Amar Bose

Amar Gopal Bose (Bengali: অমর বোস), (November 2, 1929 – July 12, 2013) was an American academic and entrepreneur. An electrical engineer and sound engineer, he was a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for over 45 years.[1] He was also the founder and chairman of Bose Corporation. In 2011, he donated a majority of the company to MIT in the form of non-voting shares to sustain and advance MIT's education and research mission.[2]

Amar Bose
Amar Bose india times
Born
Amar Gopal Bose

November 2, 1929
DiedJuly 12, 2013 (aged 83)
Alma materMIT (SB, SM, ScD)
OccupationEngineer, inventor, entrepreneur, founder of Bose Corporation
Net worth$1 billion (2011)
Spouse(s)Ursula Boltzhauser (widowed)
Prema Bose (divorced)
ChildrenVanu Bose
Maya Bose

Early life and education

Bose was born in Philadelphia, PA,[3] to a Bengali Hindu father, Noni Gopal Bose and an American mother of French and German ancestry, Charlotte. His father was an Indian freedom revolutionary[4] who, having been imprisoned for his political activities, fled Bengal in the 1920s in order to avoid further persecution by the British colonial police.[5] His mother, Charlotte, is described as an American schoolteacher of French and German ancestry,[6] but Bose described her as "more Bengali than me. She was a vegetarian and deeply interested in Vedanta and Hindu philosophy".[7]

Bose first displayed his entrepreneurial skills and his interest in electronics at age thirteen when, during the World War II years, he enlisted school friends as co-workers in a small home business repairing model trains and home radios, to supplement his family's income.[8]

After graduating from Abington Senior High School in Abington, Pennsylvania, Bose enrolled at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, graduating with an SB (Bachelor of Science) in Electrical Engineering in the early 1950s. Bose spent a year at Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium in Eindhoven, Netherlands; and a year as a Fulbright research student in New Delhi, India, where he met his future first wife. He completed his PhD in Electrical Engineering from MIT, writing a thesis on non-linear systems under the supervision of Norbert Wiener and Yuk-Wing Lee.

Career

Following graduation, Amar Bose became an assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. During his early years as a professor, Bose bought a high-end stereo speaker system in 1956 and he was disappointed to find that speakers with impressive technical specifications failed to reproduce the realism of a live performance. This would eventually motivate his extensive speaker technology research, concentrating on key weaknesses in the high-end speaker systems available at the time. His research on acoustics led him to invent a stereo loudspeaker that would reproduce, in a domestic setting, the dominantly reflected sound field that characterizes the listening space of the audience in a concert hall. His focus on psychoacoustics later became a hallmark of his company's audio products.

For initial capital to fund his company in 1964, Bose turned to angel investors, including his MIT thesis advisor and professor, Y. W. Lee. Bose was awarded significant patents in two fields that continue to be important to the Bose Corporation. These patents were in the area of loudspeaker design and non-linear, two-state modulated, Class-D power processing.

The company Bose founded employed 11,700 people worldwide as of 2016 and produces products for home, car, and professional audio, as well as conducting basic research in acoustics and other fields. Bose never took his company public, and since the company was privately held Bose was able to pursue risky long-term research. In a 2004 interview in Popular Science magazine, he said: "I would have been fired a hundred times at a company run by MBAs. But I never went into business to make money. I went into business so that I could do interesting things that hadn't been done before."[9]

Starting in the 1980s, Bose developed an electromagnetic replacement for automotive shock absorbers, intended to radically improve the performance of automotive suspension systems, absorbing bumps and road shock while controlling car body motions and sway.[9]

Bose said that his best ideas usually came to him in a flash. "These innovations are not the result of rational thought; it's an intuitive idea."[10]

In 2007, he was listed in Forbes 400 as the 271st richest man in the world, with a net worth of $1.8 billion.[11] In 2009, he was no longer on the billionaires list, but returned to the list in 2011, with a net worth of $1.0 billion.[12]

Personal life

He married Prema Bose but they later divorced. They had two children, Vanu and Maya. He had one grandchild, Kamala. Amar Bose did not practice any religion, though he used to meditate for a short while every day.[13] Vanu Bose was the founder and CEO of a software-defined radio technology company.[14]

Bose died on July 12, 2013 at the age of 83 in Wayland, Massachusetts.[1][15][16]

Legacy

In addition to running his company, Bose remained a professor at MIT until 2001. He earned the Baker Teaching Award in 1963–64, and further teaching awards over the years. The Bose Award for Excellence in Teaching (1989), and later the Junior Bose Award (1995) were established in his honor, to recognize outstanding teaching in the MIT School of Engineering.[17]

