Amartya Sen

Amartya Kumar Sen, CH, FBA (Bengali: [ˈɔmort:o ˈʃen]; born 3 November 1933) is an Indian economist and philosopher, who since 1972 has taught and worked in India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Sen has made contributions to welfare economics, social choice theory, economic and social justice, economic theories of famines, and indices of the measure of well-being of citizens of developing countries.

He is the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor at Harvard University[4] and member of faculty at Harvard Law School. He is a Fellow and former Master of Trinity College, Cambridge and was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences[5] in 1998 and India's Bharat Ratna in 1999 for his work in welfare economics. In 2017, Sen was awarded the Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science[6] for most valuable contribution to Political Science.

In 2004, Sen was ranked number 14 in BBC's poll of the Greatest Bengali of all time.[7][8][9]

Amartya Kumar Sen
Amartya Sen , c2000 (4379246038)
Sen in 2000
Born
Amartya Kumar Sen

3 November 1933 (age 85)
NationalityIndian
Spouse(s)
Nabaneeta Dev Sen
(m. 1958; div. 1976)

Eva Colorni
(m. 1978; her death 1985)

Institution
FieldWelfare economics, development economics, ethics
School or
tradition
Capability approach
Alma materUniversity of Calcutta (BA)
University of Cambridge (BA, MA, PhD)
Influences
ContributionsHuman development theory
AwardsNobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (1998)
Bharat Ratna (1999)
National Humanities Medal (2012)[3]
Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science (2017)
Information at IDEAS / RePEc
Websitescholar.harvard.edu/files/sen/files/cv_sen_amartya_jan2013_0.pdf
Notes
Children: Antara Dev Sen (daughter)
Nandana Sen (daughter)
Indrani (daughter)
Kabir (son)

Early life and education

AmartyaSenHouse
'Pratichi', Sen's house in Shantiniketan

Amartya Sen was born in a Hindu family in Bengal, British India, in the district of modern day Bangladesh, Manikganj. Rabindranath Tagore gave Amartya Sen his name (Bengali অমর্ত্য ômorto, lit. "immortal"). Sen's family was from Wari and Manikganj, Dhaka, both in present-day Bangladesh. His father Ashutosh Sen was a professor of chemistry at Dhaka University who moved with his family to West Bengal in 1945 and worked at various government institutions, including the West Bengal Public Service Commission (of which he was the chairman), and the Union Public Service Commission. Sen's mother Amita Sen was the daughter of Kshiti Mohan Sen, a well-known scholar of ancient and medieval India and close associate of Rabindranath Tagore. He served as the Vice Chancellor of Delhi University for some years.

Sen began his high-school education at St Gregory's School in Dhaka in 1940. In fall 1941, Sen was admitted to Patha Bhavana, Shantiniketan, where he completed his school education, in which he excelled, obtaining the highest ranks in his school board and I.A. examinations in the whole of Bengal. The school had many progressive features, such as distaste for examinations or competitive testing. In addition, the school stressed cultural diversity, and embraced cultural influences from the rest of the world.[10] In 1951, he went to Presidency College, Kolkata, where he earned a B.A. in Economics with First in the First Class, with a minor in Mathematics, as a graduating student of the University of Calcutta. While at Presidency, Sen was diagnosed with oral cancer, and given a 15% chance of living five years.[11] With radiation treatment, he survived, and in 1953 he moved to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he earned a second B.A. in Economics in 1955 with a First Class, topping the list as well. At this time, he was elected President of the Cambridge Majlis. While Sen was officially a Ph.D student at Cambridge (though he had finished his research in 1955–56), he was offered the position of First-Professor and First-Head of the Economics Department of the newly created Jadavpur University in Calcutta. He is still the youngest chairman to have headed the Department of Economics. He served in that position, starting the new Economics Department, from 1956 to 1958.

Meanwhile, Sen was elected to a Prize Fellowship at Trinity College, which gave him four years of freedom to do anything he liked; he made the radical decision to study philosophy. Sen explained: "The broadening of my studies into philosophy was important for me not just because some of my main areas of interest in economics relate quite closely to philosophical disciplines (for example, social choice theory makes intense use of mathematical logic and also draws on moral philosophy, and so does the study of inequality and deprivation), but also because I found philosophical studies very rewarding on their own".[12] His interest in philosophy, however, dates back to his college days at Presidency, where he read books on philosophy and debated philosophical themes. One of the books he was most interested in was Kenneth Arrow's Social Choice and Individual Values.[13]

In Cambridge, there were major debates between supporters of Keynesian economics on the one hand, and the "neo-classical" economists who were skeptical of Keynes, on the other. However, because of a lack of enthusiasm for social choice theory in both Trinity and Cambridge, Sen had to choose a different subject for his Ph.D. thesis, which was on "The Choice of Techniques" in 1959, though the work had been completed much earlier (except for some valuable advice from his adjunct supervisor in India, Professor A.K. Dasgupta, given to Sen while teaching and revising his work at Jadavpur) under the supervision of the "brilliant but vigorously intolerant" post-Keynesian, Joan Robinson.[14] Quentin Skinner notes that Sen was a member of the secret society Cambridge Apostles during his time at Cambridge.[15]

During 1960-61, Amartya Sen visited M.I.T., on leave from Trinity College, and found it a great relief to get away from the rather sterile debates that the contending armies were fighting in Cambridge.

Research work

Sen's work on 'Choice of Techniques' complemented that of Maurice Dobb. In a Developing country, the Dobb-Sen strategy relied on maximising investible surpluses, maintaining constant real wages and using the entire increase in labour productivity, due to technological change, to raise the rate of accumulation. In other words, workers were expected to demand no improvement in their standard of living despite having become more productive. Sen's papers in the late 1960s and early 1970s helped develop the theory of social choice, which first came to prominence in the work by the American economist Kenneth Arrow. Arrow, while working at the RAND Corporation, had most famously shown that when voters have three or more distinct alternatives (options), any ranked order voting system will in at least some situations inevitably conflict with what many assume to be basic democratic norms. Sen's contribution to the literature was to show under what conditions Arrow's impossibility theorem[16] applied, as well as to extend and enrich the theory of social choice, informed by his interests in history of economic thought and philosophy.

