Amanita muscaria

Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a basidiomycete of the genus Amanita. It is also a muscimol mushroom. Native throughout the temperate and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere, Amanita muscaria has been unintentionally introduced to many countries in the Southern Hemisphere, generally as a symbiont with pine and birch plantations, and is now a true cosmopolitan species. It associates with various deciduous and coniferous trees.

Arguably the most iconic toadstool species, the fly agaric is a large white-gilled, white-spotted, usually red mushroom, and is one of the most recognizable and widely encountered in popular culture.

Although classified as poisonous, reports of human deaths resulting from its ingestion are extremely rare. After parboiling—which weakens its toxicity and breaks down the mushroom's psychoactive substances—it is eaten in parts of Europe, Asia, and North America. Amanita muscaria is noted for its hallucinogenic properties, with its main psychoactive constituents being the compounds ibotenic acid and muscimol. The mushroom was used as an intoxicant and entheogen by the peoples of Siberia, and has a religious significance in these cultures. There has been much speculation on possible traditional use of this mushroom as an intoxicant in other places such as the Middle East, Eurasia, North America, and Scandinavia.

Amanita muscaria
2006-10-25 Amanita muscaria crop
Showing three stages as the mushroom expands
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Amanitaceae
Genus: Amanita
Species:
A. muscaria
Binomial name
Amanita muscaria
(L.) Lam. (1783)
Subspecies and varieties
  • A. muscaria subsp. flavivolvata Singer[1][2]
  • A. muscaria var. guessowii Veselý[3]
  • A. muscaria var. inzengae Neville & Poumarat[4][2]
Amanita muscaria
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is flat or convex
hymenium is free
stipe has a ring and volva
spore print is white
ecology is mycorrhizal
edibility: psychoactive

Taxonomy and naming

The name of the mushroom in many European languages is thought to derive from its use as an insecticide when sprinkled in milk. This practice has been recorded from Germanic- and Slavic-speaking parts of Europe, as well as the Vosges region and pockets elsewhere in France, and Romania.[5]:198 Albertus Magnus was the first to record it in his work De vegetabilibus some time before 1256,[6] commenting vocatur fungus muscarum, eo quod in lacte pulverizatus interficit muscas, "it is called the fly mushroom because it is powdered in milk to kill flies."[7]

Fly Agaric mushroom 05
Showing the partial veil under the cap dropping away to form a ring around the stipe

The 16th-century Flemish botanist Carolus Clusius traced the practice of sprinkling it into milk to Frankfurt in Germany,[8] while Carl Linnaeus, the "father of taxonomy", reported it from Småland in southern Sweden, where he had lived as a child.[9] He described it in volume two of his Species Plantarum in 1753, giving it the name Agaricus muscarius,[10] the specific epithet deriving from Latin musca meaning "fly".[11] It gained its current name in 1783, when placed in the genus Amanita by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, a name sanctioned in 1821 by the "father of mycology", Swedish naturalist Elias Magnus Fries. The starting date for all the mycota had been set by general agreement as January 1, 1821, the date of Fries's work, and so the full name was then Amanita muscaria (L.:Fr.) Hook. The 1987 edition of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature changed the rules on the starting date and primary work for names of fungi, and names can now be considered valid as far back as May 1, 1753, the date of publication of Linnaeus's work.[12] Hence, Linnaeus and Lamarck are now taken as the namers of Amanita muscaria (L.) Lam..

The English mycologist John Ramsbottom reported that Amanita muscaria was used for getting rid of bugs in England and Sweden, and bug agaric was an old alternative name for the species.[7] French mycologist Pierre Bulliard reported having tried without success to replicate its fly-killing properties in his work Histoire des plantes vénéneuses et suspectes de la France (1784), and proposed a new binomial name Agaricus pseudo-aurantiacus because of this.[5]:200 One compound isolated from the fungus is 1,3-diolein (1,3-Di(cis-9-octadecenoyl)glycerol), which attracts insects.[13] It has been hypothesised that the flies intentionally seek out the fly agaric for its intoxicating properties.[14] An alternative derivation proposes that the term fly- refers not to insects as such but rather the delirium resulting from consumption of the fungus. This is based on the medieval belief that flies could enter a person's head and cause mental illness.[15] Several regional names appear to be linked with this connotation, meaning the "mad" or "fool's" version of the highly regarded edible mushroom Amanita caesarea. Hence there is oriol foll "mad oriol" in Catalan, mujolo folo from Toulouse, concourlo fouolo from the Aveyron department in Southern France, ovolo matto from Trentino in Italy. A local dialect name in Fribourg in Switzerland is tsapi de diablhou, which translates as "Devil's hat".[5]:194

Classification

Amanita muscaria is the type species of the genus. By extension, it is also the type species of Amanita subgenus Amanita, as well as section Amanita within this subgenus. Amanita subgenus Amanita includes all Amanita with inamyloid spores. Amanita section Amanita includes the species with patchy universal veil remnants, including a volva that is reduced to a series of concentric rings, and the veil remnants on the cap to a series of patches or warts. Most species in this group also have a bulbous base.[16][17] Amanita section Amanita consists of A. muscaria and its close relatives, including A. pantherina (the panther cap), A. gemmata, A. farinosa, and A. xanthocephala.[18] Modern fungal taxonomists have classified Amanita muscaria and its allies this way based on gross morphology and spore inamyloidy. Two recent molecular phylogenetic studies have confirmed this classification as natural.[19][20]

Controversy

Amanita muscaria var. formosa sensu Thiers
Amanita muscaria var. formosa is now a synonym for Amanita muscaria var. guessowii.[3]

Amanita muscaria varies considerably in its morphology, and many authorities recognize several subspecies or varieties within the species. In The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy, German mycologist Rolf Singer listed three subspecies, though without description: A. muscaria ssp. muscaria, A. muscaria ssp. americana, and A. muscaria ssp. flavivolvata.[16]

However, a 2006 molecular phylogenetic study of different regional populations of A. muscaria by mycologist József Geml and colleagues found three distinct clades within this species representing, roughly, Eurasian, Eurasian "subalpine", and North American populations. Specimens belonging to all three clades have been found in Alaska; this has led to the hypothesis that this was the centre of diversification for this species. The study also looked at four named varieties of the species: var. alba, var. flavivolvata, var. formosa (including var. guessowii), and var. regalis from both areas. All four varieties were found within both the Eurasian and North American clades, evidence that these morphological forms are polymorphisms rather than distinct subspecies or varieties.[21] Further molecular study by Geml and colleagues published in 2008 show that these three genetic groups, plus a fourth associated with oak–hickory–pine forest in the southeastern United States and two more on Santa Cruz Island in California, are delineated from each other enough genetically to be considered separate species. Thus A. muscaria as it stands currently is, evidently, a species complex.[22] The complex also includes at least three other closely related taxa that are currently regarded as species:[1] A. breckonii is a buff-capped mushroom associated with conifers from the Pacific Northwest,[23] and the brown-capped A. gioiosa and A. heterochroma from the Mediterranean Basin and from Sardinia respectively. Both of these last two are found with Eucalyptus and Cistus trees, and it is unclear whether they are native or introduced from Australia.[24][25]

Amanitaceae.org lists four varieties as of May 2019, but says that they will be segregated into their own taxa "in the near future". They are:[2]

Image Reference name Common name Synonym Description
Amanita muscaria [1] Euro-Asian Fly Agaric Bright red fly agaric from northern Europe and Asia. Cap might be orange or yellow due to slow development of the purple pigment. Wide cap with white or yellow warts which are removed by rain.

Known to be toxic but used by shamans in northern cultures. Associated predominantly with Birch and diverse conifers in forest.

Amanita muscaria 26643 Amanita muscaria var. flavivolvata[3] American fly agaric red, with yellow to yellowish-white warts. It is found from southern Alaska down through the Rocky Mountains, through Central America, all the way to Andean Colombia. Rodham Tulloss uses this name to describe all "typical" A. muscaria from indigenous New World populations.
Flickr - Nicholas T - Forrest H. Dutlinger Natural Area (Revisited) (19) Amanita muscaria var. guessowii[4] American fly agaric (yellow variant) Amanita muscaria var. formosa has a yellow to orange cap, with the centre more orange or perhaps even reddish orange. It is found most commonly in northeastern North America, from Newfoundland and Quebec south all the way to the state of Tennessee. Some authorities (cf. Jenkins) treat these populations as A. muscaria var. formosa, while others (cf. Tulloss) recognise them as a distinct variety.
Amanita muscaria var. inzengae[26] Inzenga's fly agaric it has a yellow to orange-yellow cap with yellowish warts and stem which may be tan.