In 2011, Bose donated a majority of the company's non-voting shares to MIT on the condition that the shares never be sold.[18] Because these shares are non-voting, MIT does not participate in operations or governance of Bose Corporation.[17]

Honors and awards

References

  1. ^ a b Rifkin, Glenn (July 12, 2013). "Amar G. Bose, Acoustic Engineer and Inventor, Dies at 83". New York Times.
  2. ^ "Amar Bose '51 makes stock donation to MIT". MIT. 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2012-02-05.
  3. ^ https://www.bose.com/en_us/about_bose/innovations_achievements.html
  4. ^ "Rich & Famous In The US | Padma Rao Sundarji". Outlookindia.com. 1996-05-22. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
  5. ^ Lemley, Brad (2004-10-01). "Discover Dialogue: Amar G. Bose". Discover Magazine. Retrieved 2012-02-01.
  6. ^ Distinguished Asian Americans: A Biographical Dictionary – Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  7. ^ Shivanand Kanavi (2007-07-26). "reflections: Amar Bose-A Portrait". Reflections-shivanand.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  8. ^ Siliconeer: January 2005
  9. ^ a b Clynes, Tom (July 15, 2013). "The Curious Genius Of Amar Bose". Popular Science. Popular Science. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
  10. ^ Popular Science Dec 2004
  11. ^ "Four Indian Americans make it to Forbes list". www.expressindia. Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved February 18, 2008.
  12. ^ "Amar Bose's profile". www.forbes.com. Retrieved April 2, 2011.
  13. ^ "Amar Bose- Documentary". January 8, 2015.
  14. ^ Shenoy, M. J. A. (1999-07-26). "Bose And Bose Vs MIT". Rediff. Retrieved 2012-02-01.
  15. ^ Amar Bose, Pioneer of High-End Audio, Dies at 83 (Subscription required.)
  16. ^ "Amar, Bose of sound, is dead at 83". The Hindu. 1929-11-02. Retrieved 2013-07-16.
  17. ^ a b Nickerson, Nate (July 12, 2013). "Amar Bose '51, SM '52, ScD '56, Bose Corporation's founder, has died at 83". MIT News. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
  18. ^ Gift to MIT from Amar Bose Raises Tax Questions by Stephanie Strom. New York Times. April 30, 2011.
  19. ^ http://www.indiawest.com/entertainment/global/a-r-rahman-to-receive-honorary-doctorate-from-berklee/article_badd2882-0ed2-11e4-8fa6-001a4bcf887a.html
  20. ^ "IEEE/RSE Wolfson James Clerk Maxwell Award Recipients" (PDF). IEEE. Retrieved October 4, 2011.

External links

Alan V. Oppenheim

Alan Victor Oppenheim (born 1937 in New York City) is a Professor of Engineering at MIT's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. He is also a principal investigator in MIT's Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE), at the Digital Signal Processing Group.

His research interests are in the general area of signal processing and its applications. He is coauthor of the widely used textbooks Discrete-Time Signal Processing and Signals and Systems. He is also editor of several advanced books on signal processing.

Ammar (name)

Ammar (also spelled Amar; Arabic: عمّار‎, ʿAmmār) is an Arabic given name and Sanskrit given name.

Notable persons with this name include:

Given nameAmmar al-Basri, 8th century East Syriac Christian theologian.

Amar (singer), British-Indian female singer, active since the 1990s

Ammar al-Bakri, British-Iraqi lawyer

Ammar Campa-Najjar, California Congressional candidate

Amar Ezzahi (1941-2016), Algerian singer

Amar Gupta, Indian computer scientist

Ammar Habib, Syrian footballer

Ammar al-Hakim, Iraqi politician

Ammar Hassan, Palestinian musician

Amar Jaleel, Pakistani writer

Ammar Jemal, Tunisian footballer

Amar Lal, Pakistani politician

Ammar ibn Yasir, one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad

Amar Osim, Bosnian football coach

Ammar Nakshawani, Islamic lecturer

Amar Ramasar, American ballet dancer

Ammar Rihawi, Syrian football coach

Ammar al-Saffar, Iraqi politician

Ammar Siamwalla, Thai economist

Amar Bose, Founder of Bose CorporationSurnameAli Ammar, Algerian guerilla leader

Michael Ammar , American magician

Sonia Ben Ammar, model

Tarak Ben Ammar, film producer

Bengali Hindu diaspora

The Bengali Hindu diaspora is the worldwide population of the Bengali Hindus of Indian and Bangladeshi origin.