Amartya Sen NIH
Official Portrait at the Nobel Prize

In 1981, Sen published Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation (1981), a book in which he argued that famine occurs not only from a lack of food, but from inequalities built into mechanisms for distributing food. Sen also argued that the Bengal famine was caused by an urban economic boom that raised food prices, thereby causing millions of rural workers to starve to death when their wages did not keep up.[17]

Sen's interest in famine stemmed from personal experience. As a nine-year-old boy, he witnessed the Bengal famine of 1943, in which three million people perished. This staggering loss of life was unnecessary, Sen later concluded. He presents data that there was an adequate food supply in Bengal at the time, but particular groups of people including rural landless labourers and urban service providers like haircutters did not have the means to buy food as its price rose rapidly due to factors that include British military acquisition, panic buying, hoarding, and price gouging, all connected to the war in the region. In Poverty and Famines, Sen revealed that in many cases of famine, food supplies were not significantly reduced. In Bengal, for example, food production, while down on the previous year, was higher than in previous non-famine years. Sen points to a number of social and economic factors, such as declining wages, unemployment, rising food prices, and poor food-distribution, which led to starvation. His [[capabilities approach]] focuses on [[positive freedom]], a person's actual ability to be or do something, rather than on negative freedom approaches, which are common in economics and simply focuses on non-interference. In the Bengal famine, rural laborers' negative freedom to buy food was not affected. However, they still starved because they were not positively free to do anything, they did not have the functioning of nourishment, nor the capability to escape morbidity.

In addition to his important work on the causes of famines, Sen's work in the field of development economics has had considerable influence in the formulation of the "Human Development Report",[18] published by the United Nations Development Programme.[19] This annual publication that ranks countries on a variety of economic and social indicators owes much to the contributions by Sen among other social choice theorists in the area of economic measurement of poverty and inequality.

Sen's revolutionary contribution to development economics and social indicators is the concept of "capability" developed in his article "Equality of What".[20] He argues that governments should be measured against the concrete capabilities of their citizens. This is because top-down development will always trump human rights as long as the definition of terms remains in doubt (is a "right" something that must be provided or something that simply cannot be taken away?). For instance, in the United States citizens have a right to vote. To Sen, this concept is fairly empty. In order for citizens to have a capacity to vote, they first must have "functionings". These "functionings" can range from the very broad, such as the availability of education, to the very specific, such as transportation to the polls. Only when such barriers are removed can the citizen truly be said to act out of personal choice. It is up to the individual society to make the list of minimum capabilities guaranteed by that society. For an example of the "capabilities approach" in practice, see Martha Nussbaum's Women and Human Development.[21]

He wrote a controversial article in The New York Review of Books entitled "More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing" (see Missing women of Asia), analyzing the mortality impact of unequal rights between the genders in the developing world, particularly Asia. Other studies, including one by Emily Oster, had argued that this is an overestimation, though Oster has since then recanted her conclusions.[22]

In 1999, Sen further advanced and redefined the capability approach in his book Development as Freedom.[23] Sen argues that development should be viewed as an effort to advance the real freedoms that individuals enjoy, rather than simply focusing on metrics such as GDP or income-per-capita. Sen was inspired by violent acts he had witnessed as a child leading up to the Partition of India in 1947. On one morning, a Muslim laborer named Kader Mia stumbled through the rear gate of Sen's family home, bleeding from a knife wound in his back. Because of his extreme poverty, he had come to Sen's primarily Hindu neighborhood searching for work; his choices were the starvation of his family or the risk of death in coming to the neighborhood. The price of Kader Mia's economic unfreedom was his death. This experience led Sen to begin thinking about economic unfreedom from a young age.

In Development as Freedom, Sen outlines five specific types of freedoms: political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security. Political freedoms, the first of these, refers to the ability of the people to have a voice in government and to be able to scrutinize the authorities. Economic facilities concern both the resources within the market and the market mechanism itself. Any focus on income and wealth in the country would serve to increase the economic facilities for the people. Social opportunities deal with the establishments that provide benefits like healthcare or education for the populace, allowing individuals to live better lives. Transparency guarantees allow individuals to interact with some degree of trust and knowledge of the interaction. Protective security is the system of social safety nets that prevent a group affected by poverty being subjected to terrible misery. Before Sen's work, these had been viewed as only the ends of development; luxuries afforded to countries that focus on increasing income. However, Sen argues that the increase in real freedoms should be both the ends and the means of development. He elaborates upon this by illustrating the closely interconnected natures of the five main freedoms as he believes that expansion of one of those freedoms can lead to expansion in another one as well. In this regard he discusses the correlation between social opportunities of education and health and how both of these complement economic and political freedoms as a healthy and well-educated person is better suited to make informed economic decisions and be involved in fruitful political demonstrations etc. A comparison is also drawn between China and India to illustrate this interdependence of freedoms. Both countries were working towards developing their economies, China since 1979 and India since 1991. Despite the fact that India opened its economy about a decade later, it was able to see more rapid development as it had always been pro health and education so its population was much more productive than that of China, where health and education was unavailable to about half of the population.

Welfare economics seeks to evaluate economic policies in terms of their effects on the well-being of the community. Sen, who devoted his career to such issues, was called the "conscience of his profession". His influential monograph Collective Choice and Social Welfare (1970), which addressed problems related to individual rights (including formulation of the liberal paradox), justice and equity, majority rule, and the availability of information about individual conditions, inspired researchers to turn their attention to issues of basic welfare. Sen devised methods of measuring poverty that yielded useful information for improving economic conditions for the poor. For instance, his theoretical work on inequality provided an explanation for why there are fewer women than men in India[24] and China despite the fact that in the West and in poor but medically unbiased countries, women have lower mortality rates at all ages, live longer, and make a slight majority of the population. Sen claimed that this skewed ratio results from the better health treatment and childhood opportunities afforded boys in those countries, as well as sex-selective abortions.