Description

Amanita muscaria section 1 WF orig
Cross section of fruiting body, showing pigment under skin and free gills

A large, conspicuous mushroom, Amanita muscaria is generally common and numerous where it grows, and is often found in groups with basidiocarps in all stages of development. Fly agaric fruiting bodies emerge from the soil looking like white eggs. After emerging from the ground, the cap is covered with numerous small white to yellow pyramid-shaped warts. These are remnants of the universal veil, a membrane that encloses the entire mushroom when it is still very young. Dissecting the mushroom at this stage reveals a characteristic yellowish layer of skin under the veil, which helps identification. As the fungus grows, the red colour appears through the broken veil and the warts become less prominent; they do not change in size, but are reduced relative to the expanding skin area. The cap changes from globose to hemispherical, and finally to plate-like and flat in mature specimens.[27] Fully grown, the bright red cap is usually around 8–20 cm (3–8 in) in diameter, although larger specimens have been found. The red colour may fade after rain and in older mushrooms.

The free gills are white, as is the spore print. The oval spores measure 9–13 by 6.5–9 μm; they do not turn blue with the application of iodine.[28] The stipe is white, 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) high by 1–2 cm (0.5–1 in) wide, and has the slightly brittle, fibrous texture typical of many large mushrooms. At the base is a bulb that bears universal veil remnants in the form of two to four distinct rings or ruffs. Between the basal universal veil remnants and gills are remnants of the partial veil (which covers the gills during development) in the form of a white ring. It can be quite wide and flaccid with age. There is generally no associated smell other than a mild earthiness.[29][30]

Although very distinctive in appearance, the fly agaric has been mistaken for other yellow to red mushroom species in the Americas, such as Armillaria cf. mellea and the edible Amanita basii—a Mexican species similar to A. caesarea of Europe. Poison control centres in the U.S. and Canada have become aware that amarill (Spanish for 'yellow') is a common name for the A. caesarea-like species in Mexico.[4] Amanita caesarea is distinguished by its entirely orange to red cap, which lacks the numerous white warty spots of the fly agaric. Furthermore, the stem, gills and ring of A. caesarea are bright yellow, not white.[31] The volva is a distinct white bag, not broken into scales.[32] In Australia, the introduced fly agaric may be confused with the native vermilion grisette (Amanita xanthocephala), which grows in association with eucalypts. The latter species generally lacks the white warts of A. muscaria and bears no ring.[33]

Distribution and habitat

Amanita muscaria Marriott Falls 1
A. muscaria in a Pinus radiata plantation, near Mount Field National Park, Tasmania

Amanita muscaria is a cosmopolitan mushroom, native to conifer and deciduous woodlands throughout the temperate and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere,[21] including higher elevations of warmer latitudes in regions such as Hindu Kush, the Mediterranean and also Central America. A recent molecular study proposes that it had an ancestral origin in the SiberianBeringian region in the Tertiary period, before radiating outwards across Asia, Europe and North America.[21] The season for fruiting varies in different climates: fruiting occurs in summer and autumn across most of North America, but later in autumn and early winter on the Pacific coast. This species is often found in similar locations to Boletus edulis, and may appear in fairy rings.[34] Conveyed with pine seedlings, it has been widely transported into the southern hemisphere, including Australia,[35] New Zealand,[36] South Africa[37] and South America, where it can be found in the southern Brazilian states of Paraná[21] and Rio Grande do Sul.[38]

Ectomycorrhizal, Amanita muscaria forms symbiotic relationships with many trees, including pine, spruce, fir, birch, and cedar. Commonly seen under introduced trees,[39] A. muscaria is the fungal equivalent of a weed in New Zealand, Tasmania and Victoria, forming new associations with southern beech (Nothofagus).[40] The species is also invading a rainforest in Australia, where it may be displacing the native species.[39] It appears to be spreading northwards, with recent reports placing it near Port Macquarie on the New South Wales north coast.[41] It was recorded under silver birch (Betula pendula) in Manjimup, Western Australia in 2010.[42] Although it has apparently not spread to eucalypts in Australia, it has been recorded associating with them in Portugal.[43]

Toxicity

Amanita muscaria After Rain
Mature. The white spots may wash off with heavy rainfall

Amanita muscaria poisoning has occurred in young children and in people who ingested the mushrooms for a hallucinogenic experience.[15][44][45] Occasionally it has been ingested in error, because immature button forms resemble puffballs.[46] The white spots sometimes wash away during heavy rain and the mushrooms then may appear to be the edible A. caesarea.[47]

Amanita muscaria contains several biologically active agents, at least one of which, muscimol, is known to be psychoactive. Ibotenic acid, a neurotoxin, serves as a prodrug to muscimol, with approximately 10–20% converting to muscimol after ingestion. An active dose in adults is approximately 6 mg muscimol or 30 to 60 mg ibotenic acid;[48][49] this is typically about the amount found in one cap of Amanita muscaria.[50] The amount and ratio of chemical compounds per mushroom varies widely from region to region and season to season, which can further confuse the issue. Spring and summer mushrooms have been reported to contain up to 10 times more ibotenic acid and muscimol than autumn fruitings.[44]

A fatal dose has been calculated as 15 caps.[51] Deaths from this fungus A. muscaria have been reported in historical journal articles and newspaper reports,[52][53][54] but with modern medical treatment, fatal poisoning from ingesting this mushroom is extremely rare.[55] Many older books list Amanita muscaria as "deadly", but this is an error that implies the mushroom is more toxic than it is.[56] The North American Mycological Association has stated that there were "no reliably documented cases of death from toxins in these mushrooms in the past 100 years".[57]

The active constituents of this species are water-soluble, and boiling and then discarding the cooking water at least partly detoxifies A. muscaria.[58] Drying may increase potency, as the process facilitates the conversion of ibotenic acid to the more potent muscimol.[59] According to some sources, once detoxified, the mushroom becomes edible.[60][61]

Pharmacology

Muscimol chemical structure
Muscimol, the principal psychoactive constituent of A. muscaria
Ibotenic acid2
Ibotenic acid, a prodrug to muscimol found in A. muscaria

Muscarine, discovered in 1869,[62] was long thought to be the active hallucinogenic agent in A. muscaria. Muscarine binds with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors leading to the excitation of neurons bearing these receptors. The levels of muscarine in Amanita muscaria are minute when compared with other poisonous fungi[63] such as Inocybe erubescens, the small white Clitocybe species C. dealbata and C. rivulosa. The level of muscarine in A. muscaria is too low to play a role in the symptoms of poisoning.[64]

The major toxins involved in A. muscaria poisoning are muscimol (3-hydroxy-5-aminomethyl-1-isoxazole, an unsaturated cyclic hydroxamic acid) and the related amino acid ibotenic acid. Muscimol is the product of the decarboxylation (usually by drying) of ibotenic acid. Muscimol and ibotenic acid were discovered in the mid-20th century.[65][66] Researchers in England,[67] Japan,[68] and Switzerland[66] showed that the effects produced were due mainly to ibotenic acid and muscimol, not muscarine.[13][65] These toxins are not distributed uniformly in the mushroom. Most are detected in the cap of the fruit, a moderate amount in the base, with the smallest amount in the stalk.[69][70] Quite rapidly, between 20 and 90 minutes after ingestion, a substantial fraction of ibotenic acid is excreted unmetabolised in the urine of the consumer. Almost no muscimol is excreted when pure ibotenic acid is eaten, but muscimol is detectable in the urine after eating A. muscaria, which contains both ibotenic acid and muscimol.[49]

Ibotenic acid and muscimol are structurally related to each other and to two major neurotransmitters of the central nervous system: glutamic acid and GABA respectively. Ibotenic acid and muscimol act like these neurotransmitters, muscimol being a potent GABAA agonist, while ibotenic acid is an agonist of NMDA glutamate receptors and certain metabotropic glutamate receptors[71] which are involved in the control of neuronal activity. It is these interactions which are thought to cause the psychoactive effects found in intoxication.[15][50]