Bose (surname)

Bose or Basu or Boshu is a surname found amongst Bengali Hindus. It stems from Sanskrit वासु vāsu (a name of Vishṇu meaning 'dwelling in all beings').Boses belong to Kayastha caste in Bengal. The Bengali Kayasthas evolved between the 5th/6th century AD and 11th/12th century AD, its component elements being putative Kshatriyas and mostly Brahmin. Boses are considered as Kulin Kayasthas, along with Ghoshes, Mitras and Guhas.

Bose Corporation

Bose Corporation is a privately held American corporation, based in Framingham, Massachusetts, that designs, develops and sells audio equipment. Founded in 1964 by Amar Bose, the company sells its products throughout the world. According to the company annual report in the 2017 financial year, Bose received revenue of US$3.8 billion and employed more than 8,000 people.

Bose is best known for its home audio systems and speakers, noise cancelling headphones, professional audio systems and automobile sound systems. The company has also conducted research into suspension technologies for cars and heavy-duty trucks and into the subject of cold fusion. Bose has a reputation for being particularly protective of its patents, trademarks, and brands.

A majority of Bose Corporation's non-voting shares were given by Amar Bose in 2011 to his alma mater and former employer, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They receive cash dividends, but are prohibited from selling the shares and are unable to participate in the management and governance of the company.

Crutchfield Corporation

Crutchfield Corporation is a North American retailer specializing in a wide range of electronics, including mobile audio and video equipment for the automobile, along with speakers, televisions, and other electronics for home or portable use, serving both the United States and Canada.

It was created in 1974 by William G. " Bill" Crutchfield, Jr., founder and CEO. It is based in Charlottesville, Virginia.

FMX (broadcasting)

FMX is the name of a commercially unsuccessful noise reduction system developed in the 1980s for FM broadcasting in the United States.

FM stereo broadcasting is known to incur up to a 23 dB noise penalty over that of monophonic FM broadcasting; this is due to the combination of the triangular FM noise spectrum and the wider baseband bandwidth occupied by the stereo multiplex signal. Developed at the CBS Technology Center, FMX was intended to improve this characteristic for listeners in the fringe areas where the noise penalty would be worst. This improvement was achieved by adding an amplitude-compressed version of the L−R (left-minus-right, or difference) signal modulated in quadrature with the stereo subcarrier, using a version of the CX noise-reduction system originally developed at CBS for LP records.

Upon his accession as Chairman of CBS, Laurence Tisch closed the CBS labs in 1986, whereupon the FMX intellectual property was spun off to an investment group, under the name Broadcast Technology Partners (BTP).

With about 50 stations using the technology and perhaps another 50 committed, a controversy emerged in 1989 when MIT professor and Bose Corporation CEO Amar Bose and Bose engineer William Short released a critical study, finding the system to have the potential to "seriously degrade the quality of stereo reception whether received by FMX equipment or not." According to the study, the heavy compression of the L−R audio caused interference in receivers under multipath conditions. A BTP spokesman rebutted the finding, saying that the Bose analysis exaggerated a "worst-case scenario", and actually employed "flawed mathematics" to attempt to prove their point. Perhaps not coincidentally, a patent application filed earlier by Bose disclosed an invention whose implementation was incompatible with the adoption of FMX, while another – filed by Bose and Short around the time of the release of the critical study – sought to improve the performance of FMX under multipath conditions.Despite industrial supporters in both the broadcast and consumer electronics industries, the system never achieved a critical mass, and faded into obscurity. However, numerous related patents have since been applied for or granted, referencing the original FMX patents.

Lee Yuk-Wing

Lee Yuk-Wing (Chinese: 李郁榮; April 14, 1904 – November 8, 1989) was a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is best known for adapting and popularizing the pioneering work of Norbert Wiener and for his own research on statistical communication theory.

Lee was born in Macao and called “Yuwing” or “YW” by his friends. He was a longtime collaborator of Wiener. Lee was part of a cohort of students sponsored by the Boxer Indemnity Scholarship Program. After obtaining his doctorate at MIT, he returned to China and taught at Tsinghua University. He invited Wiener there in 1935-1937. In 1946 he came back to MIT as a Visiting Professor and initiated his research on statistical communication theory. He then stayed at MIT for 30 years. John Costas, Harry L. Van Trees, Irwin Jacobs and Amar Bose were his students at MIT. He died in San Mateo, California.