Governments and international organizations handling food crises were influenced by Sen's work. His views encouraged policy makers to pay attention not only to alleviating immediate suffering but also to finding ways to replace the lost income of the poor—for example through public works—and to maintain stable prices for food. A vigorous defender of political freedom, Sen believed that famines do not occur in functioning democracies because their leaders must be more responsive to the demands of the citizens. In order for economic growth to be achieved, he argued, social reforms—such as improvements in education and public health—must precede economic reform.[25]

In 2009, Sen published a book called The Idea of Justice.[1] Based on his previous work in welfare economics and social choice theory, but also on his philosophical thoughts, he presented his own theory of justice that he meant to be an alternative to the influential modern theories of justice of John Rawls or John Harsanyi. In opposition to Rawls but also earlier justice theoreticians Immanuel Kant, Jean-Jacques Rousseau or David Hume, and inspired by the philosophical works of Adam Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft, Sen developed a theory that is both comparative and realizations-oriented (instead of being transcendental and institutional). However, he still regards institutions and processes as being important. As an alternative to Rawls's veil of ignorance, Sen chose the thought experiment of an impartial spectator as the basis of his theory of justice. He also stressed the importance of public discussion (understanding democracy in the sense of John Stuart Mill) and a focus on people's capabilities (an approach that he had co-developed), including the notion of universal human rights, in evaluating various states with regard to justice.

Professional career

Sen began his career both as a teacher and a research scholar in the Department of Economics, Jadavpur University as a Professor of Economics in 1956. He spent two years in that position. From 1957 to 1963, Sen served as a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Between 1960 and 1961, Sen was a visiting Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States, where he got to know Paul Samuelson, Robert Solow, Franco Modigliani, and Norbert Wiener.[26] He was also a visiting Professor at the University of California, Berkeley (1964-1965) and Cornell (1978-1984). He taught as Professor of Economics between 1963 and 1971 at the Delhi School of Economics (where he completed his magnum opus Collective Choice and Social Welfare in 1969).[27]

During this time Sen was also a frequent visitor to various other premiere Indian economic schools and centres of excellence like Jawaharlal Nehru University, Indian Statistical Institute, Centre for Development Studies, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics and Centre for Studies in Social Sciences. He was a companion of distinguished economists like Manmohan Singh (Ex-Prime Minister of India and a veteran economist responsible for liberalizing the Indian economy), K. N. Raj (Advisor to various Prime Ministers and a veteran economist who was the founder of Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, which is one of India's premier think tanks and schools) and Jagdish Bhagwati (who is known to be one of the greatest Indian economists in the field of International Trade and currently teaches at Columbia University). This is a period considered to be a Golden Period in the history of DSE. In 1971, he joined the London School of Economics as a Professor of Economics where he taught until 1977. From 1977 to 1988, he taught at the University of Oxford, where he was first a Professor of Economics and Fellow of Nuffield College, and then the Drummond Professor of Political Economy and a Fellow of All Souls College from 1980.

In 1987, Sen joined Harvard as the Thomas W. Lamont University Professor of Economics. In 1998 he was appointed as Master of Trinity College, Cambridge,[28] becoming the first Asian head of an Oxbridge college.[29] In January 2004, Sen returned to Harvard. He also established the Eva Colorni Trust at the former London Guildhall University in the name of his deceased wife.

Nalanda Project

In May 2007, he was appointed as chairman[30] of Nalanda Mentor Group to examine the framework of international cooperation, and proposed structure of partnership, which would govern the establishment of Nalanda International University Project as an international centre of education seeking to revive the ancient center of higher learning which was present in India from the 5th century to 1197.

On 19 July 2012, Sen was named the first chancellor of the proposed Nalanda University (NU).[31] Teaching began in August 2014. On 20 February 2015, Amartya Sen withdrew his candidature for a second term.

Membership and associations

He has served as president of the Econometric Society (1984), the International Economic Association (1986–1989), the Indian Economic Association (1989) and the American Economic Association (1994). He has also served as President of the Development Studies Association and the Human Development and Capability Association. He serves as the honorary director of the Academic Advisory Committee of the Center for Human and Economic Development Studies at Peking University in China.[32]

Sen has been called "the Conscience of the profession" and "the Mother Teresa of Economics"[33][34] for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare economics, the underlying mechanisms of poverty, gender inequality, and political liberalism. However, he denies the comparison to Mother Teresa, saying that he has never tried to follow a lifestyle of dedicated self-sacrifice.[35] Amartya Sen also added his voice to the campaign against the anti-gay Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code.[36]

Sen has served as Honorary Chairman of Oxfam, the UK based international development charity, and is now its Honorary Advisor.[37][38]

Sen is also a member of the Berggruen Institute's 21st Century Council.[39]

Sen is an Honorary Fellow of St Edmund's College, Cambridge.[40]

Media and culture

A 56-minute documentary named Amartya Sen: A Life Re-examined directed by Suman Ghosh details his life and work.[41][42] A movie on Amartya Sen's book The Argumentative Indian will be released soon .

A 2001 portrait of Sen by Annabel Cullen is in Trinity College's collection.[43] A 2003 portrait of Sen hangs in the National Portrait Gallery in London.[44]
In 2011, he was present at the Rabindra Utsab ceremony at Bangabandhu International Conference Centre (BICC), Bangladesh. He unveiled the cover of Sruti Gitobitan, a Rabindrasangeet album comprising all the 2222 Tagore songs, brought out by Rezwana Chowdhury Bannya, principal of Shurer Dhara School of Music.[45]

Political views

Sen was critical of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi when he was announced as the prime ministerial candidate by the BJP. In April 2014, he said that Modi would not make a good Prime Minister.[46] However, he conceded later in December 2014 that Modi did give people a sense of faith that things can happen.[47] In February 2015, Sen opted out of seeking a second term for the chancellor post of Nalanda University, stating that the Government of India was not keen on him continuing in the post.[48]

Personal life and beliefs

Sen has been married three times. His first wife was Nabaneeta Dev Sen, an Indian writer and scholar, with whom he had two daughters: Antara, a journalist and publisher, and Nandana, a Bollywood actress. Their marriage broke up shortly after they moved to London in 1971.[33] In 1978 Sen married Eva Colorni, an Italian economist, daughter of Eugenio Colorni and Ursula Hirschmann and niece of Albert O. Hirschman. The couple had two children, a daughter Indrani, who is a journalist in New York, and a son Kabir, a hip hop artist, MC, and music teacher at Shady Hill School. Eva died of cancer in 1985.[33] In 1991, Sen married Emma Georgina Rothschild, who serves as the Jeremy and Jane Knowles Professor of History at Harvard University.