Muscazone is another compound that has more recently been isolated from European specimens of the fly agaric. It is a product of the breakdown of ibotenic acid by ultra-violet radiation.[72] Muscazone is of minor pharmacological activity compared with the other agents.[15] Amanita muscaria and related species are known as effective bioaccumulators of vanadium; some species concentrate vanadium to levels of up to 400 times those typically found in plants.[73] Vanadium is present in fruit-bodies as an organometallic compound called amavadine.[73] The biological importance of the accumulation process is unknown.[74]

Symptoms

Fly agarics are known for the unpredictability of their effects. Depending on habitat and the amount ingested per body weight, effects can range from mild nausea and twitching to drowsiness, cholinergic crisis-like effects (low blood pressure, sweating and salivation), auditory and visual distortions, mood changes, euphoria, relaxation, ataxia, and loss of equilibrium Like on Tetanus.[44][45][50][53]

In cases of serious poisoning the mushroom causes delirium, somewhat similar in effect to anticholinergic poisoning (such as that caused by Datura stramonium), characterised by bouts of marked agitation with confusion, hallucinations, and irritability followed by periods of central nervous system depression. Seizures and coma may also occur in severe poisonings.[45][50] Symptoms typically appear after around 30 to 90 minutes and peak within three hours, but certain effects can last for several days.[47][49] In the majority of cases recovery is complete within 12 to 24 hours.[58] The effect is highly variable between individuals, with similar doses potentially causing quite different reactions.[44][49][75] Some people suffering intoxication have exhibited headaches up to ten hours afterwards.[49] Retrograde amnesia and somnolence can result following recovery.[50]

Treatment

Medical attention should be sought in cases of suspected poisoning. If the delay between ingestion and treatment is less than four hours, activated charcoal is given. Gastric lavage can be considered if the patient presents within one hour of ingestion.[76] Inducing vomiting with syrup of ipecac is no longer recommended in any poisoning situation.[77]

There is no antidote, and supportive care is the mainstay of further treatment for intoxication. Though sometimes referred to as a deliriant and while muscarine was first isolated from A. muscaria and as such is its namesake, muscimol does not have action, either as an agonist or antagonist, at the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor site, and therefore atropine or physostigmine as an antidote is not recommended.[78] If a patient is delirious or agitated, this can usually be treated by reassurance and, if necessary, physical restraints. A benzodiazepine such as diazepam or lorazepam can be used to control combativeness, agitation, muscular overactivity, and seizures.[44] Only small doses should be used, as they may worsen the respiratory depressant effects of muscimol.[79] Recurrent vomiting is rare, but if present may lead to fluid and electrolyte imbalances; intravenous rehydration or electrolyte replacement may be required.[50][80] Serious cases may develop loss of consciousness or coma, and may need intubation and artificial ventilation.[45][81] Hemodialysis can remove the toxins, although this intervention is generally considered unnecessary.[58] With modern medical treatment the prognosis is typically good following supportive treatment.[55][58]

Psychoactive use

Mushroom in the Hills of Adelaide
Photographed in Mount Lofty Botanic Gardens, Adelaide Hills, South Australia

The wide range of psychoactive effects have been variously described as depressant, sedative-hypnotic, psychedelic, dissociative, or deliriant; paradoxical effects such as stimulation may occur however. Perceptual phenomena such as synesthesia, macropsia, and micropsia may occur; the latter two effects may occur simultaneously and or alternatingly as part of Alice in Wonderland syndrome, collectively known as dysmetropsia, along with related distortions pelopsia and teleopsia. Some users report lucid dreaming under the influence of its hypnotic effects. Unlike Psilocybe cubensis, A. muscaria cannot be commercially cultivated, due to its mycorrhizal relationship with the roots of pine trees. However, following the outlawing of psilocybin mushrooms in the United Kingdom in 2006, the sale of the still legal A. muscaria began increasing.[82]:17

Professor Marija Gimbutienė, a renowned Lithuanian historian, reported to R. Gordon Wasson on the use of this mushroom in Lithuania. In remote areas of Lithuania Amanita muscaria has been consumed at wedding feasts, in which mushrooms were mixed with vodka. The professor also reported that the Lithuanians used to export A. muscaria to the Lapps in the Far North for use in shamanic rituals. The Lithuanian festivities are the only report that Wasson received of ingestion of fly agaric for religious use in Eastern Europe.[83]:43–44

Siberia

Amanita muscaria was widely used as an entheogen by many of the indigenous peoples of Siberia. Its use was known among almost all of the Uralic-speaking peoples of western Siberia and the Paleosiberian-speaking peoples of the Russian Far East. There are only isolated reports of A. muscaria use among the Tungusic and Turkic peoples of central Siberia and it is believed that on the whole entheogenic use of A. muscaria was not practised by these peoples.[84] In western Siberia, the use of A. muscaria was restricted to shamans, who used it as an alternative method of achieving a trance state. (Normally, Siberian shamans achieve trance by prolonged drumming and dancing.) In eastern Siberia, A. muscaria was used by both shamans and laypeople alike, and was used recreationally as well as religiously.[84] In eastern Siberia, the shaman would take the mushrooms, and others would drink his urine.[5]:161 This urine, still containing psychoactive elements, may be more potent than the A. muscaria mushrooms with fewer negative effects such as sweating and twitching, suggesting that the initial user may act as a screening filter for other components in the mushroom.[85]

The Koryak of eastern Siberia have a story about the fly agaric (wapaq) which enabled Big Raven to carry a whale to its home. In the story, the deity Vahiyinin ("Existence") spat onto earth, and his spittle became the wapaq, and his saliva becomes the warts. After experiencing the power of the wapaq, Raven was so exhilarated that he told it to grow forever on earth so his children, the people, could learn from it.[86] Among the Koryaks, one report said that the poor would consume the urine of the wealthy, who could afford to buy the mushrooms.[5]:234–35

Other reports of use

The Finnish historian T. I. Itkonen mentions that A. muscaria was once used among the Sami people: sorcerers in Inari would consume fly agarics with seven spots.[5]:279 In 1979, Said Gholam Mochtar and Hartmut Geerken published an article in which they claim to have discovered a tradition of medicinal and recreational use of this mushroom among a Parachi-speaking group in Afghanistan.[87] There are also unconfirmed reports of religious use of A. muscaria among two Subarctic Native American tribes. Ojibwa ethnobotanist Keewaydinoquay Peschel reported its use among her people, where it was known as the miskwedo.[88][89] This information was enthusiastically received by Wasson, although evidence from other sources was lacking.[90] There is also one account of a Euro-American who claims to have been initiated into traditional Tlicho use of Amanita muscaria.[91]

Vikings

The notion that Vikings used A. muscaria to produce their berserker rages was first suggested by the Swedish professor Samuel Ödmann in 1784.[92] Ödmann based his theories on reports about the use of fly agaric among Siberian shamans. The notion has become widespread since the 19th century, but no contemporary sources mention this use or anything similar in their description of berserkers. Muscimol is generally a mild relaxant, but it can create a range of different reactions within a group of people.[93] It is possible that it could make a person angry, or cause them to be "very jolly or sad, jump about, dance, sing or give way to great fright".[93]

Fly trap

Amanita muscaria is traditionally used for catching flies possibly due to its content of ibotenic acid and muscimol. Recently, an analysis of nine different methods for preparing A. muscaria for catching flies in Slovenia have shown that the release of ibotenic acid and muscimol did not depend on the solvent (milk or water) and that thermal and mechanical processing led to faster extraction of ibotenic acid and muscimol.[94]