List of people from New England

All of the following people were born in New England or spent a significant portion of their life in New England, making them a well-known figure in the region. This includes people who were born in or lived in the U.S. states of Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Some of them, like Robert Frost, who was actually born in California, emigrated to New England and are now considered to be icons of the region. All of them exemplify some aspect of the region in one way or another.

Abbie Hoffman

Adam Sandler

Some members of Aerosmith

Aimee Mann

Alan B. Shepard, Jr.

Alicia Witt

Alisan Porter

Amar Bose

Amos Bronson Alcott

Amy Jo Johnson

Amy Poehler

Anna Kendrick

Anne Sexton

Anthony Michael Hall

Barbara Walters

Ben Affleck

Benjamin Franklin

Bernie Sanders

Bette Davis

Bill Belichick

Bill De Blasio

William "Billy" Bulger

Bobby Brown

Bobby Farrelly

Richard Buckminster Fuller

Calvin Coolidge

Carly Simon

Casey Affleck

Charles Bulfinch

Charles Ives

Clara Barton

Claus von Bülow

Chris Evans

Conan O'Brien

Cotton Mather

Crispus Attucks

Dan Brown

Dane Cook

Daniel Shays

Daniel Webster

David Byrne

Denis Leary

Dick Dale

Donna Summer

Donnie Wahlberg

Doug Flutie

E. E. Cummings

Edgar Allan Poe

Edward Brooke

Edward Gorey

Edward Norton

Eli Whitney

Elizabeth Hasselbeck

Elizabeth Warren

Ellen Pompeo

Emily Dickinson

Ephraim Morse

Ethel Kennedy

Eugene Mirman

Frank Miller (comics)

Franklin Pierce

Frederick Douglass

George HW Bush

George M. Cohan

George W Bush

George Mitchell

H. Jon Benjamin

H. P. Lovecraft

Hannibal Hamlin

Harriet Beecher Stowe

Henry David Thoreau

Howard Dean

Jack Kerouac

James J. "Whitey" Bulger

James Naismith

James Taylor

James Woods

Jamie Loftus

Jay Harrington

Jay Leno

Joe Perry

Joe Raposo

Joey Graceffa

John Adams

John Cena

John F. Kennedy

John Ford

John Greenleaf Whittier

John Hancock

John Irving

John Kerry

John Krasinski

John Quincy Adams

John Singleton Copley

John Steinbeck

John Updike

Johnny Appleseed

Jonathan Edwards

Jonathan Richman

Joseph Grew

Joseph Lieberman

Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.

Josh Meyers

Joshua Chamberlain

Josiah Quincy II

Josiah Quincy III

Josiah Quincy, Jr.

Josiah Quincy

Junius Morgan

Katharine Hepburn

Katharine Lee Bates

Ken Olsen

Kevin Eastman

Leonard Bernstein

Leonard Nimoy

Lilla Cabot Perry

Lizzie Borden

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Louis Sullivan

Louisa May Alcott

Matt Leblanc

Mandy Moore

Mark Wahlberg

Maria Menounos

Mary Dyer

Massasoit

Matt Damon

Meghan Trainor

Meredith Viera

King Philip

Michael Dukakis

Mindy Kaling

Misha Collins

Mitt Romney

Nathaniel Hawthorne

New Kids on the Block

Norm Crosby

Oliver Wendell Holmes

Olympia Snowe

Patrick Dempsey

Patrick Ewing

Patrick J. Kennedy

Patrick Sharp

Paul Revere

Paul Tsongas

Peter Farrelly

Peter Laird

Peter Wolf

Rachael MacFarlane

Rachel Dratch

Rachel Nichols

Ralph Nader

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ric Ocasek

Richard Cushing

Robert Ellis Cahill

Robert Frost

Robert Goulet

Robert Kennedy

Robert Kraft

Robert Lowell

Roger Williams

Ronnie James Dio

Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy

Rosemary Kennedy

Rowland Hussey Macy

Ruth Buzzi

Sam Hyde

Samuel Adams

Samuel Slater

Sarah Silverman

Sawyer Fredericks

Sean Patrick Maloney

Seth MacFarlane

Seth Meyers

Shemar Moore

Spalding Gray

Squanto

Stephen King

Stephanie McMahon

Steve Carell

Steven Tyler

Sumner Redstone

Sunny von Bülow

Susan B. Anthony

Sylvia Plath

Taylor Schilling

Edward "Ted" Kennedy

Theo Epstein

Dr. Seuss

Theodore Parker

Tip O'Neill

Trey Anastasio

Triple H

Vincent K. McMahon

Will McDonough

William Cohen

William James Sidis

William "Bill" Weld

Winslow Homer

MIT150

The MIT150 is a list published by the Boston Globe, in honor of the 150th anniversary of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 2011, listing 150 of the most significant innovators, inventions or ideas from MIT, its alumni, faculty, and related people and organizations in the 150 year history of the institute.