The Sens have a house in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which is the base from which they teach during the academic year. They also have a home in Cambridge, England, where Sen is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Rothschild is a Fellow of Magdalene College. He usually spends his winter holidays at his home in Shantiniketan in West Bengal, India, where he used to go on long bike rides until recently. Asked how he relaxes, he replies: "I read a lot and like arguing with people."[33]

Sen is an atheist and holds that this can be associated with one of the atheist schools in Hinduism, the Lokayata.[49][50][51] In an interview for the magazine California, which is published by the University of California, Berkeley, he noted:[52]

In some ways people had got used to the idea that India was spiritual and religion-oriented. That gave a leg up to the religious interpretation of India, despite the fact that Sanskrit had a larger atheistic literature than exists in any other classical language. Madhava Acharya, the remarkable 14th century philosopher [53], wrote this rather great book called Sarvadarshansamgraha, which discussed all the religious schools of thought within the Hindu structure. The first chapter is "Atheism"—a very strong presentation of the argument in favor of atheism [54] and materialism.

Awards and honours

Sen has received over 90 honorary degrees from universities around the world.[55]

Bibliography

Books

1960–1979

  • Sen, Amartya (1960). Choice of Techniques: An Aspect of the Theory of Planned Economic Development. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Sen, Amartya (1973). On Economic Inequality (expanded ed.). Oxford New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198281931.

1980–1989

  • Sen, Amartya (1982). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198284635.
  • Sen, Amartya; Williams, Bernard (1982). Utilitarianism and beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780511611964.
  • Sen, Amartya (1983). Choice, Welfare, and Measurement. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. ISBN 9780631137962.
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1999). Choice, Welfare, and Measurement. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674127784.
Reviewed in the Social Scientist: Sanyal, Amal (October 1983). ""Choice, welfare and measurement" by Amartya Sen". Social Scientist. 11 (10): 49–56. doi:10.2307/3517043. JSTOR 3517043.
  • Sen, Amartya (1970). Collective Choice and Social Welfare (1st ed.). San Francisco, California: Holden-Day. ISBN 9780816277650.
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1984). Collective Choice and Social Welfare (2nd ed.). New York, NY: North-Holland Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier Science Publishing Co. ISBN 9780444851277.
  • Sen, Amartya (1997). Resources, Values, and Development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674765269.
  • Sen, Amartya (1985). Commodities and Capabilities (1st ed.). New York, NY: North-Holland Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier Science Publishing Co. ISBN 9780444877307.
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (1999). Commodities and Capabilities (2nd ed.). Delhi New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195650389. Reviewed in The Economic Journal.[62]
  • Sen, Amartya; McMurrin, Sterling M. (1986). The Tanner lectures on human values. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press. ISBN 9780585129334.
  • Sen, Amartya (1987). On Ethics and Economics. New York, NY: Basil Blackwell. ISBN 9780631164012.
  • Sen, Amartya; Drèze, Jean (1989). Hunger and public action. Oxford England New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198286349.

1990–1999

  • Sen, Amartya (1992). Inequality Reexamined. New York Oxford New York: Russell Sage Foundation Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198289289.
Also printed as: Sen, Amartya (November 2003). Inequality Reexamined. Oxford Scholarship Online. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/0198289286.001.0001. ISBN 9780198289289.
Extract 1. (Via Ian Stoner, lecturer, Department of Philosophy, University of Minnesota, readings.)
Extract 2.
  • Sen, Amartya; Nussbaum, Martha (1993). The Quality of Life. Oxford England New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198287971.
  • Sen, Amartya; Foster, James E. (1997). On economic inequality. Radcliffe Lectures. Oxford New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198281931.
  • Sen, Amartya; Drèze, Jean (1998). India, economic development and social opportunity. Oxford England New York: Clarendon Press Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198295280.
  • Sen, Amartya; Suzumura, Kōtarō; Arrow, Kenneth J. (1996). Social Choice Re-examined: Proceedings of the IEA conference held at Schloss Hernstein, Berndorf, near Vienna, Austria. 2 (1st ed.). New York, NY: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312127398.
  • Sen, Amartya (1999). Development as Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198297581.
Review in Asia Times.[63]

2000–2009

  • Sen, Amartya (2000). Freedom, Rationality, and Social Choice: The Arrow Lectures and Other Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198296997.
  • Sen, Amartya (2002). Rationality and Freedom. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. ISBN 9780674013513.
Preview.
Chapter-preview links – 1.
Chapter-preview links – 2.
  • Sen, Amartya (2005). The Argumentative Indian: Writings on Indian History, Culture, and Identity. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 9780312426026.
Review The Guardian.[64]
Review The Washington Post.[65]
  • Sen, Amartya (2006). Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny. Issues of our time. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 9780393329292.
  • Sen, Amartya (31 December 2007). "Imperial Illusions". The New Republic.
Extract: "Imperial illusions: India, Britain, and the wrong lessons."
  • Sen, Amartya; Zamagni, Stefano; Scazzieri, Roberto (2008). Markets, money and capital: Hicksian economics for the twenty-first century. Cambridge, UK New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521873215.

2010 onwards

Preview.
  • Sen, Amartya; Stiglitz, Joseph E.; Fitoussi, Jean-Paul (2010). Mismeasuring our lives: why GDP doesn't add up: the report. New York: New Press Distributed by Perseus Distribution. ISBN 9781595585196.
  • Sen, Amartya (2011). Peace and Democratic Society. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers. ISBN 9781906924393.
  • Drèze, Jean and Sen, Amartya. 2013. An Uncertain Glory: The Contradictions of Modern India. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9781846147616.
  • Sen, Amartya. 2015. The Country of First Boys: And Other Essays. OUP India. ISBN 0198738188.

Choice of Techniques (1960), Growth Economics (1970), Collective Choice and Social Welfare (1970), On Economic Inequality (1973, 1997); Poverty and Famines (1981); Utilitarianism and Beyond (jointly with Bernard Williams, 1982); Choice, Welfare and Measurement (1982), Commodities and Capabilities (1985), The Standard of Living (1987), On Ethics and Economics (1987); Hunger and Public Action (jointly with Jean Drèze, 1989); Inequality Re-examined (1992); The Quality of Life (jointly with Martha Nussbaum, 1993); Development as Freedom (1999); Rationality and Freedom (2002); The Argumentative Indian (2005); Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny (2006), The Idea of Justice (2009), An Uncertain Glory: India and Its Contradictions (jointly with Jean Drèze, 2013), and The Country of First Boys (2015).