In religion

Soma

In 1968, R. Gordon Wasson proposed that A. muscaria was the soma talked about in the Rigveda of India,[5]:10 a claim which received widespread publicity and popular support at the time.[95] He noted that descriptions of Soma omitted any description of roots, stems or seeds, which suggested a mushroom,[5]:18 and used the adjective hári "dazzling" or "flaming" which the author interprets as meaning red.[5]:36–37 One line described men urinating Soma; this recalled the practice of recycling urine in Siberia. Soma is mentioned as coming "from the mountains", which Wasson interpreted as the mushroom having been brought in with the Aryan invaders from the north.[5]:22–24 Indian scholars Santosh Kumar Dash and Sachinanda Padhy pointed out that both eating of mushrooms and drinking of urine were proscribed, using as a source the Manusmṛti.[96] In 1971, Vedic scholar John Brough from Cambridge University rejected Wasson's theory and noted that the language was too vague to determine a description of Soma.[97] In his 1976 survey, Hallucinogens and Culture, anthropologist Peter T. Furst evaluated the evidence for and against the identification of the fly agaric mushroom as the Vedic Soma, concluding cautiously in its favour.[98]

Christianity

Aquileia mushrooms
Mosaic of red mushrooms, found in the Christian Basilica of Aquileia in northern Italy, dating to before 330 AD

Philologist, archeologist, and Dead Sea Scrolls scholar John Marco Allegro postulated that early Christian theology was derived from a fertility cult revolving around the entheogenic consumption of A. muscaria in his 1970 book The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross,[99] but his theory has found little support by scholars outside the field of ethnomycology. The book was roundly criticized by academics and theologians, including Sir Godfrey Driver, Emeritus Professor of Semitic Philology at Oxford University, and Henry Chadwick, the Dean of Christ Church, Oxford.[100] Christian author John C. King wrote a detailed rebuttal of Allegro's theory in the 1970 book A Christian View of the Mushroom Myth; he notes that neither fly agarics nor their host trees are found in the Middle East, even though cedars and pines are found there, and highlights the tenuous nature of the links between biblical and Sumerian names coined by Allegro. He concludes that if the theory were true, the use of the mushroom must have been "the best kept secret in the world" as it was so well concealed for two thousand years.[101][102]

Culinary use

The toxins in A. muscaria are water-soluble. When sliced thinly, or finely diced and boiled in plentiful water until thoroughly cooked, it seems to be detoxified.[60] Although its consumption as a food has never been widespread,[103] the consumption of detoxified A. muscaria has been practiced in some parts of Europe (notably by Russian settlers in Siberia) since at least the 19th century, and likely earlier. The German physician and naturalist Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff wrote the earliest published account on how to detoxify this mushroom in 1823. In the late 19th century, the French physician Félix Archimède Pouchet was a populariser and advocate of A. muscaria consumption, comparing it to manioc, an important food source in tropical South America that must be detoxified before consumption.[60]

Use of this mushroom as a food source also seems to have existed in North America. A classic description of this use of A. muscaria by an African-American mushroom seller in Washington, D.C., in the late 19th century is described by American botanist Frederick Vernon Coville. In this case, the mushroom, after parboiling, and soaking in vinegar, is made into a mushroom sauce for steak.[104] It is also consumed as a food in parts of Japan. The most well-known current use as an edible mushroom is in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. There, it is primarily salted and pickled.[105]

A 2008 paper by food historian William Rubel and mycologist David Arora gives a history of consumption of A. muscaria as a food and describes detoxification methods. They advocate that Amanita muscaria be described in field guides as an edible mushroom, though accompanied by a description on how to detoxify it. The authors state that the widespread descriptions in field guides of this mushroom as poisonous is a reflection of cultural bias, as several other popular edible species, notably morels, are toxic unless properly cooked.[60]

Cultural depictions

Ruebezahl (Moritz von Schwind)
Moritz von Schwind's 1851 painting of Rübezahl features fly agarics.[106]

The red-and-white spotted toadstool is a common image in many aspects of popular culture.[28] Garden ornaments and children's picture books depicting gnomes and fairies, such as the Smurfs, often show fly agarics used as seats, or homes.[28][107] Fly agarics have been featured in paintings since the Renaissance,[108] albeit in a subtle manner. In the Victorian era they became more visible, becoming the main topic of some fairy paintings.[109] Two of the most famous uses of the mushroom are in the video game series Super Mario Bros. (specifically two of the power-up items and the platforms in several stages),[110] and the dancing mushroom sequence in the 1940 Disney film Fantasia.[111]

Literature

Children-play-on-alice-in-wonderland-sculpture-central-park-new-york-3
Jose de Creeft's sculpture Alice in Wonderland in Eastern Central Park, New York. Alice sits on a mushroom, inviting children to climb up and join her. The mushroom in the sculpture is not a faithfully reproduced Amanita muscaria; the reference within Lewis Carroll's original literary work upon which the sculpture is based is often discussed.[112][113]