The top 30 innovators and inventions on the list are:

Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web

Eric Lander, team leader for sequencing one-third of the Human Genome

William Shockley, inventor of the solid-state transistor

Ray Tomlinson, inventor of the "@" symbol use in email addresses

Phillip A. Sharp, founder of Biogen Idec

Ken Olsen and Harlan Anderson, founders of Digital Equipment Corp.

Helen Greiner and Colin Angle, founders of iRobot Corp.

Ellen Swallow Richards, nutrition expert, and the first woman admitted to MIT

Amar Bose, founder of Bose Corporation

Ivan Getting, founder of Aerospace Corp., co-inventor of GPS

Salvador Luria, father of modern biology

Joseph Jacobson, co-founder of E Ink

Dan Bricklin, Bob Frankston, inventors of VisiCalc

Brewster Kahle, founder of the Internet Archive

Daniel Lewin, F. Thomson Leighton, co-founders of Akamai

Vannevar Bush, science advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, founder of Raytheon, father of the National Science Foundation

Pietro Belluschi, dean of the MIT School of Architecture and Planning

Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, Leonard Adleman, inventors of RSA cryptography

Charles Draper, inventor of the first inertial guidance system

Herbert Kalmus, Daniel Comstock, cofounders of Technicolor

John Dorrance, inventor of Campbell Soup

David Baltimore, Nobel laureate

Robert Weinberg, cofounder of the Whitehead Institute

William Thompson Sedgwick, founder of the Harvard School of Public Health

Alfred P. Sloan, CEO of General Motors

William Hewlett, cofounder of Hewlett Packard

Marc Raibert, inventor of BigDog

Hugh Herr, founder of iWalk and head of the Biomechatronics research group at the MIT Media Lab

Hoyt C. Hottel, oil industry pioneer

Robert Swanson, cofounder of Genentech

Marxist Forward Bloc

The Marxist Forward Bloc is a political party in India, a splinter group of the All India Forward Bloc. The MFB was formed in 1953 as Satyapriya Banerjee, a member of the AIFB Central Secretariat, Amar Bose, Suhurit Chaudhury and Ram Chatterji were expelled from AIFB. At its foundation, Satyapriya Banerjee was the party's general secretary and Amar Bose its chairman.

The MFB is part of the Left Front and has been associated with the combined left movement since its inception. Its leader Ram Chatterjee was a minister in the West Bengal Left Front government for several years. Today the MFB is led by Pratim Chatterjee, who served in the West Bengal government as Minister of Fire Services. Chatterjee represented the Tarakeswar seat in the West Bengal Legislative Assembly until 2011.

In West Bengal Assembly elections, the MFB contests the seats for Tarakeswar in Hoogly district and Jamalpur in Burdwan district as a Left Front partner. In the 2006 West Bengal Legislative Assembly election, the party retained both seats. In the Kolkata municipal polls in 2005, the MFB contested two wards as a Left Front partner. Biren Chakroborty, the secretary of the MFB, was elected from ward number 57.

In the 2008 Panchayet polls, the MFB won seats in Panchayet, Panchayet Samity and ZP levels in Hoogly and Burdwan districts.

In the 2010 municipal polls, the MFB lost its seat in Kolkata corporation. It won a seat each at Rampurhat in Birbhum and Arambagh in Hooghly.

The party lost its representation in the Legislative Assembly in the 2011 election. from 2014 jaihind singh is the chair person.

Norbert Wiener

Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher. He was a professor of mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). A child prodigy, Wiener later became an early researcher in stochastic and mathematical noise processes, contributing work relevant to electronic engineering, electronic communication, and control systems.

Wiener is considered the originator of cybernetics, a formalization of the notion of feedback, with implications for engineering, systems control, computer science, biology, neuroscience, philosophy, and the organization of society.

Norbert Wiener is credited as being one of the first to theorize that all intelligent behavior was the result of feedback mechanisms, that could possibly be simulated by machines and was an important early step towards the development of modern AI.