Chapters in books

  • Sen, Amartya (1980), "Equality of what? (lecture delivered at Stanford University, 22 May 1979)", in MacMurrin, Sterling M. (ed.), The Tanner lectures on human values, 1 (1st ed.), Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, ISBN 9780874801781.
Reprinted as: Sen, Amartya (2010), "Equality of what?", in MacMurrin, Sterling M. (ed.), The Tanner lectures on human values, 4 (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 195–220, ISBN 9780521176415.
Pdf version.
  • Sen, Amartya (1988), "The concept of development", in Srinivasan, T.N.; Chenery, Hollis (eds.), Handbook of development economics, 1, Amsterdam New York New York, N.Y., U.S.A: North-Holland Sole distributors for the U.S.A. and Canada, Elsevier Science Publishing Co., pp. 2–23, ISBN 9780444703378.
  • Sen, Amartya (2004), "Capability and well-being", in Nussbaum, Martha; Sen, Amartya (eds.), The quality of life, New York: Routledge, pp. 30–53, ISBN 9780415934411.
  • Sen, Amartya (2004), "Development as capability expansion", in Kumar, A. K. Shiva; Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko (eds.), Readings in human development: concepts, measures and policies for a development paradigm, New Delhi New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195670523.
Reprinted in Sen, Amartya (2012), "Development as capability expansion", in Saegert, Susan; DeFilippis, James (eds.), The community development reader, New York: Routledge, ISBN 9780415507769.

Journal articles

Lecture transcripts

News coverage of the 1998 Romanes Lecture in the Oxford University Gazette.[66]

