctor of the Church", Lives of the Saints, Vol. XII, 1866
  30. ^ of Hippo, Augustine, Epistle to Januarius, II, section 18
  31. ^ of Hippo, Augustine, Epistle to Casualanus, XXXVI, section 32
  32. ^ a b Hanson, JW (1899), "18. Additional Authorities", Universalism: The Prevailing Doctrine of The Christian Church During Its First Five Hundred Years, Boston and Chicago: Universalist Publishing House, archived from the original on 12 May 2013, retrieved 8 December 2012
  33. ^ The Church Fathers on Universalism, Tentmaker, retrieved 5 December 2007
  34. ^ Ambrose (1907), "Exposition of the Christian Faith, Book III", The Catholic Encyclopedia, New York: Robert Appleton Co, retrieved 24 February 2009 from New Advent.
  35. ^ About his concern of society see Maciej Wojcieszak, Obraz społeczeństwa Italii w listach Ambrożego z Mediolanu, "Christianitas Antiqua" 6 (2014), s. 177–187. ISSN 1730-3788.
  36. ^ Brown, Peter (2012). Through the Eye of the Needle – Wealth, the Fall of Rome, and the Making of Christianity in the West, 350–550 AD. Princeton University Press. p. 133.
  37. ^ "St. Ambrose", Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese
  38. ^ Ambrose of Milan CSEL 64, 139
  39. ^ Ambrose of Milan, De Mysteriis, 59, pp. 16, 410
  40. ^ Ambrose of Milan, De Spiritu Sancto, III, 11, 79–80
  41. ^ Ambrose of Milan, Expositio in Lucam 2, 17; PL 15, 1640
  42. ^ De virginibus (On Virgins); De virginitate
  43. ^ Tierney, Brian; Painter, Sidney (1978). "The Christian Church". Western Europe in the Middle Ages, 300–1475 (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Alfred A Knopf. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-394-32180-6.
  44. ^ a b Augustine. Confessions Book Six, Chapter Three.
  45. ^ Fenton, James (28 July 2006). "Read my lips". The Guardian. London.
  46. ^ Gavrilov, AK (1997), "Techniques of Reading in Classical Antiquity", Classical Quarterly, 47 (1): 56–73, esp. 70–71, doi:10.1093/cq/47.1.56, JSTOR 639597
  47. ^ Burnyeat, MF (1997), "Postscript on silent reading", Classical Quarterly, 47 (1): 74–76, doi:10.1093/cq/47.1.74, JSTOR 639598

Works cited

  • Attwater, Donald; John, Catherine Rachel (1993), The Penguin Dictionary of Saints (3rd ed.), New York: Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-051312-7.
  • Butler (1991), Walsh, Michael (ed.), Lives of the Saints, New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
  • von Campenhausen, Hans; Hoffman, Manfred, trans. (1964), Men Who Shaped the Western Church, New York: Harper and Row.
  • Deferrari, Roy J., ed. (1954–72), The Fathers of the Church, 26, 42, 44, 65, New York: Fathers of the Church.
  • Dudden, F. Homes (1935), The Life and Times of St. Ambrose, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Gilliard, Frank D. (1984), "Senatorial Bishops in the Fourth Century", Harvard Theological Review, 77 (2): 153–175, doi:10.1017/s0017816000014279.
  •  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainGrieve, Alexander J. (1911). "Ambrose, Saint" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 798–799.
  • King, N.Q. (1960), The Emperor Theodosius and the Establishment of Christianity, Philadelphia: Westminster Press.
  • MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2009), Christianity, London: Viking Penguin
  • McLynn, Neil B. (1994), Ambrose of Milan: Church and Court in a Christian Capital, The Transformation of the Classical Heritage, 22, Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Paredi, Angelo; Costelloe, Joseph, trans. (1964), Saint Ambrose: His Life and Times, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Paulinus; Lacy, John A., trans. (1952), Life of St. Ambrose by Paulinus., New York: Fathers of the Church.
  • "Ambrose", Patron Saints Index, SPQN, January 2009, retrieved 8 December 2012.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Ambrose" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.