November 2

November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 59 days remaining until the end of the year.

Satyapriya Banerjee

Satyapriya Banerjee (born 1893, d. 1957) was an Indian politician and trade unionist.

The Asian Awards

The Asian Awards is an annual award ceremony for the global Asian community which takes place in the United Kingdom, with 14 categories that include business, philanthropy, entertainment, culture and sport. Nominees are selected by an independent judging panel initially co-chaired by Baroness Verma and Nat Wei, Baron Wei then from 2014 onwards Karan Bilimoria, Baron Bilimoria.In 2010 and 2011, the awards were only open to those born in or with direct family origin from India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, or Bangladesh. From 2013, they were expanded to include all people of both South and Eastern Asian origin.

Thomas Stockham

Thomas Greenway Stockham (December 22, 1933 – January 6, 2004) was an American scientist who developed one of the first practical digital audio recording systems, and pioneered techniques for digital audio recording and processing as well.

Stockham was born in Passaic, New Jersey. Stockham attended Montclair Kimberley Academy, graduating in the class of 1951. Known as the "father of digital recording", he earned an Sc.D. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1959 and was appointed Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering. Early in his academic career at MIT, Stockham worked closely with Amar Bose, founder of Bose Corporation, on the use of digital computers for measurement and simulation of room acoustics and for audio recording and enhancement. While at MIT, he noticed several of the students using an MIT Lincoln Laboratory TX-0 mainframe computer installed at the campus to record their voices digitally into the computer's memory, using a microphone and a loudspeaker connected to an A/D-D/A converter attached to the TX-0. This expensive tape recorder led Stockham to his own digital audio experiments on this same computer in 1962.

In 1968 he left MIT for the University of Utah, and in 1975 founded Soundstream, Inc. The company developed a 16-bit digital audio recording system using a 16-track Honeywell instrumentation tape recorder as a transport, connected to digital audio recording and playback hardware of Stockham's design. It ran at a sampling rate of 50 kHz, as opposed to the audio CD sampling rate of 44.1 kHz.

Soundstream Inc. was the first commercial digital recording company in the United States, located in Salt Lake City. Stockham was the first to make a commercial digital recording, using his own Soundstream recorder in 1976 at the Santa Fe Opera. In 1980, Soundstream merged with the Digital Recording Company (DRC) and became DRC/Soundstream.

Stockham played a key role in the digital restoration of Enrico Caruso recordings, described in a 1975 IEEE paper. These acoustic recordings were the first to be digitally restored by computer, and were released on the album Caruso - A Legendary Performer, issued in 1976 by RCA Records.

In 1974, he investigated President Richard Nixon's White House tapes, alongside fellow members of the panel of persons nominated jointly by the White House and the Special Prosecution Force. It was he who discovered that the 18 minutes of erasures were not accidental, as Nixon's secretary Rosemary Woods claimed. Stockham was able to discern several distinct erasures and even determined the order of erasure.

Stockham's team reached agreement on seven conclusions detailed in their 87-page report to Chief Judge John J. Sirica:

1. The erasing and recording operations that produced the buzz

section were done directly on the evidence tape.2. The Uher 5000 recorder designated Government Exhibit #60 probably produced the entire buzz section.3. The erasures and buzz recordings were done in at least five, and perhaps as many as nine, separate and contiguous segments.4. Erasure and recording of each segment required hand operation of keyboard controls on the Uher 5000 machine.5. Erased portions of the tape probably contained speech originally.6. Recovery of the speech is not possible by any method known to us.7. The evidence tape, insofar as we have determined, is an original and not a copy.

Stockham's developments and contributions to digital audio paved the way for later digital audio technologies, such as the audio compact disc and Digital Audio Tape.

Stockham received wide recognition for his pioneering contributions to digital audio. He received, among many others, the Gold Medal award from the Audio Engineering Society in 1987, a Technical Emmy award in 1988, the Poniatoff Gold Medal from the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, a Grammy award from NARAS in 1994, the IEEE Jack S. Kilby Signal Processing Medal in 1998 and a Scientific and Engineering award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1999.

Vanu Bose

Vanu Gopal Bose (October 4, 1965 – November 11, 2017) was an American electrical engineer and technology executive. He was the son of Amar Bose, the founder of Bose Corporation.

Wayland, Massachusetts

Wayland is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 13,444 at the 2010 census. Wayland is part of the fifth congressional district of Massachusetts.

For geographic and demographic information on Cochituate, which is part of Wayland, please see the article Cochituate, Massachusetts.

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