Amami woodcock

The Amami woodcock (Scolopax mira) is a medium-sized wader. It is slightly larger and longer-legged than Eurasian woodcock, and may be conspecific.

This species is a restricted-range endemic found only in forests on two small islands of the Amami Islands chain in South Japan. Insofar as its habits are known, they are similar to Eurasian woodcock.

Amami woodcock
Amami Woodcock Stuffed specimen
Stuffed specimen of Scolopax mira at the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo, Japan.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Scolopacidae
Genus: Scolopax
S. mira
Binomial name
Scolopax mira
Hartert, 1916

Taxonomy and Systematics

The Amami Woodcock was originally described as a subspecies of the Eurasian Woodcock, due to a juvenile that resembled the Eurasian woodcock in coloration. Later, some argued that the Amami Woodcock was a distinct species—Kobayashi in 1979 and Cramp & Simmons in 1983. Comparison between the two species revealed their distinct physical features, and led to the emergence of the Amami Woodcock as a distinct species.[2]


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Scolopax mira". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Brazil, Mark; Ikenaga, Hiroshi (December 1987). "The Amami Woodcock Scolopax mira: Its Identity and Identification" (PDF). Forktail.

Further reading

Shorebirds by Hayman, Marchant and Prater, ISBN 0-7099-2034-2

External links

2018 in archosaur paleontology

The year 2018 in archosaur paleontology was eventful. Archosaurs include the only living dinosaur group — birds — and the reptile crocodilians, plus all extinct dinosaurs, extinct crocodilian relatives, and pterosaurs. Archosaur palaeontology is the scientific study of those animals, especially as they existed before the Holocene Epoch began about 11,700 years ago. The year 2018 in paleontology included various significant developments regarding archosaurs.

This article records new taxa of fossil archosaurs of every kind that have been described during the year 2018, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleontology of archosaurs that occurred in the year 2018.

Amami (disambiguation)

The Amami are islands in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.

Amami may also refer to:

Amami Ōshima, a main island of the islands

Amami, Kagoshima, a city in the islands

Amami Airport, an airport serving the city

Amami language

Amami Station, a railway station in Osaka Prefecture

Amami (film), a 1993 comedy film starring Moana Pozzi

Amami (album)

Amami Islands

The Amami Islands (奄美群島, Amami-guntō) is an archipelago in the Satsunan Islands, which is part of the Ryukyu Islands, and is southwest of Kyushu. Administratively, the group belongs to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan and the Japan Coast Guard agreed on February 15, 2010, to use the name of Amami-guntō (奄美群島) for the Amami Islands. Prior to that, Amami-shotō (奄美諸島) was also used. The name of Amami is probably cognate with Amamikyu (阿摩美久), the goddess of creation in the Ryukyuan creation myth.

Camp Gonsalves

Camp Gonsalves is a U.S. Marines jungle warfare training area, established in 1958, located in Northern Okinawa, Japan, across the villages of Kunigami and Higashi. It is the largest U.S training facility in Okinawa.

The camp is located in the Yanbaru forest protected area, raising long time ecological concerns enhanced by the 2016 plan to built new helipads.

List of Charadriiformes by population

This is a list of Charadriiformes species by global population. While numbers are estimates, they have been made by the experts in their fields.

Charadriiformes (Charadrius being Latin for "plover") is the taxonomic order to which the waders, gulls, and auks belong. BirdLife International has assessed 352 species; 181 (51% of total species) have had their population estimated. Bird taxonomy is currently in a state of flux, much wider in scope than the complications arising from the realization that birds are dinosaurs, and a full scientific consensus on the division of orders has yet to be settled upon. The Charadriiformes, for example, are grouped with the Ciconiiformes in the Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy. In the interest of standardization this article, along with the rest of the Wikipedia Bird Population lists, is split along the taxonomic system used by BirdLife, which is both the Earth's largest partnership of conservation organizations, and the assessment team for birds on the IUCN Red List. This is not an endorsement of any one taxonomic system, and it may change in the future as new relationships are brought to light.

A variety of methods are used for counting Charadriiformes. For example, the piping plover is subject to the quinquennial Piping Plover International Census, which is carried out in 9 Canadian provinces, 32 US states, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. In the 2006 survey, Saskatchewan alone had 159 volunteers scour 294 waterbodies. The mountain plover has had its nests counted through the drive transect method. Once density has been calculated, the numbers are extrapolated over a bird's range. For more information on how these estimates were ascertained, see Wikipedia's articles on population biology and population ecology.

Species which can no longer be included in a list of this nature include the Tahiti sandpiper, which was only recorded in 1777, and is suspected to have fallen prey to introduced egg-eating rats. The same fate awaited the white-winged sandpiper. The Canarian oystercatcher was reported vanished by 1940, believed to have been the result of overfishing of its sustenance. The feathers of the great auk made excellent pillows, and egg collectors were so successful in their hobby that the last specimen in Britain was seen in 1840 on Stac an Armin, Scotland. This was beaten to death by three men believing it to be a witch.The continued existence of some species has yet to be confirmed either way. The Javan lapwing, for example, has not had a confirmed sighting since 1940, but unconfirmed reports continue to give hope that the last individual has yet to die. The last confirmed sightings of the Eskimo curlew were in the early 1980s, but scientists would rather not issue a former declaration of extinction until surveying of all potential breeding locations is completed. The slender-billed curlew (included in the list below) was considered "very common" in the early 1800s, rare by the early 1900s. The bird was recorded 103 times between 1980 and 1990, and 74 times between 1990 and 1999. The last confirmed recording of the slender-billed curlew was in April 2001.Critically Endangered means a species has experienced a decline of at least 80% in the past ten years or three generations, or is projected to decline that much over the same period of time. A species's continued existence does not necessarily mean the bird can be salvaged, as it may have already passed the minimum viable population.