External links

A. P. Hill

Ambrose Powell Hill, Jr. (November 9, 1825 – April 2, 1865) was a Confederate general who was killed in the American Civil War. He is usually referred to as A.P. Hill, to differentiate him from another, unrelated Confederate general, Daniel Harvey Hill.

A native Virginian, Hill was a career United States Army officer who had fought in the Mexican–American War and Seminole Wars prior to joining the Confederacy. After the start of the American Civil War, he gained early fame as the commander of the "Light Division" in the Seven Days Battles and became one of Stonewall Jackson's ablest subordinates, distinguishing himself in the 1862 battles of Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg.

Following Jackson's death in May 1863 at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Hill was promoted to lieutenant general and commanded the Third Corps of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, which he led in the Gettysburg Campaign and the fall campaigns of 1863. His command of the corps in 1864–65 was interrupted on multiple occasions by illness, from which he did not return until just before the end of the war, when he was killed during the Union Army's offensive at the Third Battle of Petersburg.

Ambrose Bierce

Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American short story writer, journalist, poet, and Civil War veteran.

Bierce's book The Devil's Dictionary was named as one of "The 100 Greatest Masterpieces of American Literature" by the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration. His story "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" has been described as "one of the most famous and frequently anthologized stories in American literature"; and his book Tales of Soldiers and Civilians (also published as In the Midst of Life) was named by the Grolier Club as one of the 100 most influential American books printed before 1900.A prolific and versatile writer, Bierce was regarded as one of the most influential journalists in the United States, and as a pioneering writer of realist fiction. For his horror writing, Michael Dirda ranked him alongside Edgar Allan Poe and H. P. Lovecraft. His war stories influenced Stephen Crane, Ernest Hemingway, and others, and he was considered an influential and feared literary critic. In recent decades Bierce has gained wider respect as a fabulist and for his poetry.In December 1913, Bierce traveled to Chihuahua, Mexico, to gain first-hand experience of the Mexican Revolution. He disappeared, and was rumored to be traveling with rebel troops. He was never seen again.

Ambrose Burnside

Ambrose Everett Burnside (May 23, 1824 – September 13, 1881) was an American soldier, railroad executive, inventor, industrialist, and politician from Rhode Island. He served as governor and as a United States Senator. As a Union Army general in the American Civil War, he conducted successful campaigns in North Carolina and East Tennessee, as well as countering the raids of Confederate General John Hunt Morgan, but suffered disastrous defeats at the Battle of Fredericksburg and Battle of the Crater. His distinctive style of facial hair became known as sideburns, derived from his last name. He was also the first president of the National Rifle Association.

Ambrose Light (ship)

Ambrose Light was a brigantine, operated by Colombian rebels. It was captured by USS Alliance as a suspected pirate vessel in 1885. The accusation of piracy was rejected by a court of law.

Curtly Ambrose

Sir Curtly Elconn Lynwall Ambrose, KCN (born 21 September 1963) is a former cricketer from Antigua who played 98 Test matches for the West Indies. A fast bowler, he took 405 Test wickets at an average of 20.99 and topped the ICC Player Rankings for much of his career to be rated the best bowler in the world. His great height—he is 6 feet 7 inches (2.01 m) tall—allowed him to make the ball bounce unusually high after he delivered it; allied to his pace and accuracy, it made him a difficult bowler for batsmen to face. A man of few words during his career, he was notoriously reluctant to speak to journalists. He was chosen as one of the Wisden Cricketers of the Year in 1992; after he retired he was entered into the International Cricket Council Hall of Fame and selected as one of West Indies all-time XI by a panel of experts.