An account of the journeys of Philip von Strahlenberg to Siberia and his descriptions of the use of the mukhomor there was published in English in 1736. The drinking of urine of those who had consumed the mushroom was commented on by Anglo-Irish writer Oliver Goldsmith in his widely read 1762 novel, Citizen of the World.[114] The mushroom had been identified as the fly agaric by this time.[115] Other authors recorded the distortions of the size of perceived objects while intoxicated by the fungus, including naturalist Mordecai Cubitt Cooke in his books The Seven Sisters of Sleep and A Plain and Easy Account of British Fungi.[116] This observation is thought to have formed the basis of the effects of eating the mushroom in the 1865 popular story Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.[112] A hallucinogenic "scarlet toadstool" from Lappland is featured as a plot element in Charles Kingsley's 1866 novel Hereward the Wake based on the medieval figure of the same name.[117] Thomas Pynchon's 1973 novel Gravity's Rainbow describes the fungus as a "relative of the poisonous Destroying Angel" and presents a detailed description of a character preparing a cookie bake mixture from harvested Amanita muscaria.[118] Fly agaric shamanism is also explored in the 2003 novel Thursbitch by Alan Garner.[119]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Tulloss RE; Yang Z-L (2012). "Amanita muscaria Singer". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers. (Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved 2019-05-06.
  2. ^ a b c "Infraspecific taxa of muscaria". amanitaceae.org.
  3. ^ a b c Tulloss RE; Yang Z-L (2012). "Amanita muscaria subsp. flavivolvata Singer". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers. (Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  4. ^ a b c Tulloss RE; Yang Z-L (2012). "Amanita muscaria var. guessowii Veselý". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers. (Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wasson, R. Gordon (1968). Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality. Harcourt Brace Jovanovick. ISBN 978-0-88316-517-1.
  6. ^ Magnus A. (1256). "Book II, Chapter 6; p 87 and Book VI, Chapter 7; p 345". De vegetabilibus.
  7. ^ a b Ramsbottom, p 44.
  8. ^ Clusius C. (1601). "Genus XII of the pernicious mushrooms". Rariorum plantarum historia.
  9. ^ Linnaeus C. (1745). Flora svecica [suecica] exhibens plantas per regnum Sueciae crescentes systematice cum differentiis specierum, synonymis autorum, nominibus incolarum, solo locorum, usu pharmacopæorum (in Latin). Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii.
  10. ^ Linnaeus C (1753). "Tomus II". Species Plantarum (in Latin). vol. 2. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii. p. 1172.
  11. ^ Simpson DP (1979). Cassell's Latin dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 978-0-304-52257-6.
  12. ^ Esser K; Lemke PA (1994). The Mycota: a comprehensive treatise on fungi as experimental systems for basic and applied research. Springer. p. 181. ISBN 978-3-540-66493-2.
  13. ^ a b Benjamin, Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, pp 306–07.
  14. ^ Samorini, Giorgio (2002). Animals and psychedelics: the natural world and the instinct to alter consciousness. 823/1251 (67%) in Kindle edition. ISBN 978-0-89281-986-7.
  15. ^ a b c d Michelot D; Melendez-Howell LM. (2003). "Amanita muscaria: chemistry, biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology". Mycological Research. 107 (Pt 2): 131–46. doi:10.1017/S0953756203007305. PMID 12747324.
  16. ^ a b Singer R. (1986). The Agaricales in modern taxonomy (4th ed.). Koenigstein, West Germany: Koeltz Scientific Books. ISBN 978-3-87429-254-2.
  17. ^ Jenkins DT (1986). Amanita of North America. Mad River Press. ISBN 978-0-916422-55-4.
  18. ^ Tulloss RE; Yang Z-L (2012). "Amanita sect. Amanita". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers. (Agaricales, Fungi). Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  19. ^ Moncalvo JM; Drehmel D; Vilgalys R. (July 2000). "Variation in modes and rates of evolution in nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA in the mushroom genus Amanita (Agaricales, Basidiomycota): phylogenetic implications" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 16 (1): 48–63. doi:10.1006/mpev.2000.0782. PMID 10877939. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
  20. ^ Drehmel D; Moncalvo JM; Vilgalys R. (1999). "Molecular phylogeny of Amanita based on large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences: implications for taxonomy and character evolution". Mycologia (abstract). 91 (4): 610–18. doi:10.2307/3761246. JSTOR 3761246. Archived from the original on 2008-12-28. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
  21. ^ a b c d Geml J; Laursen GA; O'Neill K; Nusbaum HC; Taylor DL (January 2006). "Beringian origins and cryptic speciation events in the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria)" (PDF). Molecular Ecology. 15 (1): 225–39. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.420.2327. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02799.x. PMID 16367842. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16.
  22. ^ Geml, J.; Tulloss, R. E.; Laursen, G. A.; et al. (2008). "Evidence for strong inter- and intracontinental phylogeographic structure in Amanita muscaria, a wind-dispersed ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 48 (2): 694–701. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.029. PMID 18547823. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-26. Retrieved 2009-10-28.
  23. ^ Tulloss, R. E. (2012). "Amanita breckonii Ammirati & Thiers". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers. (Agaricales, Fungi) – Tulloss RE, Yang Z-L.. Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  24. ^ Tulloss, R. E. (2012). "Amanita gioiosa S. Curreli ex S. Curreli". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers. (Agaricales, Fungi) – Tulloss RE, Yang Z-L.. Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  25. ^ Tulloss, R. E. (2012). "Amanita heterochroma S. Curreli". Studies in the Genus Amanita Pers. (Agaricales, Fungi) – Tulloss RE, Yang Z-L.. Retrieved 2013-02-21.
  26. ^ "Amanita muscaria var. inzengae - Amanitaceae.org - Taxonomy and Morphology of Amanita and Limacella". www.amanitaceae.org.
  27. ^ Zeitlmayr L. (1976). Wild mushrooms: an illustrated handbook. Hertfordshire, UK: Garden City Press. ISBN 978-0-584-10324-3.
  28. ^ a b c Arora, D. (1986). Mushrooms demystified: a comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi (2nd ed.). Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. pp. 282–83. ISBN 978-0-89815-169-5.
  29. ^ Jordan P; Wheeler S. (2001). The ultimate mushroom book. Hermes House. ISBN 978-0-8317-3080-2.
  30. ^ Phillips R. (2006). Mushrooms. Pan MacMillan. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-330-44237-4.
  31. ^ Haas H. (1969). The young specialist Looks at fungi. Burke. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-222-79414-7.
  32. ^ Krieger LCC (1967). The mushroom handbook. Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-21861-8.
  33. ^ Grey P. (2005). Fungi Down Under: the Fungimap guide to Australian fungi. Melbourne: Royal Botanic Gardens. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-646-44674-5.
  34. ^ Benjamin, Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, p 305.
  35. ^ Reid DA (1980). "A monograph of the Australian species of Amanita Persoon ex Hooker (Fungi)". Australian Journal of Botany. Supplementary. Series 8: 1–96. doi:10.1071/BT8008001 (inactive 2019-08-18).
  36. ^ Segedin BP, Pennycook SR (2001). "A nomenclatural checklist of agarics, boletes, and related secotioid and gasteromycetous fungi recorded from New Zealand". New Zealand Journal of Botany. 39 (2): 285–348. doi:10.1080/0028825X.2001.9512739.
  37. ^ Reid DA; Eicker A. (1991). "South African fungi: the genus Amanita". Mycological Research. 95 (1): 80–95. doi:10.1016/S0953-7562(09)81364-6.
  38. ^ Wartchow F, Maia LC, de Queirox Cavalcanti MA (2013). "Taxonomic studies of Amanita muscaria (L.) Lam (Amanitaceae, Agaricomycetes) and its infraspecific taxa in Brazil". Acta Botanica Brasilica. 27 (1): 31–39. doi:10.1590/S0102-33062013000100005. open access
  39. ^ a b Fuhrer BA (2005). A field guide to Australian fungi. Melbourne: Bloomings Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-876473-51-8.
  40. ^ Hall IR; Stephenson SE; Buchanan PK; Yn W; Cole AL (2003). Edible and poisonous mushrooms of the world. New Zealand Institute for Crop & Food Research Limited. pp. 130–1. ISBN 978-0-478-10835-4.
  41. ^ May T. (2006). "News from the Fungimap president". Fungimap Newsletter. 29: 1.
  42. ^ Robinson R (2010). "First Record of Amanita muscaria in Western Australia" (PDF). Australasian Mycologist. 29 (1): 4–6.
  43. ^ Keane PJ; Kile GA; Podger FD (2000). Diseases and pathogens of eucalypts. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-643-06523-9.
  44. ^ a b c d e Benjamin DR (1992). "Mushroom poisoning in infants and children: the Amanita pantherina/muscaria group". Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 30 (1): 13–22. doi:10.3109/15563659208994442. PMID 1347320.
  45. ^ a b c d Hoegberg LC; Larsen L; Sonne L; Bang J; Skanning PG (2008). "Three cases of Amanita muscaria ingestion in children: two severe courses [abstract]". Clinical Toxicology. 46 (5): 407–8. doi:10.1080/15563650802071703. PMID 18568796.
  46. ^ Benjamin, Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, pp 303–04.
  47. ^ a b Brvar, M.; Mozina, M.; Bunc, M. (May 2006). "Prolonged psychosis after Amanita muscaria ingestion". Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 118 (9–10): 294–7. doi:10.1007/s00508-006-0581-6. PMID 16810488.
  48. ^ Theobald W; Büch O; Kunz HA; Krupp P; Stenger EG; Heimann H. (March 1968). "[Pharmacological and experimental psychological studies with 2 components of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria)]". Arzneimittelforschung (in German). 18 (3): 311–5. PMID 5696006.
  49. ^ a b c d e Chilton WS (1975). "The course of an intentional poisoning". MacIlvanea. 2: 17.
  50. ^ a b c d e f Satora, L.; Pach, D.; Butryn, B.; Hydzik, P.; Balicka-Slusarczyk, B. (June 2005). "Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) poisoning, case report and review". Toxicon. 45 (7): 941–3. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.01.005. PMID 15904689.
  51. ^ Benjamin, Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, p 309.
  52. ^ Cagliari GE (1897). "Mushroom poisoning". Medical Record. 52: 298.
  53. ^ a b Buck, R. W. (August 1963). "Toxicity of Amanita muscaria". JAMA. 185 (8): 663–4. doi:10.1001/jama.1963.03060080059020. PMID 14016551.
  54. ^ "Vecchi's death said to be due to a deliberate experiment with poisonous mushrooms" (PDF). The New York Times. 19 December 1897. Retrieved 2009-02-02.