List of Natural Monuments of Japan (Okinawa)

This list is of the Natural Monuments of Japan within the Prefecture of Okinawa.

List of birds by common name

In this list of birds by common name, a total of 9,722 extant and recently extinct bird species are recognised, belonging to a total of 204 families.

List of birds of Asia

The birds of Asia are diverse.

The taxonomy of this list adheres to James Clements' Birds of the World: A Checklist, 6th edition. Taxonomic changes are on-going. As more research is gathered from studies of distribution, behaviour, and DNA, the order and number of families and species may change. Furthermore, different approaches to ornithological nomenclature have led to concurrent systems of classification (see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy).

The area covered by this list corresponds with the Asian listing area as defined by the American Birding Association[1]. The area includes Russia east of the Ural River and Ural Mountains and the Russian Arctic islands east of but not including Novaya Zemlya, as well as Kazakhstan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkey (except for the portion north of the Bosporus, Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles) and Cyprus. The area is separated from Africa by the Suez Canal. In the Indian Ocean it includes Sri Lanka, Lakshadweep (the Laccadive Islands), the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, but does not include Socotra (Africa), the Maldives, the Chagos Archipelago and Christmas Island (all Indian Ocean). It includes the Russian islands in the Bering Sea and North Pacific. Japan, the Izu Islands (except Nampo Shoto and the Daitō Islands), the Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia and most of Indonesia. In Indonesia, the dividing line between Asia and Australasia runs through the Banda and Molucca Seas with Sulawesi, Banggai and Talaud on the Asian side, and the islands of Kai, Ceram, Buru, the Sula Group and Morotai on the Australasian side.

List of birds of Japan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Japan. The avifauna of Japan include a total of 722 species, of which 16 are endemic, and 39 have been introduced by humans.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and non-endemic residents.

(A) Accidental – a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Japan (also called a vagrant)

(E) Endemic – a species endemic to Japan

(I) Introduced – a species introduced to Japan as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of endemic birds of Japan

This article is one of a series providing information about endemism among birds in the world's various zoogeographic zones. For an overview of this subject see Endemism in birds.

List of vulnerable birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 799 vulnerable avian species. 7.1% of all evaluated avian species are listed as vulnerable.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

For a species to be assessed as vulnerable to extinction the best available evidence must meet quantitative criteria set by the IUCN designed to reflect "a high risk of extinction in the wild". Endangered and critically endangered species also meet the quantitative criteria of vulnerable species, and are listed separately. See: List of endangered birds, List of critically endangered birds. Vulnerable, endangered and critically endangered species are collectively referred to as threatened species by the IUCN.

Additionally 61 avian species (0.59% of those evaluated) are listed as data deficient, meaning there is insufficient information for a full assessment of conservation status. As these species typically have small distributions and/or populations, they are intrinsically likely to be threatened, according to the IUCN. While the category of data deficient indicates that no assessment of extinction risk has been made for the taxa, the IUCN notes that it may be appropriate to give them "the same degree of attention as threatened taxa, at least until their status can be assessed."This is a complete list of vulnerable avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

Ryukyu Islands

The Ryukyu Islands (琉球諸島, Ryūkyū-shotō), also known as the Nansei Islands (南西諸島, Nansei-shotō, lit. "Southwest Islands") or the Ryukyu Arc (琉球弧, Ryūkyū-ko), are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are mostly high islands and the smaller mostly coral. The largest is Okinawa Island.

The climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) in the north to tropical rainforest climate (Köppen climate classification Af) in the south. Precipitation is very high and is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait (between the Tokara and Amami Islands) and the Kerama Gap (between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands). The islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs.

The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the people are ethnically Japanese and speak a variation of the Kagoshima dialect of Japanese. The Amami, Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, named for the former Ryukyu Kingdom that ruled them. The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, and the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalently spoken. The outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started mainly by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking the Hachijō language.

Administratively, the islands are divided into Kagoshima Prefecture (specifically the islands administered by Kagoshima District, Kumage Subprefecture/District, and Ōshima Subprefecture/District) in the north and Okinawa Prefecture in the south, with the divide between the Amami and Okinawa Islands, with the Daitō Islands part of Okinawa Prefecture. The northern (Kagoshima) islands are collectively called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain (Okinawa Prefecture) are called the Ryukyu Islands in Chinese.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 7

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.


The woodcocks are a group of seven or eight very similar living species of wading birds in the genus Scolopax. The genus name is Latin for a snipe or woodcock, and until around 1800 was used to refer to a variety of waders. The English name was first recorded in about 1050.


Yanbaru (山原) is the Okinawan and Kunigami name given to the forested northern part of Okinawa Island in Japan. Spanning the northern villages of Higashi, Kunigami, and Ōgimi, Yanbaru contains some of the last large surviving tracts of subtropical rainforest in Asia, with many endemic species of flora and fauna. Many southerners fled to the area for refuge during the Battle of Okinawa. In 2016, Yanbaru National Park was established and the area was included in a submission for inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List.Yanbaru currently contains the 7,500 ha US Jungle Warfare Training Centre at Camp Gonsalves. As of 2010 there were twenty-two helipads in the training area with a further seven planned within two of the best preserved areas. Issues relating to the location of helipads delayed the designation as a National Park. Threatened by clearcutting and the removal of undergrowth, various endemic species are facing an imminent extinction crisis. The US Marine Corps has noted that 'to continue to perform realistic military training activities, these habitats must be maintained.'


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