Born in Swetes, Antigua, Ambrose came to cricket at a relatively late age, having preferred basketball in his youth, but quickly made an impression as a fast bowler. Progressing through regional and national teams, he was first chosen for the West Indies in 1988. He was almost immediately successful and remained in the team until his retirement in 2000. On many occasions, his bowling was responsible for the West Indies winning matches which seemed lost, particularly in association with Courtney Walsh. Against Australia in 1993, he took seven wickets while conceding a single run; in 1994 he was largely responsible for bowling England out for 46 runs, taking six wickets for 24 runs.

Ambrose's bowling method relied on accuracy and conceding few runs; several of his best performances came when he took wickets in quick succession to devastate the opposition. He was particularly successful against leading batsmen. From 1995, Ambrose was increasingly affected by injury, and several times critics claimed that he was no longer effective. However, he continued to take wickets regularly up until his retirement, although he was sometimes less effective in the early matches of a series. In his final years, the West Indies team was in decline and often relied heavily on Ambrose and Walsh; both men often bowled with little support from the other bowlers. Following his retirement, Ambrose has pursued a career in music as the bass guitarist in a reggae band.

Dean Ambrose

Jonathan David Good (born December 7, 1985) is an American professional wrestler and actor. He is best known for his time with WWE, where he performed under the ring name Dean Ambrose. He is also known for his work on the independent circuit under the ring name Jon Moxley between 2004 and 2011, and worked for various promotions including Full Impact Pro (FIP), Combat Zone Wrestling (CZW), and Dragon Gate USA (DGUSA), winning the FIP World Heavyweight Championship once and the CZW World Heavyweight Championship twice.

After signing with WWE, Good competed in their developmental territories Florida Championship Wrestling and NXT until 2012. He joined the main roster in November 2012 as a member of The Shield with Roman Reigns and Seth Rollins. Ambrose won his first championship while in the group, the United States Championship, with his 351-day reign being the longest in WWE history. Following The Shield's breakup, Ambrose went on to become a one-time WWE World Heavyweight Champion, a three-time Intercontinental Champion, and a two-time Raw Tag Team Champion (with Rollins). He was also the 2016 Money in the Bank ladder match winner, cashing in his contract on Rollins later that night to become WWE World Heavyweight Champion. Upon winning the Raw Tag Team Championship in August 2017, Ambrose became the 27th Triple Crown Champion and the 16th Grand Slam Champion.

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower ( EYE-zən-how-ər; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe. He was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front.

Born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas, he was raised in Kansas in a large family of mostly Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry. His family had a strong religious background. His mother was born a Lutheran, married as a River Brethren, and later became a Jehovah's Witness. Even so, Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952. He cited constant relocation during his military career as one reason. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and later married Mamie Doud, with whom he had two sons. During World War I, he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews. Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the U.S. entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff and then took on the role as president of Columbia University. In 1951–52 he served as the first Supreme Commander of NATO.

In 1952 Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a Republican to block the isolationist foreign policies of Senator Robert A. Taft, who opposed NATO and wanted no foreign entanglements. He won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating Adlai Stevenson II. He became the first Republican to win since Herbert Hoover in 1928. Eisenhower's main goals in office were to contain the spread of communism and reduce federal deficits. In 1953, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to peace terms in the Korean War. China did agree and an armistice resulted that remains in effect. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive Army divisions. He continued Harry S. Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China as the legitimate government of China, and he won congressional approval of the Formosa Resolution. His administration provided major aid to help the French fight off Vietnamese Communists in the First Indochina War. After the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam. He supported local military coups against democratically-elected governments in Iran and Guatemala. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli, British and French invasion of Egypt, and he forced them to withdraw. He also condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. During the Syrian Crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria's pro-Western neighbors. After the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the Space Race. He deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when a U.S. spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, which was left to his successor, John F. Kennedy, to carry out.On the domestic front, Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security. He covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly invoking executive privilege. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent Army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. His largest program was the Interstate Highway System. He promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act. Eisenhower's two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958. In his farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about the dangers of massive military spending, particularly deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers. Historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of U.S. presidents.

Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener

Frederick Henry Ambrose Scrivener (September 29, 1813, Bermondsey, Surrey – October 30, 1891, Hendon, Middlesex) was a New Testament textual critic and a member of the English New Testament Revision Committee which produced the Revised Version of the Bible. He was prebendary of Exeter, and vicar of Hendon.

Graduating from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1835 after studying at Southwark, he became a teacher of classics at a number of schools in southern England, and from 1846 to 1856 was headmaster of a school in Falmouth, Cornwall. He was also for 15 years rector of Gerrans, Cornwall.

Initially making a name for himself editing the Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis, Scrivener edited several editions of the New Testament and collated the Codex Sinaiticus with the Textus Receptus. For his services to textual criticism and the understanding of Biblical manuscripts, he was granted a Civil list pension in 1872. He was an advocate of the Byzantine text (majority text) over more modern manuscripts as a source for Bible translations. He was the first to distinguish the Textus Receptus from the Byzantine text. Scrivener compared the Textus Receptus with the editions of Stephanus (1550), Theodore Beza (1565), and Elzevier (1633) and enumerated all the differences. In addition he identified the differences between the Textus Receptus and editions by Lachmann, Tregelles, and Tischendorf. Scrivener doubted the authenticity of texts like Matthew 16:2b–3, Christ's agony at Gethsemane, John 5:3.4, and the Pericope Adulterae.

In 1874, he became prebendary of Exeter and vicar of Hendon, where he remained for the rest of his life.

Marcos Ambrose

Marcos Ambrose (born 1 September 1976) is an Australian former racing driver. He won the Australian V8 Supercar series' championship in 2003 and 2004.

In 2006, Ambrose relocated to the United States to pursue racing in NASCAR, starting with the Camping World Truck Series. He moved up to the Nationwide Series in 2007, and later the Sprint Cup Series in 2008. In 2011, he earned his first Cup Series win at Watkins Glen International, becoming the first Australian driver to win in the highest level of NASCAR, and repeated that win in the following year.

He is known in NASCAR for having won a total of 6 races at Watkins Glen. In the Sprint Cup Series he won at the Glen in 2011 and 2012. In the Nationwide Series he won 3 races at the Glen in 3 years 2008, 2009 and 2010. He won his last race During 2014 NASCAR Nationwide series at the Glen. It was the only race he ran during that season.

NAPA Auto Parts 200

The NAPA Auto Parts 200 Presented by Dodge (French title: NAPA Pièces d'auto 200 présenté par Dodge) is a discontinued NASCAR Xfinity Series (then called NASCAR Busch and later NASCAR Nationwide Series) race that took place at the Circuit Gilles Villeneuve in Montreal, Quebec, Canada from 2007 to 2012.

It took place in August, replacing the Champ Car World Series and Atlantic Championship Grand Prix of Montreal. The Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series and NASCAR Canadian Tire Series have held a support race in every edition, the latter race being called NAPA Autopro 100 and the former having changed its name every season.

The inaugural 2007 race was the first major NASCAR (as opposed to CASCAR or NASCAR Canadian Tire Series) race in Canada in several decades. The 2008 race was the first official NASCAR points race from one of NASCAR's top three series to utilize rain tires and windshield wipers.The last race was in 2012 after the track promoter and NASCAR could not come to an agreement for the 2013 season due to the inability to schedule a top-level Sprint Cup event.

Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so. He had previously served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, and prior to that as both a U.S. representative and senator from California.

Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law. He and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U.S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950. His pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40. He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, and lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey.

Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973, brought the American POWs home, and ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 eventually led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year. His administration generally transferred power from Washington D.C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon also presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race. He was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U.S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.

In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated, costing Nixon much of his political support. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of almost certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U.S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by his successor, Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman. He suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994, and died four days later at the age of 81. Historians generally rank Nixon as a below-average president; his involvement in the Watergate scandal has damaged his reputation.