Papers

Selected works in Persian

A list of Persian translations of Amartya Sen's work is available here

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Sen, Amartya (2010). The idea of justice. London: Penguin. ISBN 9780141037851.
  2. ^ Deneulin, Séverine (2009). "Book reviews: Intellectual roots of Amartya Sen: Aristotle, Adam Smith and Karl Marx". Journal of Human Development and Capabilities. 10 (2): 305–306. doi:10.1080/19452820902941628.
  3. ^ "President Obama Awards 2011 National Humanities Medals". National Endowment for the Humanities. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  4. ^ "University Professorships - Harvard University". Harvard University. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  5. ^ "Indian Nobel laureate Amartya Sen honoured in US". BBC News. 14 February 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  6. ^ "Amartya Sen awarded the 2017 Johan Skytte Prize". Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science. Retrieved 22 April 2017.
  7. ^ "Listeners name 'greatest Bengali'". 14 April 2004. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  8. ^ "The Hindu : International : Mujib, Tagore, Bose among 'greatest Bengalis of all time'". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  9. ^ "The Daily Star Web Edition Vol. 4 Num 313". The Daily Star. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  10. ^ "Amartya Sen - Biographical". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  11. ^ Riz Khan interviewing Amartya Sen (21 August 2010). One on One - Amartya Sen (Television production). Al Jazeera English. Event occurs at 18:40 minutes in. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  12. ^ "Amartya Sen – Biographical: Philosophy and economics". The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  13. ^ "Amartya Sen - Biographical". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  14. ^ "Amartya Sen – Biographical: Cambridge as a battleground". The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  15. ^ Professor Quentin Skinner and Alan Macfarlane (2 June 2008). Interview of Professor Quentin Skinner  – part 2 (Video). Cambridge. 57:55 minutes in – via YouTube.
  16. ^ Benicourt, Emmanuelle (1 September 2002). "Is Amartya Sen a post-autistic economist?". Post-Autistic Economics Review (15): article 4. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  17. ^ Sachs, Jeffrey (26 October 1998). "The real causes of famine: a Nobel laureate blames authoritarian rulers". Time. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  18. ^ United Nations Development Programme, UNDP, ed. (2010). "Overview | Celebrating 20 years of human development". Human Development Report 2010 | 20th anniversary edition | the real wealth of nations: pathways to human development. New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme. p. 2. ISBN 9780230284456. ...the first HDR called for a different approach to economics and development – one that put people at the centre. The approach was anchored in a new vision of development, inspired by the creative passion and vision of Mahbub ul Haq, the lead author of the early HDRs, and the ground-breaking work of Amartya Sen. Pdf version.
  19. ^ Batterbury, Simon; Fernando, Jude (2004), "Amartya Sen", in Hubbard, Phil; Kitchin, Rob; Valentine, Gill (eds.), Key thinkers on space and place, London: Sage, pp. 251–257, ISBN 9780761949626. Draft
  20. ^ Sen, Amartya (2010), "Equality of what?", in MacMurrin, Sterling M. (ed.), The Tanner lectures on human values, 4 (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 195–220, ISBN 978-0521176415. Pdf version.
  21. ^ Nussbaum, Martha (2000). Women and human development: the capabilities approach. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521003858.
  22. ^ Oster, Emily; Chen, Gang (2010). "Hepatitis B does not explain male-biased sex ratios in China". Economics Letters. 107 (2): 142–144. doi:10.1016/j.econlet.2010.01.007.
  23. ^ Sen, Amartya (1998). Development as Freedom. Anchor. ISBN 978-0385720274.
  24. ^ Sen, Amartya (27 October – 9 November 2001). "Many Faces of Gender Inequality". Frontline. 18 (22).
  25. ^ "Amartya Sen | Indian economist". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  26. ^ "Amartya Sen | Biographical: opening paragraph". The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  27. ^ "Amartya Sen | Biographical: Delhi School of Economics". The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998. Nobel Prize. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
  28. ^ "Prof. Amartya Sen". Trinity College, Cambridge. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  29. ^ Tonkin, Boyd (5 July 2013). "Amartya Sen: The taste of true freedom". Retrieved 19 July 2015.
  30. ^ "Ministry of External Affairs, Press Release: Nalanda University Bill". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 11 August 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2012. The University of Nalanda is proposed to be established under the aegis of the East Asia Summit (EAS), as a regional initiative. Government of India constituted a Nalanda Mentor Group (NMG) in 2007, under the Chairmanship of Prof. Amartya Sen...
  31. ^ Ahmad, Faizan (20 July 2012). "Amartya Sen named Nalanda University chancellor". The Times of India. India. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  32. ^ "People: Key committees 1. | Academic Advisory Committee, Honorary Director: Amartya Sen". Center for Human and Economic Development Studies (CHEDS), Peking University. Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2011.
  33. ^ a b c d Steele, Jonathan (19 April 2001). "The Guardian Profile: Amartya Sen". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  34. ^ Coy, Peter (25 October 1998). "Commentary: The Mother Teresa of economics". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. New York. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  35. ^ Bill, Dunlop (31 August 2010). "Book Festival: Amartya Sen, Nobel prize-winning welfare economist". Edinburgh: Edinburgh Guide. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  36. ^ Ramesh, Randeep (18 September 2006). "India's literary elite call for anti-gay law to be scrapped". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  37. ^ "WHO | Amartya Sen". www.who.int. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  38. ^ Steele, Jonathan (31 March 2001). "The Guardian Profile: Amartya Sen". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  39. ^ "Berggruen Institute".
  40. ^ "St Edmund's College - University of Cambridge". st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
  41. ^ "Amartya Sen: A Life Reexamined, A Film" (PDF). Icarus Films newsletter. Brooklyn, New York: First Run/Icarus Films. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2012.
  42. ^ Gupta, Aparajita (1 January 2012). "Nobel laureate's life on silver screen". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  43. ^ Artist: Annabel Cullen | Subject: Amartya Sen (2001). Amartya Sen (b.1933), Master (1998–2004), Economist and Philosopher (Painting). Trinity College, University of Cambridge: Art UK.
  44. ^ Artist: Antony Williams | Subject: Amartya Sen (2003). Amartya Sen (Painting). National Portrait Gallery, London.
  45. ^ "প্রিয়.কম". Archived from the original on 25 February 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
  46. ^ "Narendra Modi is not a good PM candidate: Amartya Sen". NDTV.
  47. ^ "Narendra Modi did give people a sense of faith that things can happen". The Indian Express.
  48. ^ "Amartya Sen Quits Nalanda".
  49. ^ Sen, Amartya (23 November 2001). "A world not neatly divided". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  50. ^ "Amartya Sen speaks on culture at World Bank". Tokyo: The World Bank & Broadcast. 13 December 2000. Retrieved 16 June 2014. When a Hindu priest begins the puja today, invoking an alternative calendar and declaring the year 1406, what is he remembering? Mohamed’s flight from Mecca to Medina, in a mixed lunar and solar form! ... This is why cultural studies are so important, because it brings out clearly how non-insular cultures are and their willingness to accept new influences. Pdf transcript. Archived 11 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ Chanda, Arup (28 December 1998). "Market economy not the panacea, says Sen". Rediff On The Net. Retrieved 16 June 2014. Although this is a personal matter... But the answer to your question is: No. I do not believe in god.
  52. ^ Bardhan, Pranab (July – August 2006). "The arguing Indian". California Magazine. Cal Alumni Association UC Berkeley. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  53. ^ Not to be confused with Madhvacharya of Dwaitya vedanta the 13th century saint, this book is by a different philosopher of the 14th century http://www.gutenberg.org/files/34125/34125-h/34125-h.htm
  54. ^ The book has not got anything to do with atheism only the first chapter is Purva paksha Mīmāṃsā of atheism, the rest of the chapters put a Purva paksha for rest of the philosophies that originated in India and the last chapter that is missing in the book and later editions touch on Advaita Vedanta. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/34125/34125-h/34125-h.htm
  55. ^ "Curriculum Vitae: Amartya Sen" (PDF). Harvard University. January 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  56. ^ "Chapter "S"", Members of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences: 1780–2013 (PDF), Cambridge, Massachusetts: American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 2013, p. 499, archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2014, retrieved 16 June 2014.
  57. ^ "Professor Amartya Sen receives awards from the governments of France and Mexico". Harvard University | Department of Economics. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  58. ^ "Chevalier de la légion d'honneur à M. Amartya SEN" (Given by Fabien Fieschi, Consul General of France in the USA). 27 November 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  59. ^ Ghosh, Deepshikha (14 December 2013). "If you get an honour you think you don't deserve, it's still very pleasant: Amartya Sen". New Delhi: NDTV. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
  60. ^ "Amartya Sen wins new UK award". The Indian Express. London. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  61. ^ "Economist Amartya Sen awarded Bodley Medal". Bodleian Libraries. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  62. ^ Sugden, Robert (September 1986). ""Commodities and Capabilities" by Amartya Sen". The Economic Journal. 96 (383): 820–822. doi:10.2307/2232999. JSTOR 2232999.
  63. ^ Mathur, Piyush (31 October 2003). "Revisiting a classic 'Development as Freedom' by Amartya Sen". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 25 August 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  64. ^ Mishra, Pankaj (9 July 2005). "In defence of reason (book review)". London: The Guardian | Books. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  65. ^ Tharoor, Shashi (16 October 2005). "A passage to India". The Washington Post. Washington D.C. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  66. ^ Sen, Amartya (17 December 1998). "Reason must always come before identity, says Sen". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 14 June 2014.

Further reading

External links

Academic offices
Preceded by
Sir Michael Atiyah
Master of Trinity College, University of Cambridge
1998–2004
Succeeded by
Sir Martin Rees
Educational offices
Preceded by
Herbert Scarf
President of the Econometric Society
1984 – 1985
Succeeded by
Daniel McFadden
Preceded by
Kenneth Arrow
President of the International Economic Association
1986 – 1989
Succeeded by
Anthony B. Atkinson
Preceded by
Zvi Griliches
President of the American Economic Association
1994 – 1995
Succeeded by
Victor R. Fuchs
New creation President of the Human Development and Capability Association
September 2004 – September 2006
Succeeded by
Martha Nussbaum
Awards
Preceded by
Robert C. Merton / Myron S. Scholes
Laureates of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences
1998
Succeeded by
Robert A. Mundell
Preceded by
M. S. Subbulakshmi / Chidambaram Subramaniam
Recipient of the Bharat Ratna
1999
Served alongside: Jayaprakash Narayan, Gopinath Bordoloi, Ravi Shankar
Succeeded by
Lata Mangeshkar / Bismillah Khan
Antara Dev Sen

Antara Dev Sen (born 1963) is a British–Indian journalist.

