Amédée Méreaux

Amédée Méreaux (full name Jean-Amédée Lefroid de Méreaux) (Paris, 17 September 1802 – Rouen, 25 April 1874) was a French musicologist, pianist, and composer. He was the author of Les clavecinistes de 1637 à 1790, written from 1864 to 1867, which had essays on the composers it mentioned.[1] His grandfather, Nicolas-Jean Lefroid de Méreaux (1745–1797), was a composer of operas and oratorios, while his father, Jean-Nicolas Lefroid de Méreaux, was an organist and pianist and was a composer of piano sonatas.[2] He was a friend of Frédéric Chopin.

His music, while obscure, is somewhat known for its sometimes immense difficulties ( Marc-André Hamelin thinks that his piano works are sometimes more difficult than even those of Charles-Valentin Alkan[3]), and his most famous work is his 60 Études, Op. 63. For example, his "Bravura" étude, Op. 63 No. 24, has passages where the pianist's two hands cross over each other simultaneously every quaver, at the speed of quarter note = 100. However, not all of his works have such difficulties. Although his works are considered by some, including Hamelin, to be unmusical,[3] this view is not held by all. Despite his current obscurity, some of his Op. 63 études were included in some piano collections edited by Isidor Philipp, and there is a street in Rouen named after him.[2] Recently, five of his Op. 63 études have been recorded by Cyprien Katsaris.

Amédée Méreaux 1
Engraving of Amédée Méreaux
Amédée Méreaux 2
Photograph of Amédée Méreaux


  1. ^ "Amédée Méreaux - Unknown French composer reviving thread. - Piano World Piano & Digital Piano Forums". Retrieved 2012-09-29.
  2. ^ a b "Les Lefroid de Méreaux sont une famille d'artistes et de musiciens dont deux générations au moins s'illustrèrent à Paris" (in French). Retrieved 29 September 2012.
  3. ^ a b Interview with Marc-André Hamelin (retrieved March 27, 2017)

External links


Amédée is a forename. Notable people with the forename include:

Amédée Artus (1815-1892), French conductor and composer

Amédée Baillot de Guerville (1869–1913), French war correspondent

Amédée de Béjarry (1840-1916), French politician

Amédée Bollée (1844-1917), French bellfounder and inventor

Amédée Borrel (1867-1936), French biologist

Amédée Courbet (1827-1885), French army admiral

Amédée Dechambre (1812-1886), French physician

Amédée Despans-Cubières (1786-1853), French army general

Amédée Domenech (1933-2003), French rugby union player and politician

Amédée Dumontpallier (1826-1899), French gynecologist

Amédée Dunois (1878-1945), French lawyer, journalist, politician

Amédée Faure (1801-1878), French painter

Amédée Fengarol (1905-1951), French politician

Amédée E. Forget (1847-1923), Canadian lawyer, civil servant, politician

Amédée Forestier (1854 – 1930), French-British artist

Amédée Fournier (1912-1992), French bicycle racer

Amédée Gaboury (1838-1912), Canadian physician and politician

Amédée Galzin (1853-1925), French gynecologist

Amédée Geoffrion (1867-1935), Canadian lawyer and politician

Amédée Gibaud (1885-1957), French chess player

Amédée Girod de l'Ain (1781-1847), French lawyer and politician

Amédée Gordini (1899-1979), Italian-born French race car driver and manufacturer

Amédée Gosselin (1863-1941), Canadian historian, Roman Catholic priest

Amédée Guillemin (1826-1893), French science writer and journalist

Amédée Jacques (1813-1865), French-Argentine pedagogue

Amédée de Jallais (1826-1909), French playwright, opera librettist

Amédée Joullin (1862–1917), French-American painter

Amédée Emmanuel François Laharpe (1754-1796), French army general

Amédée Louis Michel le Peletier, comte de Saint-Fargeau (1770-1845), French entomologist