Rick James

Rick James (born James Ambrose Johnson Jr. February 1, 1948 – August 6, 2004) was an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist and producer. Born and raised in Buffalo, New York, James began his musical career in his teen years in various bands and groups before entering the U.S. Navy to avoid being drafted in the early 1960s. In 1965, James deserted to Toronto, Canada, where he formed the rock band the Mynah Birds, who eventually signed a recording deal with Motown Records in 1966. James's career with the group halted after military authorities discovered his whereabouts and eventually convicted James on a one-year prison term related to the draft charges. After being released, James moved to California where he started a variety of rock and funk groups in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

After forming the Stone City Band in his hometown of Buffalo in 1977, James finally found success as a recording artist after signing with Motown's Gordy Records, releasing the album, Come Get It!, in April 1978, where the hits "You & I" and "Mary Jane", were released, helping the album go platinum and selling over two million records. This was followed with three more successful album releases. James released his most successful album, Street Songs, in 1981, which included career-defining hits such as "Give It to Me Baby" and "Super Freak", the latter song becoming his biggest crossover single, mixing elements of funk, disco, rock and new wave. James was also known for his soulful ballads such as "Fire & Desire" and "Ebony Eyes". In addition, James also had a successful career as a songwriter and producer for other artists including Teena Marie, the Mary Jane Girls, the Temptations, Eddie Murphy and Smokey Robinson.

James's mainstream success had peaked by the release of his album Glow in 1985 and his appearance on the popular TV show, The A-Team. James's subsequent releases failed to sell as well as their predecessors. Rapper MC Hammer sampled James's "Super Freak" for his 1990 hit, "U Can't Touch This", and James became the 1991 recipient of a Best R&B Song Grammy for composing the song. James's career was hampered by his drug addiction by the early 1990s. In 1993, James was convicted for two separate instances of kidnapping and torturing two different women while under the influence of crack cocaine, resulting in a three-year sentence at Folsom State Prison. James was released on parole in 1996 and released the album, Urban Rapsody, in 1997. James's health problems halted his career again after a mild stroke during a concert in 1998 and he announced a semi-retirement.

In 2004, James's career returned to the mainstream after he appeared in an episode of Chappelle's Show, in a Charlie Murphy True Hollywood Stories-style segment that satirized James's wild lifestyle, resulting in renewed interest in James's music and that year he returned to perform on the road. James died later that year from heart failure at age 56.

Roman Reigns

Leati Joseph "Joe" Anoaʻi (born May 25, 1985) is an American professional wrestler, actor, and a former professional gridiron football player. He is part of the Anoaʻi family and is currently signed to WWE as a member of the SmackDown brand under the ring name Roman Reigns.

After playing college football for Georgia Tech, Anoaʻi started his professional football career with brief off-season stints with the Minnesota Vikings and Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League (NFL) in 2007. He then played a full season for the Canadian Football League's (CFL) Edmonton Eskimos in 2008 before his release and retirement from football. He then pursued a career in professional wrestling and was signed by WWE in 2010, reporting to their developmental territory Florida Championship Wrestling (FCW). As Roman Reigns, he made his main roster debut in November 2012 alongside Dean Ambrose and Seth Rollins as The Shield. The trio teamed together until June 2014, after which Reigns entered singles competition.

Reigns is a four-time world champion in WWE, having held the WWE World Heavyweight Championship three times and the Universal Championship once. He is also a one-time United States Champion, a one-time Intercontinental Champion, a one-time WWE Tag Team Champion (with Rollins), the 2015 Royal Rumble winner, and the 2014 Superstar of the Year. He tied the WWE record for most eliminations in a Survivor Series elimination match with four in the 2013 event and set the then-record for most eliminations in a Royal Rumble match with 12 in the 2014 event. Upon winning the Intercontinental Championship, he became the twenty-eighth Triple Crown Champion and the seventeenth Grand Slam Champion.

Since 2014, WWE has attempted to establish Reigns as their next "face of the company", which has been met with audience disapproval. Reigns has headlined numerous WWE pay-per-view events, including four straight WrestleManias (31, 32, 33 and 34).