Chicago Boys

The Chicago Boys were a group of Chilean economists prominent around the 1970s and 1980s, the majority of whom trained at the Department of Economics of the University of Chicago under Milton Friedman and Arnold Harberger, or at its affiliate in the economics department at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. Upon their return to Latin America they adopted positions in numerous South American governments including the Military dictatorship of Chile (1973–90). As economic advisors, many of them reached high positions within those. The Heritage Foundation credits them with transforming Chile into Latin America's best performing economy and one of the world's most business-friendly jurisdictions. However, critics point to drastic increases in unemployment that can be attributed to policies implemented on their advice to fight inflation. Some (such as Nobel laureate Amartya Sen) have argued that these policies were deliberately intended to serve the interests of American corporations at the expense of Latin American populations. Peter Kornbluh states that in the case of Chile, American attempts to destabilize the Chilean economy ceased once the Chicago Boys had gained political influence; this may have been the true underlying cause of the subsequent increase in economic growth.

Development as Freedom

Development as Freedom is a 1999 book about international development by the economist Amartya Sen.

Equality of autonomy

Equality of autonomy is a political philosophy concept of Amartya Sen that argues "that the ability and means to choose our life course should be spread as equally as possible across society"—i.e., an equal chance at autonomy or empowerment. Equality of autonomy strives to spread empowerment widely so that "given their circumstances", people have more "choice and control". The concept has a slightly different emphasis from related notions, such as the value of equality in the workplace ("equal opportunity") or equal material wealth ("equality of outcome").

According to Todd May, Sen's approach requires "active intervention of institutions like the state into people's lives" but with an aim towards "fostering of people's self-creation rather than their living conditions". Sen argued that "the ability to convert incomes into opportunities is affected by a multiplicity of individual and social differences that mean some people will need more than others to achieve the same range of capabilities".

Inequality Reexamined

Inequality Reexamined is a 1992 book by Amartya Sen. In the book Sen evaluates the different perspectives of the general notion of inequality, focusing mainly on his well-known capability approach. The author argues that inequality is a central notion to every social theory that has stood on time. For only if this basic feature is satisfied can a social theory which advocates a set of social arrangements be plausible. Taken the inequality ingredient for granted, the crucial question becomes: inequality of what? Sen answers this basic question by advocating his preferred notion of equality which is based on the capability for Functions.

Kerala model

The Kerala model of development is a model of development based on the practices adopted in the state of Kerala, India. It is characterized by achievements in social indicators such as education, healthcare, high life expectancy, low infant mortality and low birth rate, by the creation of productive social infrastructure rather than materialistic infrastructure. Kerala has achieved material conditions of living, reflected in indicators of social development comparable to those of developed countries, even though the state's per capita income is moderate. These achievements along with the factors responsible for such achievements have been considered characteristic results of the Kerala model.More precisely, the Kerala model has been defined as:

A set of high material quality-of-life indicators coinciding with moderate per-capita incomes, both distributed across nearly the entire population of Kerala.

A set of wealth and resource redistribution programmes that have largely brought about the high material quality-of-life indicators.

High levels of political participation and activism among ordinary people along with substantial numbers of dedicated leaders at all levels. Kerala's mass activism and committed cadre were able to function within a largely democratic structure, which their activism has served to reinforce.

Kshitimohan Sen

Kshitimohan Sen (2 December 1880 – 12 March 1960) was an Indian scholar, writer and a Sanskrit professor. He was an acting Upacharyas of Visva-Bharati University (1953–1954). He is the maternal grandfather of Amartya Sen.

Landesque capital

Landesque capital is a widespread concept used to understand anthropogenic landscapes that serve important economic, social, and ritual purposes.

Liberalisme (anthology)

Liberalisme: Politisk frihet fra John Locke til Amartya Sen (English: Liberalism: Political Freedom from John Locke to Amartya Sen) is a 2009 Norwegian language anthology edited by Lars Svendsen. The book focuses on the history of liberalism and libertarianism in general, and contains a sample of liberal thinkers from John Locke to Amartya Sen. It was published by Universitetsforlaget with financial support from Civita and Fritt Ord. The book received mixed reviews by critics.

List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the London School of Economics

A list of Nobel laureates affiliated with the London School of Economics. By official figures 18 Nobel Prizes in economics, peace and literature have been awarded to LSE alumni and staff. By 2016, 27% (or 13 out of 48) of all the Nobel Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff or former staff, making up 17% (13 out of 78) of all laureates. LSE alumni and staff have also won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes, and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature.

Alumni

1950: Ralph Bunche (Peace)

1979: Sir William Arthur Lewis (Economics)

1991: Ronald Coase (Economics)

1999: Robert Mundell (Economics)

2007: Leonid Hurwicz (Economics)

2016: Juan Manuel Santos (Peace)Founders and professors

1925: George Bernard Shaw (Literature)

1950: Bertrand Russell (Literature)

1959: Philip Noel-Baker (Peace)

1972: Sir John Hicks (Economics)

1974: Friedrich von Hayek (Economics)

1977: James Meade (Economics)

1990: Merton Miller (Economics)

1998: Amartya Sen (Economics)

2001: George Akerlof (Economics)

2008: Paul Krugman (Economics)

2010: Christopher A. Pissarides (Economics)

2016: Oliver Hart (Economics)Non-alumni1987: Óscar Arias (Peace)

List of liberal theorists

Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment. Liberalism as a specifically named ideology begins in the late 18th century as a movement towards self-government and away from aristocracy. It included the ideas of self-determination, the primacy of the individual and the nation, as opposed to the state and religion, as being the fundamental units of law, politics and economy.

Since then liberalism has broadened to include a wide range of approaches from Americans Ronald Dworkin, Richard Rorty, John Rawls and Francis Fukuyama as well as the Indian Amartya Sen and the Peruvian Hernando de Soto. Some of these people moved away from liberalism, while others espoused other ideologies before turning to liberalism. There are many different views of what constitutes liberalism, and some liberals would feel that some of the people on this list were not true liberals. It is intended to be suggestive rather than exhaustive. Theorists whose ideas were mainly typical for one country should be listed in that country's section of liberalism worldwide. Generally only thinkers are listed, politicians are only listed when they, beside their active political work, also made substantial contributions to liberal theory.