Amédée Lynen (1852–1938), Belgian painter

Amédée Maingard (1918 - 1981), Mauritius-born French military personnel

Amédée Mannheim (1831-1906), French mathematician

Amédée Melanson (1882-1930), Canadian politician

Amédée Méreaux (1802-1874), French musicologist, pianist, composer

Amédée Ozenfant (1886-1966), French painter

Amédée de Noé (1818-1879), French caricaturist, lithographer

Amédée Papineau (1819-1903), Canadian writer

Amédée Pichot (1795-1877), French historian and translator

Amédée Pofey, 13th-century lord and knight

Amédée Wilfrid Proulx (1932-1993), American Roman Catholic bishop

Amédée Rolland (1914-2000), French racing cyclist

Amédée Ronzel (1909-?), French bobsledder

Amédée Thierry (1797-1873), French journalist and historian

Amédée Thubé (1884-1941), French sailor

Amédée Tremblay (1876-1949), Canadian organist, composer

Amédée Trichard, French long-distance runner

Amédée Turner (born 1929), British barrister

Bravura (disambiguation)

Bravura is a style of both music and its performance intended to show off the skill of a performer.

Bravura may also refer to:

Bravura, a march by Charles E. Duble

Bravura étude, Op. 63 No. 24 by Amédée Méreaux

Bravura, an imprint of Malibu Comics

Bravura, the protagonist of Asterix and the Secret Weapon

Giacomo Meyerbeer

Giacomo Meyerbeer (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century. With his 1831 opera Robert le diable and its successors, he gave the genre of grand opera 'decisive character'. Meyerbeer's grand opera style was achieved by his merging of German orchestra style with Italian vocal tradition. These were employed in the context of sensational and melodramatic libretti created by Eugène Scribe and were enhanced by the up-to-date theatre technology of the Paris Opéra. They set a standard which helped to maintain Paris as the opera capital of the nineteenth century.

Born to a very wealthy Berlin family, Meyerbeer began his musical career as a pianist but soon decided to devote himself to opera, spending several years in Italy studying and composing. His 1824 opera Il crociato in Egitto was the first to bring him Europe-wide reputation, but it was Robert le diable (1831) which raised his status to great celebrity. His public career, lasting from then until his death, during which he remained a dominating figure in the world of opera, was summarized by his contemporary Hector Berlioz, who claimed that he 'has not only the luck to be talented, but the talent to be lucky.' He was at his peak with his operas Les Huguenots (1836) and Le prophète (1849); his last opera (L'Africaine) was performed posthumously. His operas made him the most frequently performed composer at the world's leading opera houses in the nineteenth century.

At the same time as his successes in Paris, Meyerbeer, as a Prussian Court Kapellmeister (Director of Music) from 1832, and from 1843 as Prussian General Music Director, was also influential in opera in Berlin and throughout Germany. He was an early supporter of Richard Wagner, enabling the first production of the latter's opera Rienzi. He was commissioned to write the patriotic opera Ein Feldlager in Schlesien to celebrate the reopening of the Berlin Royal Opera House in 1844 and wrote music for certain Prussian state occasions.

Apart from around 50 songs, Meyerbeer wrote little except for the stage. The critical assaults of Wagner and his supporters, especially after Meyerbeer’s death, led to a decline in the popularity of his works; his operas were suppressed by the Nazi regime in Germany, and were neglected by opera houses through most of the twentieth century. In the 21st century, however, the composer's major French grand operas have begun to reappear in the repertory of numerous European opera houses.

List of Romantic-era composers

This is a list of Romantic-era composers. Note that this list is purely chronological, and also includes a substantial number of composers, especially those born after 1860, whose works cannot be conveniently classified as "Romantic".

List of composers by name

This is a list of composers by name, alphabetically sorted by surname, then by other names. The list of composers is by no means complete. It is not limited by classifications such as genre or time period; however, it includes only music composers of significant fame, notability or importance who also have current Wikipedia articles. For lists of music composers by other classifications, see lists of composers.

This list is not for arrangers or lyricists (see list of music arrangers and lyricists), unless they are also composers. Likewise, songwriters are listed separately, for example in a list of singer-songwriters and list of Songwriters Hall of Fame inductees.

List of piano composers

This is a list of piano composers.

List of variations on a theme by another composer

Many classical and later composers have written compositions in the form of variations on a theme by another composer.

This is an incomplete list of such works, sorted by the name of the original composer. The list does not include variations written on composers' own or original themes, or on folk, traditional or anonymous melodies.

Many of these works are called simply "Variations on a Theme of/by ...". Other works, which often involve substantial development or transformation of the base material, may have more fanciful titles such as Caprice, Fantasy, Paraphrase, Reminiscences, Rhapsody, etc. These other types of treatments are not listed here unless there is evidence that they include variations on a theme.