  55. ^ a b Tupalska-Wilczyńska, K.; Ignatowicz, R.; Poziemski, A.; Wójcik, H.; Wilczyński, G. (1996). "Zatrucia muchomorami plamistym i czerwonym--patogeneza, objawy, leczenie" [Poisoning with spotted and red mushrooms—pathogenesis, symptoms, treatment]. Wiad. Lek. (in Polish). 49 (1–6): 66–71. PMID 9173659.
  56. ^ Arora, Mushrooms demystified, p 894.
  57. ^ "Mushroom poisoning syndromes". North American Mycological Association (NAMA) website. NAMA. Archived from the original on 4 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  58. ^ a b c d Piqueras, J. (10 January 1990). "Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina and others". IPCS INTOX Databank. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
  59. ^ Benjamin, Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, p 310.
  60. ^ a b c d Rubel, W.; Arora, D. (2008). "A Study of Cultural Bias in Field Guide Determinations of Mushroom Edibility Using the Iconic Mushroom, Amanita Muscaria,as an Example" (PDF). Economic Botany. 62 (3): 223–43. doi:10.1007/s12231-008-9040-9.
  61. ^ Shaw, Hank (2011-12-24). "How to Safely Eat Amanita Muscaia". honest-food.net. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  62. ^ Schmiedeberg O.; Koppe R. (1869). Das Muscarin, das giftige Alkaloid des Fliegenpilzes (in German). Leipzig: F.C.W. Vogel. OCLC 6699630.
  63. ^ Eugster, C. H. (July 1968). "[Active substances from the toadstool]". Naturwissenschaften (in German). 55 (7): 305–13. doi:10.1007/BF00600445. PMID 4878064.
  64. ^ Benjamin, Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, p 306.
  65. ^ a b Bowden, K.; Drysdale, A. C.; Mogey, G. A. (June 1965). "Constituents of Amanita muscaria". Nature. 206 (991): 1359–60. Bibcode:1965Natur.206.1359B. doi:10.1038/2061359a0. PMID 5891274.
  66. ^ a b Eugster, C. H.; Müller, G. F.; Good, R. (June 1965). "[The active ingredients from Amanita muscaria: ibotenic acid and muscazone]". Tetrahedron Lett. (in German). 6 (23): 1813–5. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)90133-3. PMID 5891631.
  67. ^ Bowden, K.; Drysdale, A. C. (March 1965). "A novel constituent of Amanita muscaria". Tetrahedron Lett. 6 (12): 727–8. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(01)83973-3. PMID 14291871.
  68. ^ Takemoto, T.; Nakajima, T.; Yokobe, T. (December 1964). "[Structure of ibotenic acid]". Yakugaku Zasshi (in Japanese). 84: 1232–33. PMID 14266560.
  69. ^ Lampe, K.F., 1978. "Pharmacology and therapy of mushroom intoxications". In: Rumack, B.H., Salzman, E. (Eds.), Mushroom Poisoning: Diagnosis and Treatment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 125–169
  70. ^ Tsunoda, K.; Inoue, N.; Aoyagi, Y.; Sugahara, T. (1993). "Changes in concentration of ibotenic acid and muscimol in the fruit body of Amanita muscaria during the reproduction stage: Food hygienic studies of toxigenic basidiomycotina: II" (pdf). J Food Hyg Soc Jpn. 34 (1): 18–24. doi:10.3358/shokueishi.34.18.
  71. ^ Jørgensen, C. G.; Bräuner-Osborne, H.; Nielsen, B.; et al. (May 2007). "Novel 5-substituted 1-pyrazolol analogues of ibotenic acid: synthesis and pharmacology at glutamate receptors". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 15 (10): 3524–38. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2007.02.047. PMID 17376693.
  72. ^ Fritz, H.; Gagneux, A. R.; Zbinden, R.; Eugster, C. H. (1965). "The structure of muscazone". Tetrahedron Letters. 6 (25): 2075–76. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)90156-4.
  73. ^ a b Garner, C. D.; Armstrong, E. M.; Berry, R. E.; et al. (May 2000). "Investigations of Amavadin". Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 80 (1–2): 17–20. doi:10.1016/S0162-0134(00)00034-9. PMID 10885458.
  74. ^ Hubregtse, T.; Neeleman, E.; Maschmeyer, T.; Sheldon, R. A.; Hanefeld, U.; Arends, I. W. (May 2005). "The first enantioselective synthesis of the amavadin ligand and its complexation to vanadium". Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry. 99 (5): 1264–7. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2005.02.004. PMID 15833352.
  75. ^ Ott, J. (1976). Hallucinogenic Plants of North America. Berkeley, CA: Wingbow Press. ISBN 978-0-914728-15-3.
  76. ^ Vale, J. A.; Kulig, K.; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (2004). European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. "Position paper: gastric lavage". Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 42 (7): 933–43. doi:10.1081/CLT-200045006. PMID 15641639.
  77. ^ American Academy Of Clinical Toxico; European Association Of Poisons Cen (2004). "Position paper: Ipecac syrup". Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 42 (2): 133–43. doi:10.1081/CLT-120037421. PMID 15214617.
  78. ^ Dart, R. C. (2004). Medical toxicology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1719–35. ISBN 978-0-7817-2845-4.
  79. ^ Brent, J.; Wallace, K. L.; Burkhart, K. K.; Phillips, S. D.; Donovan, J. W. (2005). Critical care toxicology: diagnosis and management of the critically poisoned patient. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby. pp. 1263–75. ISBN 978-0-8151-4387-1.
  80. ^ Benjamin, Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, p 313.
  81. ^ Bosman, C. K.; Berman, L.; Isaacson, M.; Wolfowitz, B.; Parkes, J. (October 1965). "Mushroom poisoning caused by Amanita pantherina. Report of 4 cases". South African Medical Journal. 39 (39): 983–86. PMID 5892794.
  82. ^ Hallucinogenic mushrooms an emerging trend case study (PDF). Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. 2006. ISBN 978-92-9168-249-2.
  83. ^ Wasson, R. Gordon (1980). The Wondrous Mushroom: Mycolatry in Mesoamerica. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-068443-0.
  84. ^ a b Nyberg, H. (1992). "Religious use of hallucinogenic fungi: A comparison between Siberian and Mesoamerican Cultures" (PDF). Karstenia. 32 (71–80): 71–80. doi:10.29203/ka.1992.294.
  85. ^ Diaz, J. (1996). How Drugs Influence Behavior: A Neurobehavioral Approach. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-02-328764-0.
  86. ^ Ramsbottom, p 45.
  87. ^ "Several Shutulis asserted that Amanita-extract was administered orally as a medicine for treatment of psychotic conditions, as well as externally as a therapy for localised frostbite." Mochtar, S. G.; Geerken, H. (1979). Translated by P. G. Werner. "The Hallucinogens Muscarine and Ibotenic Acid in the Middle Hindu Kush: A contribution on traditional medicinal mycology in Afghanistan". Afghanistan Journal (in German). 6: 62–65. Archived from the original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-23.
  88. ^ Peschel, Keewaydinoquay (1978). Puhpohwee for the people: a narrative account of some uses of fungi among the Ahnishinaubeg. Cambridge, MA: Botanical Museum of Harvard University. ISBN 978-1-879528-18-5.
  89. ^ Navet, E. (1988). "Les Ojibway et l'Amanite tue-mouche (Amanita muscaria). Pour une éthnomycologie des Indiens d'Amérique du Nord" (PDF). Journal de la Société des Américanistes (in French). 74 (1): 163–80. doi:10.3406/jsa.1988.1334.
  90. ^ Letcher, p 149.
  91. ^ Larsen, S. (1976). The Shaman's Doorway. New York, NY: Station Hill Press. ISBN 978-0-89281-672-9.
  92. ^ (in Swedish) Ödmann S. (1784) Försök at utur Naturens Historia förklara de nordiska gamla Kämpars Berserka-gang (An attempt to Explain the Berserk-raging of Ancient Nordic Warriors through Natural History). Kongliga Vetenskaps Academiens nya Handlingar 5: 240–247 (In: Wasson, 1968)
  93. ^ a b Hoffer, A.; Osmond, H. (1967). The Hallucinogens. Academic Press. pp. 443–54. ISBN 978-0-12-351850-7.
  94. ^ Lumpert (2016). "Catching flies with Amanita muscaria: traditional recipes from Slovenia and their efficacy in the extraction of ibotenic acid". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 187: 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2016.04.009. PMID 27063872.
  95. ^ Letcher, p 145.
  96. ^ Letcher, p 146.
  97. ^ Brough, J. (1971). "Soma and Amanita muscaria". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (BSOAS). 34 (2): 331–62. doi:10.1017/S0041977X0012957X.
  98. ^ Furst, Peter T. (1976). Hallucinogens and Culture. Chandler & Sharp. pp. 96–108. ISBN 978-0-88316-517-1.
  99. ^ Allegro, J. (1970). The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross: A Study of the Nature and Origins of Roman Theology within the Fertility Cults of the Ancient Near East. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-12875-6.
  100. ^ Letcher, p 160.
  101. ^ King, J. C. (1970). A Christian View of the Mushroom Myth. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-12597-7.
  102. ^ Letcher, p. 161.
  103. ^ Viess, Debbie. "Further Reflections on Amanita muscaria as an Edible Species"
  104. ^ Coville, F. V. 1898. Observations on Recent Cases of Mushroom Poisoning in the District of Columbia. United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Botany. U.S. Government Printing office, Washington, D.C.
  105. ^ Phipps, A. G.; Bennett, B.C.; Downum, K. R. (2000). "Japanese use of Beni-tengu-dake (Amanita muscaria) and the efficacy of traditional detoxification methods". Florida International University, Miami, Florida.
  106. ^ "Art Registry: 1750–1850". Mykoweb. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-26.
  107. ^ Benjamin, Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas, p 295.
  108. ^ "The Registry of Mushrooms in Works of Art". Mykoweb. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
  109. ^ "Mushrooms in Victorian Fairy Paintings, by Elio Schachter". Mushroom, the Journal of Wild Mushrooming. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
  110. ^ Li, C.; Oberlies, N. H. (December 2005). "The most widely recognized mushroom: chemistry of the genus Amanita" (PDF). Life Sciences. 78 (5): 532–38. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2005.09.003. PMID 16203016.
  111. ^ Ramsbottom, p 43.
  112. ^ a b Letcher, p 126.
  113. ^ Sacred Weeds: Fly Agaric, BBC documentary presented by Dr Andrew Sherratt, The Reader in European Pre-History at the University of Oxford (prior to his resignation, formerly Professor of Archaeology, University of Oxford). Documentary released 1998-08-10. Relevant material about 06:30–07:00 minutes. Transcription: I then moved on to the appearance of the fly agaric mushroom in our own culture. This is the famous example from Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, the caterpillar sitting on the mushroom. Alice bites a little piece of this to get larger / smaller. So there is some evidence that Lewis Carroll himself was aware of some of the properties of eating these mushrooms, and the way in which it altered perception. And so the image of the fly agaric became very common in Victorian literature, especially associated with faeries and little people sitting on mushrooms and toadstools.
  114. ^ Letcher, p 122.
  115. ^ Letcher, p 123.
  116. ^ Letcher, p 125.
  117. ^ Letcher, p 127.
  118. ^ Pynchon, T. (1995). Gravity's Rainbow. New York: Penguin Books. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-09-953321-4.
  119. ^ Letcher, p 129.