Mahbub ul Haq

Mahbub ul Haq (Urdu: محبوب الحق‎; 24 February 1934 – 16 July 1998) was a Pakistani game theorist, economist and an international development theorist who served as the 13th Finance Minister of Pakistan from 10 April 1985 until 28 January 1988.After studying economics at Punjab University, he travelled to Cambridge where he got a degree. He later moved to Yale where he received his PhD and later worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the Harvard Kennedy School. He returned to Pakistan to serve as the Chief economist of Pakistan during the 1960s, and moved to the U.S after the election of the socialist government led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. At the World Bank he worked as the policy director throughout the 1970s and also the chief economic adviser to Robert McNamara.He moved back to Pakistan in 1982 and in 1985 became the country's Finance Minister and oversaw a period of cautious economic liberalisation. In 1988 he moved back to U.S where he served as the Special Adviser to the UNDP Administrator William Henry Draper. Here, Haq led the establishment of Human Development Report which includes the now popular HDI, which measures development by people's well-being, rather than by their income alone. He returned to Pakistan in 1996 to establish the Human Development Center in Islamabad.Haq is considered to have had a profound effect on global development. Haq's 1996 book Reflections on Human Development is said to have opened new avenues to policy proposals for human development paradigms, such as the 20:20 Global Compact and the setting up the UN Economic and Social Council.Amartya Sen and Tam Dalyell termed Haq's work to have "brought about a major change in the understanding and statistical accounting of the process of development." The Economist called him "one of the visionaries of international development." He is widely regarded as "the most articulate and persuasive spokesman for the developing world".

Nabaneeta Dev Sen

Nabaneeta Dev Sen (Nôbonita Deb Sen) (born 13 January 1938), Padma Shri (2000) is an award-winning Indian poet, novelist and academic.

Nalanda University

Nalanda University (also known as Nalanda International University) is an international and research-intensive university located in Rajgir, near Nalanda, India, which was established by an Act of Parliament to emulate the famous Nalanda of ancient India. The original university, widely considered to be the greatest of all ancient monasteries and the world's first residential institution, functioned for over 800 years from around 400 AD, long before University of Oxford, University of Cambridge or Harvard University came into existence. Nalanda University at its peak housed 10,000 students from all across Asia. Some famous personalities associated with the original university include Lord Buddha, who preached at Rajgir centuries earlier, and the legendary Buddhist master Atiśa. The university began its first academic session on September 1, 2014 with 15 students including five women. Its original faculty consisted of world-class professors from some of the top universities across the globe. Initially set up with temporary facilities in Rajgir, a massive modern campus is expected to be finished by 2020. The university has been designated as an "international university of national importance" by the Parliament of India.

Nalanda is exclusively a graduate school, currently only offering Master's courses, with PhD programmes to be offered in future.

Normative economics

Normative economics (as opposed to positive economics) is a part of economics that expresses value or normative judgments about economic fairness or what the outcome of the economy or goals of public policy ought to be.Economists commonly prefer to distinguish normative economics ("what ought to be" in economic matters) from positive economics ("what is"). Many normative (value) judgments, however, are held conditionally, to be given up if facts or knowledge of facts changes, so that a change of values may be purely scientific. On the other hand, welfare economist Amartya Sen distinguishes basic (normative) judgments, which do not depend on such knowledge, from nonbasic judgments, which do. He finds it interesting to note that "no judgments are demonstrably basic" while some value judgments may be shown to be nonbasic. This leaves open the possibility of fruitful scientific discussion of value judgments.Positive and normative economics are often synthesized in the style of practical idealism. In this discipline, sometimes called the "art of economics," positive economics is utilized as a practical tool for achieving normative objectives.

An example of a normative economic statement is as follows:

The price of milk should be $6 a gallon to give dairy farmers a higher living standard and to save the family farm.This is a normative statement, because it reflects value judgments. This specific statement makes the judgment that farmers deserve a higher living standard and that family farms ought to be saved.Subfields of normative economics include social choice theory, cooperative game theory, and mechanism design.

Some earlier technical problems posed in welfare economics and the theory of justice have been sufficiently addressed as to leave room for consideration of proposals in applied fields such as resource allocation, public policy, social indicators, and inequality and poverty measurement.

Philosophy and economics

Philosophy and economics, also philosophy of economics, studies topics such as rational choice, the appraisal of economic outcomes, institutions and processes, and the ontology of economic phenomena and the possibilities of acquiring knowledge of them.

It is useful to divide philosophy of economics in this way into three subject matters which can be regarded respectively as branches of action theory, ethics (or normative social and political philosophy), and philosophy of science. Economic theories of rationality, welfare, and social choice defend substantive philosophical theses often informed by relevant philosophical literature and of evident interest to those interested in action theory, philosophical psychology, and social and political philosophy.

Economics is of special interest to those interested in epistemology and philosophy of science both because of its detailed peculiarities and because it has many of the overt features of the natural sciences, while its object consists of social phenomena.

Social Progress Index

The Social Progress Index (SPI) measures the extent to which countries provide for the social and environmental needs of their citizens. Fifty-four indicators in the areas of basic human needs, foundations of well-being, and opportunity to progress show the relative performance of nations. The index is published by the nonprofit Social Progress Imperative, and is based on the writings of Amartya Sen, Douglass North, and Joseph Stiglitz. The SPI measures the well-being of a society by observing social and environmental outcomes directly rather than the economic factors. The social and environmental factors include wellness (including health, shelter and sanitation), equality, inclusion, sustainability and personal freedom and safety.

The Argumentative Indian

The Argumentative Indian is a book written by Nobel Prize winning Indian economist Amartya Sen. It is a collection of essays that discuss India's history and identity, focusing on the traditions of public debate and intellectual pluralism. Martha Nussbaum says the book "demonstrates the importance of public debate in Indian traditions generally."The Argumentative Indian has brought together a selection of writings from Sen that outline the need to understand contemporary India in the light of its long argumentative tradition. The understanding and use of this argumentative tradition are critically important, Sen argues, for the success of India's democracy, the defence of its secular politics, the removal of inequalities related to class, caste, gender and community, and the pursuit of sub-continental peace.

The Idea of Justice

The Idea of Justice is a 2009 book by the economist Amartya Sen. The work is a critique and revision of John Rawls's ideas in A Theory of Justice (1971).

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