List of étude composers

An étude is a musical composition (usually short) designed to provide practice in a particular technical skill in the performance of a solo instrument.


Teresa (1827–1904) and her younger sister Maria (1832–1848) Milanollo, were Italian violin-playing child prodigies who toured Europe extensively to great acclaim in the 1840s. After Maria died at age 16, Teresa, who was also a composer, had a long solo career. The name "Milanollo" has been perpetuated by the regimental march of the Life Guards, Coldstream Guards and Governor General's Foot Guards, written in their honour by their contemporary J.V. Hamm. The Teatro Milanollo in their native Savigliano was named for the sisters.

Taught violin in infancy by Ferrero, Caldera, and Morra, Teresa made her concert debut in her native Savigliano aged nine. In 1836 she moved to Paris with her family. She toured Britain, France, the Netherlands and Belgium, sometimes with her virtuoso tutors, Lafont, subsequently Habeneck and later still, de Bériot. She eventually became her sister Maria's first and only violin coach. From 1838 to 1848 the Milanollo sisters toured throughout France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and England, charming royal courts and such composers as Johann Strauss the Elder, Berlioz, Liszt, Chopin and Meyerbeer. Their nicknames, "Mademoiselle Staccato" (Maria) and "Mademoiselle Adagio" (Teresa) reflected their contrasting personalities; the more solemn Teresa was acknowledged as the genius of the two. After Maria Milanollo's untimely death in 1848, Teresa continued performing solo, establishing a system of "Concerts aux Pauvres" (charitable concerts). She retired in 1857 on marriage and died in Paris in 1904.

Teresa Milanollo was a pioneer among women violinists, however, her musical compositions are now largely forgotten. Three of her violins survive today, a 1728 Stradivarius (the "Milanollo-Dragonetti") played by Paganini and bequeathed to Teresa by Domenico Dragonetti, a c. 1680 Ruggieri small violin (the "Milanollo") the property of her younger sister Maria, auctionied by Tarisio in April 2010, and a 1703 Stradivarius (the "Milanollo-Hembert").


Méreaux is the surname of a number of French composers:

Nicolas-Jean Lefroid de Méreaux (1745-1797), an opera composer

Joseph-Nicolas Lefroid de Méreaux (1767-1838), his son, a composer for the piano

Amédée Méreaux (1802-1874), son of Joseph-Nicolas Lefroid de Méreaux, a musicologist, pianist and composer

Max Méreaux (born 1946), a composer and music teacher

Nicolas-Jean Lefroid de Méreaux

Nicolas-Jean Lefroid de Méreaux (1745–1797) was a French composer, born in Paris.

According to music critic François-Joseph Fétis, Méreaux studied music under French and Italian teachers before becoming the organist of the Church of Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas. He wrote several motets for the church and had his oratorio Esther performed at the Concert Spirituel in 1775. His first published work was the cantata Aline, reine de Golconde in 1767. He went on to compose several operas.His son, Joseph-Nicolas Lefroid de Méreaux (1767–1838), was also a composer, mostly of piano music. His grandson was Amédée Méreaux.

Robert le diable

Robert le diable (Robert the Devil) is an opera in five acts composed by Giacomo Meyerbeer from a libretto written by Eugène Scribe and Germain Delavigne. Robert le diable is regarded as one of the first grand operas at the Paris Opéra. It has only a superficial connection to the medieval legend of Robert the Devil.

The opera was immediately successful from its first night on 21 November 1831 at the Opéra; the dramatic music, harmony and orchestration, its melodramatic plot, its star singers and its sensational stage effects compelled Frédéric Chopin, who was in the audience, to say, "If ever magnificence was seen in the theatre, I doubt that it reached the level of splendour shown in Robert...It is a masterpiece...Meyerbeer has made himself immortal". Robert initiated the European fame of its composer, consolidated the fame of its librettist, Scribe, and launched the reputation of the new director of the Opéra, Louis-Désiré Véron, as a purveyor of a new genre of opera. It also had influence on development of the ballet, and was frequently mentioned and discussed in contemporary French literature.

Robert continued as a favourite in opera houses all over the world throughout the nineteenth century. After a period of neglect, it began to be revived towards the end of the twentieth century.

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