Works cited

  • Allegro, John (2009). The sacred mushroom and the cross (40th anniversary ed.). Crestline, CA: Gnostic Media. ISBN 978-0-9825562-7-6.
  • Arora, David (1986). Mushrooms demystified: a comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi (2nd ed.). Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-0-89815-169-5.
  • Benjamin, Denis R. (1995). Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas—a handbook for naturalists, mycologists and physicians. New York: WH Freeman and Company. ISBN 978-0-7167-2600-5.
  • Letcher, Andy (2006). Shroom: A Cultural history of the magic mushroom. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-22770-9.
  • Ramsbottom, J. (1953). Mushrooms & Toadstools. Collins. ISBN 978-1-870630-09-2.
  • Furst, Peter T. (1976). Hallucinogens and Culture. Chandler & Sharp. pp. 98–106. ISBN 978-0-88316-517-1.

External links

Agaric

An agaric () is a type of mushroom fungus fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus (cap) that is clearly differentiated from the stipe (stalk), with lamellae (gills) on the underside of the pileus. "Agaric" can also refer to a basidiomycete species characterized by an agaric-type fruiting body. Archaically agaric meant 'tree-fungus' (after Latin agaricum); however, that changed with the Linnaean interpretation in 1753 when Linnaeus used the generic name Agaricus for gilled mushrooms.

Most species of agarics are within orders of and describe the members of the order Agaricales in the subphylum Agaricomycotina. The exceptions, where agarics have evolved independently, feature largely in the orders Russulales, Boletales, Hymenochaetales and several other groups of the overarching phylum Basidiomycetes. Old systems of classification place all agarics in the Agaricales and some (mostly older) sources use "agarics" as the colloquial collective noun for the Agaricales. Contemporary sources now tend to use the term euagarics to refer to all agaric members of the Agaricales. "Agaric" is also sometimes used as a common name for members of the genus Agaricus, as well as for members of other genera; for example, Amanita muscaria is sometimes called "fly agaric".

Amanita

The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics, including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide, as well as some well-regarded edible species. This genus is responsible for approximately 95% of the fatalities resulting from mushroom poisoning, with the death cap accounting for about 50% on its own. The most potent toxin present in these mushrooms is α-amanitin.

The genus also contains many edible mushrooms, but mycologists discourage mushroom hunters, other than knowledgeable experts, from selecting any of these for human consumption. Nonetheless, in some cultures, the larger local edible species of Amanita are mainstays of the markets in the local growing season. Samples of this are Amanita zambiana and other fleshy species in central Africa, A. basii and similar species in Mexico, A. caesarea and the "Blusher" Amanita rubescens in Europe, and A. chepangiana in South-East Asia. Other species are used for colouring sauces, such as the red A. jacksonii, with a range from eastern Canada to eastern Mexico.

Many species are of unknown edibility, especially in countries such as Australia, where many fungi are little-known.

Amanita chrysoblema

Amanita chrysoblema, is a basidiomycete fungus of the genus Amanita. Its an uncommon fungus, has a white to a silvery white cap that has white warts but is similar to the usual form of mushroom.

Amanita muscaria are commonly found in Europe, Asia, and North America. A. muscaria var. alba are dangerous when ingested because of their high levels of ibotenic acid and muscimol.

Amanita frostiana

Amanita frostiana, also known as Frost's Amanita, is a small fungi species of eastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. The mushroom varies in colours from yellow, red or reddish pink usually.

Amanita muscaria var. formosa

Amanita muscaria var. formosa, known as the yellow orange fly agaric, is a basidiomycete fungus of the genus Amanita. This variety, which can be distinguished from A. muscaria by its yellow cap, is a European taxon, although several North American field guides have referred A. muscaria var. guessowii to this name. American mycologist Harry D. Thiers described a yellow-capped taxon that he called var. formosa from the United States, but it is not the same as the European variety.

Amanita muscaria var. guessowii

Amanita muscaria var. guessowii, commonly known as the American yellow fly agaric is a basidiomycete fungus of the genus Amanita.

Amanita muscaria var. muscaria

Amanita muscaria var. muscaria, known as the red fly agaric, is a variety of Amanita muscaria.

Rodham Tulloss and other experts on fungi, limit this name for Eurasian and western Alaskan varieties.

Amanita parcivolvata

Amanita parcivolvata is a fungus that produces fruit bodies that vaguely resemble those of Amanita muscaria. It is differentiated, however, by its lack of an annulus, by the volval deposits on its stipe/base, and by its pileal striations. It occasionally lacks a stipe bulb entirely, instead just tapering to a point in the ground with powdery volval deposits on its surface. It ranges from 3–12 cm (1.2–4.7 in) in length and is occasional to common in the Southeastern United States, occurring primarily in Quercus forests though it has been observed in forests with a mix of conifers and oaks.

Amanita persicina

Amanita persicina, commonly known as the peach-colored fly agaric, is a basidiomycete fungus of the genus Amanita. This variant may be distinguished from A. muscaria by its peach-colored center and its eastern North American distribution.

Amanita regalis

Amanita regalis, commonly known as the royal fly agaric or the king of Sweden Amanita, is a species of fungus in the Amanitaceae family. Common in Scandinavian countries, it is also found in eastern and northern Europe. In North America, its distribution is restricted to Alaska. The fruit bodies of the fungus somewhat resemble the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), and it was formerly regarded as a variety of this species. A. regalis differs from it in being larger, with a liver-brown cap bearing numerous scabs, and in having a stem which is yellow-ochre at the base, with patches or rings of patches. Chemical analysis has shown that this species contains muscimol, the same psychoactive compound found in A. muscaria.

Amanitaceae

The Amanitaceae is a family of mushroom-forming fungi. The family, also commonly called the amanita family, is in order Agaricales, the gilled mushrooms. The family consists primarily of the large genus Amanita, but also includes the smaller genera Amarrendia, Catatrama, Limacella, Limacellopsis, Saproamanita, Torrendia and Zhuliangomyces. Both Amarrendia and Torrendia are considered to be synonymous with Amanita but appear quite different because they are secotioid.

The species are usually found in woodlands. The most characteristic emerge from an egg-like structure formed by the universal veil.

This family contains several species valued for edibility and flavor, and other deadly poisonous ones. More than half the cases of mushroom poisoning stem from members of this family. The most toxic members of this group have names that warn of the poisonous nature, but others, of varying degrees of toxicity, do not.