Rona Ambrose

Ronalee Chapchuk "Rona" Ambrose (; born March 15, 1969) is a former Canadian politician who was interim leader of the Conservative Party and the Leader of the Opposition between 2015 and 2017. She was the Conservative Party member of the House of Commons for Sturgeon River—Parkland between 2015 and 2017, and had previously represented Edmonton—Spruce Grove from 2004 to 2015.

In her first term as an Opposition MP, she was the Conservative Party's Intergovernmental Affairs critic. Ambrose also served as vice-chair of the Treasury Board and has held multiple cabinet positions as Canada's Minister of Health, Minister of the Environment, Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs, Minister of Western Economic Diversification, Minister of Labour, Minister of Public Works and Government Services, and Minister of Status of Women. She was President of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada. She is also a former communication consultant and public policy consultant for the Alberta government.

On May 15, 2017, she announced her retirement from federal politics to take effect during the summer. The next day, she was named a visiting fellow by the Canada Institute at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. She retired on July 4, 2017, stating that she hoped she was "able to inspire women to consider public service".In August, 2017, Justin Trudeau's Liberal government appointed Ambrose to a 13-member NAFTA advisory council that will provide opinion and feedback on the upcoming negotiations with the United States and Mexico.

Seth Rollins

Colby Lopez (born May 28, 1986) is an American professional wrestler better known by the ring name Seth Rollins. He is currently signed to WWE, where he performs on the Raw brand, and is the current Universal Champion in his first reign.

Prior to signing with WWE, Lopez wrestled under the ring name Tyler Black for Ring of Honor (ROH), where he held the ROH World Championship once and the ROH World Tag Team Championship twice (with Jimmy Jacobs), as well as the winner of the 2009 Survival of the Fittest tournament. He also wrestled for various independent promotions including Full Impact Pro (FIP), where he was a one-time FIP World Heavyweight Champion, as well as Pro Wrestling Guerrilla (PWG), where he was a one-time PWG World Tag Team Champion (also with Jacobs).

After signing with WWE in 2010, Lopez was sent to its developmental territory Florida Championship Wrestling (FCW) where he was renamed Seth Rollins and became the inaugural FCW Grand Slam Champion. After WWE rebranded FCW into NXT, he became the inaugural NXT Champion. Alongside fellow wrestlers Dean Ambrose and Roman Reigns, he debuted on WWE's main roster at the 2012 Survivor Series as part of a faction called The Shield. He won his first main roster championship while with the group, the WWE Tag Team Championship with Reigns. Following the team's first breakup in June 2014, Rollins went on to become a two-time WWE World Heavyweight Champion, one-time Universal Champion, two-time Intercontinental Champion, one-time United States Champion, four-time WWE/Raw Tag Team Champion (with Reigns, Ambrose, and Jason Jordan), the 2014 Money in the Bank winner, the 2015 Superstar of the Year and the 2019 Men's Royal Rumble winner.

Upon capturing the WWE World Heavyweight Championship in 2015, he became the first wrestler of Armenian descent to hold the title and after winning his first Intercontinental Championship, he became the 29th Triple Crown Champion and the 18th Grand Slam Champion.

Rollins has headlined numerous major pay-per-view events for WWE, including WrestleMania 31. Industry veteran Sting, who wrestled his final match against Rollins, described him as the most talented professional wrestler he has ever seen or worked with. He was the cover athlete for WWE 2K18.

St. Ambrose University

St. Ambrose University is a private, coeducational, liberal arts university affiliated with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Davenport. It is located in a residential area of Davenport, Iowa, United States.

Stephen E. Ambrose

Stephen Edward Ambrose (January 10, 1936 – October 13, 2002) was an American historian and biographer of U.S. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon. He was a longtime professor of history at the University of New Orleans and the author of many bestselling volumes of American popular history.