Clark Heinrich

Clark Heinrich (born 1945) is an American author living in the coastal mountains of California, specializing in comparative religion and ethno-botany since 1974. He has reportedly studied with masters of yoga and Western mysticism.

He is known for his views on consuming the mushroom fly agaric or Amanita muscaria as a hallucinogenic to achieve religious ecstasy. His book Magic Mushrooms in Religion and Alchemy, which is an improved second edition of his earlier Strange Fruit, explores the role that Amanita muscaria may have played in various mythologies, belief systems and religious art throughout history, such as Native American Anishinaabeg mythology, the Rig Veda, the Puranas, the biblical Old Testament and New Testament, Gnosticism, the Holy Grail legend, Alchemy and Renaissance painting.The book The Apples of Apollo: Pagan and Christian Mysteries of the Eucharist deals with possible occurrences of entheogens in general, and Amanita muscaria in particular, in Greek and biblical mythology and later on in Renaissance painting, most notably in the Isenheim Altarpiece by Matthias Grünewald.

Ethnomycology

Ethnomycology is the study of the historical uses and sociological impact of fungi and can be considered a subfield of ethnobotany or ethnobiology. Although in theory the term includes fungi used for such purposes as tinder, medicine (medicinal mushrooms) and food (including yeast), it is often used in the context of the study of psychoactive mushrooms such as psilocybin mushrooms, the Amanita muscaria mushroom, and the ergot fungus.

American banker Robert Gordon Wasson pioneered interest in this field of study in the late 1950s, when he and his wife became the first Westerners on record allowed to participate in a mushroom velada, held by the Mazatec curandera María Sabina. The biologist Richard Evans Schultes is also considered an ethnomycological pioneer. Later researchers in the field include Terence McKenna, Albert Hofmann, Ralph Metzner, Carl Ruck, Blaise Daniel Staples, Giorgio Samorini, Keewaydinoquay Peschel, John Marco Allegro, Clark Heinrich, Jonathan Ott, and Paul Stamets.

Besides mycological determination in the field, ethnomycology depends to a large extent on anthropology and philology. One of the major debates among ethnomycologists is Wasson's theory that the Soma mentioned in the Rigveda of the Indo-Aryans was the Amanita muscaria mushroom. Following his example similar attempts have been made to identify psychoactive mushroom usage in many other (mostly) ancient cultures, with varying degrees of credibility. Another much written about topic is the content of the Kykeon, the sacrament used during the Eleusinian mysteries in ancient Greece between approximately 1500 BCE and 396 CE. Although not an ethnomycologist as such, philologist John Allegro has made an important contribution suggesting, in a book controversial enough to have his academic career destroyed, that Amanita muscaria was not only consumed as a sacrament but was the main focus of worship in the more esoteric sects of Sumerian religion, Judaism and early Christianity. Clark Heinrich claims that Amanita muscaria use in Europe was not completely wiped out by Orthodox Christianity but continued to be used (either consumed or merely symbolically) by individuals and small groups such as medieval Holy Grail myth makers, alchemists and Renaissance artists.While Wasson views historical mushroom use primarily as a facilitator for the shamanic or spiritual experiences core to these rites and traditions, McKenna takes this further, positing that the ingestion of psilocybin was perhaps primary in the formation of language and culture and identifying psychedelic mushrooms as the original "Tree of Knowledge". There is indeed some research supporting the theory that psilocybin ingestion temporarily increases neurochemical activity in the language centers of the brain, indicating a need for more research into the uses of psychoactive plants and fungi in human history.The 1990s saw a surge in the recreational use of psilocybin mushrooms due to a combination of a psychedelic revival in the rave culture, improved and simplified cultivation techniques, and the distribution of both the mushrooms themselves and information about them via the Internet. This "mushrooming of mushroom use" has also caused an increased popularization of ethnomycology itself as there are many websites and Internet forums where mushroom references in Christmas and fairy tale symbolism are discussed. It remains open to interpretation what effect this popularization has on ethnomycology in the academic world, where the lack of verifiable evidence has kept its theories with their often far-reaching implications shrouded in controversy.

Ibotenic acid

Ibotenic acid or (S)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)acetic acid, also referred to as ibotenate, is a chemical compound and psychoactive drug which occurs naturally in Amanita muscaria and related species of mushrooms typically found in the temperate and boreal regions of the northern hemisphere. It is a conformationally-restricted analogue of the neurotransmitter glutamate, and due to its structural similarity to this neurotransmitter, acts as a non-selective glutamate receptor agonist. Because of this, ibotenic acid can be a powerful neurotoxin, and is employed as a "brain-lesioning agent" through cranial injections in scientific research.

Legal status of psychoactive Amanita mushrooms

This is a list of the legality of muscimol mushrooms by country.

Muscarine

Muscarine, L-(+)-muscarine, or muscarin is a natural product found in certain mushrooms, particularly in Inocybe and Clitocybe species, such as the deadly C. dealbata. Mushrooms in the genera Entoloma and Mycena have also been found to contain levels of muscarine which can be dangerous if ingested. Muscarine has been found in harmless trace amounts in Boletus, Hygrocybe, Lactarius and Russula. Muscarine is only a trace compound in the fly agaric Amanita muscaria; the pharmacologically more relevant compounds from this mushroom are ibotenic acid and muscimol. A. muscaria fruitbodies contain a variable dose of muscarine, usually around 0.0003% fresh weight. This is very low and toxicity symptoms occur very rarely. Inocybe and Clitocybe contain muscarine concentrations up to 1.6%.Muscarine is a nonselective agonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

Muscimol

Muscimol (also known as agarin or pantherine) is one of the principal psychoactive constituents of Amanita muscaria and related species of mushroom. Muscimol is a potent, selective agonist for the GABAA receptors and displays sedative-hypnotic, depressant and hallucinogenic psychoactivity. This colorless or white solid is classified as an isoxazole.

Muscimol went under clinical trial phase I for epilepsy, but the trial was discontinued.

Phytophthora cambivora

Phytophthora cambivora is a plant pathogen that causes ink disease in European chestnut trees (Castanea sativa). Ink disease, also caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is thought to have been present in Europe since the 18th century, and causes chestnut trees to wilt and die; major epidemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries. P. cinnamomi and P. cambivora are now present throughout Europe since the 1990s. Ink disease has resurged, often causing high mortality of trees, particularly in Portugal, Italy, and France. It has also been isolated from a number of different species since the 1990s, including:

Golden chinquapin trees, (Chrysolepis chrysophylla) in Oregon, United States

Rhododendron and Pieris species in North Carolina

Noble fir trees (Abies procera) in Norway

Beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) in Italy and Germany.Some species of mycorrhiza (including Amanita muscaria, Suillellus luridus, and Hebeloma radicosum) may provide protection from P. cambivora in European chestnuts.

Soma (drink)

In Vedic tradition, soma (Sanskrit: सोम) or haoma (Avestan) is a ritual drink of importance among the early Indians. The Rigveda mentions it, particularly in the Soma Mandala. In the Avestan literature, the entire Yasht 20 and Yasna 9–11 treat of haoma.

The texts describe the preparation of soma by means of extracting the juice from a plant, the identity of which is now unknown and debated among scholars. In both the ancient religions of Historical Vedic religion and Zoroastrianism, the name of the drink and the plant are the same.There has been much speculation about the most likely identity of the original plant. Traditional accounts with unbroken continuity in India, from Ayurveda and Siddha medicine practitioners and Somayajna ritualists undoubtedly use "Somalata" (Sarcostemma acidum).

Non-Indian researchers have proposed candidates including Amanita muscaria, Psilocybe cubensis, Peganum harmala and Ephedra sinica. According to recent philological and archaeological studies, and in addition, direct preparation instructions confirm in the Rig Vedic Hymns (Vedic period) Ancient Soma most likely consisted of Poppy, Phaedra/Ephedra (plant) and Cannabis.

Amanita species
Subgenus Amanita
Subgenus Amanitina
Subgenus Lepidella
(=Saproamanita)
Hallucinogenic mushrooms
Psychoactive Amanita mushrooms
Psilocybin mushrooms
Poisonous Amanita mushrooms
Subgenus
Amanita
Subgenus
Amanitina

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.