There have been allegations of plagiarism and inaccuracies in his writings. However, in a review of To America: Personal Reflections of an Historian for the New York Times, William Everdell wrote that "he certainly deserved better from some of his envious peers" and credited the historian with reaching "an important lay audience without endorsing its every prejudice or sacrificing the profession's standards of scholarship."

The Shield (professional wrestling)

The Shield was a professional wrestling stable in WWE that consisted of Dean Ambrose, Roman Reigns, and Seth Rollins. They were originally kayfabe mercenaries for CM Punk; however, they quickly became mainstay main-event names on the Raw brand.The group debuted on November 18, 2012 at the Survivor Series pay-per-view. The Shield was a dominant force in six-man tag team matches with an undefeated televised streak lasting from December 2012 to May 2013, during which they scored a victory at WrestleMania 29 and defeated teams containing the likes of Big Show, Chris Jericho, Daniel Bryan, John Cena, Kane, Randy Orton, Ryback, Sheamus, The Wyatt Family (Bray Wyatt, Erick Rowan and Luke Harper), and The Undertaker. In May 2013 at Extreme Rules, all three members of The Shield won a championship, with Ambrose winning the United States Championship while Rollins and Reigns captured the WWE Tag Team Championship. Rollins and Reigns were WWE Tag Team Champions until October 2013 and Ambrose was United States Champion until May 2014, which was a record reign for the WWE version of the championship. As a Shield member, Reigns gained prominence by setting and equaling elimination records at the 2013 Survivor Series and the 2014 Royal Rumble events.In 2014, The Shield gained victories over The Wyatt Family and Evolution (Batista, Orton and Triple H) in six-man tag matches, as well as a win at WrestleMania XXX against The Authority's Kane and The New Age Outlaws (Billy Gunn and Road Dogg). The Shield at different points in their history worked for CM Punk and The Authority while later going on to face their former employers in separate feuds. They wrestled in the main event of numerous Raw and SmackDown television shows and headlined one pay-per-view, the 2014 Payback event, which was their final match as a trio until 2017. Rollins left the group on June 2, when he attacked Ambrose and Reigns with a chair and sided with The Authority. Ambrose and Reigns went on their own ways as singles wrestlers later that month, marking the end of The Shield.Following the group's dissolution, each member of The Shield went on to become a world champion. All three reigned as WWE World Heavyweight Champion within a three-minute span at the end of the 2016 Money in the Bank event: Rollins defeated Reigns for the championship and then Ambrose cashed in his Money in the Bank briefcase (which he won earlier that night) on Rollins to win the title. By April 2018, all three members of The Shield also completed the Triple Crown and Grand Slam.In the lead-up to the 2017 SummerSlam event, Ambrose and Rollins reunited and captured the Raw Tag Team Championship from Cesaro and Sheamus. Then on the October 9 episode of Raw, the trio reunited to feud with The Miz, Cesaro and Sheamus, with Reigns now retconned as the group's leader. In December 2017, the team dissolved once again after Ambrose suffered an injury. Following Ambrose's return from injury the previous week, The Shield reunited once again on August 20, 2018 episode of Raw to prevent Braun Strowman from cashing in his Money in the Bank contract on Reigns. However, in October that same year, The Shield disbanded following Reigns' hiatus over his leukemia rediagnosis and Ambrose's betrayal towards Rollins. After Reigns returned in February 2019 and announced that his leukemia was in remission, the trio reunited and won the main event match of Fastlane that same month. Although this was promoted as The Shield's final match together, they would reunite for a legitimate last time at the special event The Shield's Final Chapter; Ambrose's final WWE match due to not renewing his contract.

WWE The Shield's Final Chapter

The Shield's Final Chapter was a professional wrestling show and WWE Network event, produced by WWE for their Raw, SmackDown, and 205 Live brands. It took place on April 21, 2019, at TaxSlayer Center in Moline, Illinois. This event marked the final match for The Shield (Dean Ambrose, Roman Reigns, and Seth Rollins) as a group, as well as Ambrose's final match in WWE.

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