Altona Bloody Sunday (German: Altonaer Blutsonntag) was the name given to a violent confrontation between the Sturmabteilung (SA) and Schutzstaffel (SS), the police, and Communist Party (KPD) supporters on 17 July 1932 in Altona, now in Hamburg but then part of Schleswig-Holstein, which was part of Prussia. The riots left 18 people dead.
Following a policy of appeasing the Nazi Party, Franz von Papen's government on 28 June 1932 lifted a ban on the SA and SS which had been in place since April. This led to recurrent riots and open street fighting between Nazis and Communists.
In July, an SA and SS demonstration through the workers' quarter of Altona was approved by Social Democratic police president Otto Eggerstedt, despite warnings by the Communists. Eggerstedt himself was on an election trip, and his deputy was on vacation. As expected, it triggered a major confrontation between 7,000 National Socialists and Altona's Communist residents, leading to massive police intervention. Eighteen people, including two SA members, were killed, most of them by police bullets. The riots were used by Papen as an excuse for his Prussian Coup on 20 July.
When the Nazi Party seized power in Germany in May 1933, 15 Communists who had been arrested were tried for murder. In addition to prison terms, four of the accused were sentenced to death and beheaded on 1 August 1933. In the 1990s, the Federal Republic of Germany reversed these convictions, declaring the convicted men innocent.
|Date||17 July 1932|
|Caused by||Nazi rally|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
|Arrested||15 Communists later arrested for role in the riots|
was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1932nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 932nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 32nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1930s decade.1932 in Germany
Events in the year 1932 in Germany.Altona, Hamburg
Altona (German: [ˈaltonaː] (listen)) is the westernmost urban borough (Bezirk) of the German city state of Hamburg, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From 1640 to 1864 Altona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy and Denmark's only real harbour directly to the North Sea. Altona was an independent city until 1937. In 2016 the population was 270,263.Arnold Zweig
Arnold Zweig (10 November 1887 – 26 November 1968) was a German writer and anti-war and anti-fascist activist.
He is best known for his six-part cycle on World War I.Bruno Tesch (antifascist)
Bruno Guido Camillo Tesch (22 April 1913 – 1 August 1933) was a German communist and member of the Young Communist League of Germany. Aged 20, he was convicted of murder and executed in connection with the Altona Bloody Sunday (Altonaer Blutsonntag) riot, a Sturmabteilung (SA) march on 17 July 1932 that turned violent and led to 18 people being shot and killed. His conviction was overturned in November 1992.Decapitation
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body. Such an injury is always fatal to humans and animals, since it deprives all other organs of the involuntary functions that are needed for the body to function, while the brain is deprived of oxygenated blood and blood pressure.
The term beheading refers to the act of deliberately decapitating a person, either as a means of murder or execution; it may be accomplished with an axe, sword, knife, or by mechanical means such as a guillotine. An executioner who carries out executions by beheading is called a headsman. Accidental decapitation can be the result of an explosion, car or industrial accident, improperly administered execution by hanging or other violent injury. Suicide by decapitation is rare but not unknown. The national laws of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Qatar permit beheading, but in practice, Saudi Arabia is the only country that continues to behead its offenders regularly as a punishment for crime.Less commonly, decapitation can also refer to the removal of the head from a body that is already dead. This might be done to take the head as a trophy, for public display, to make the deceased more difficult to identify, for cryonics, or for other, more esoteric reasons.Falk Harnack
Falk Harnack (2 March 1913 – 3 September 1991) was a German director and screenwriter. During Germany's Nazi era, he was also active with the German Resistance and toward the end of World War II, the partisans in Greece. Harnack was from a family of scholars, artists and scientists, several of whom were active in the anti-Nazi Resistance and paid with their lives.Ferdinand Raeschke
Ferdinand (Ferdi) Raeschke (February 19, 1920 Hamburg – June 16, 1987 Hamburg) was a professional German boxer and, after his active boxing career, owned the beer tavern "Bei Ferry" at the corner of Seilerstrasse / Detlev-Bremer-Strasse inside the famous entertainment quarter of St. Pauli, Hamburg.Free State of Prussia
The Free State of Prussia (German: Freistaat Preußen) was a state of Germany from 1918 to 1947.
The Free State of Prussia was established in 1918 following the German Revolution, abolishing the German Empire and founding the Weimar Republic in the aftermath of the First World War. The new state was a direct successor to the Kingdom of Prussia, but featured a democratic, republican government and smaller area based on territorial changes after the war. Prussia remained the dominant state of Germany, comprising almost 5⁄8 (62.5%) of the country's territory and population, and home to the federal capital, Berlin. Prussia changed from the authoritarian state it had been under previous rulers to a democratic bastion within the Weimar Republic where, unlike in other states, democratic parties always ruled in majority.
The Free State of Prussia's democratic government was overthrown in the Preußenschlag in 1932, placing the state under direct rule in a coup d'etat led by Chancellor Franz von Papen and forcing Minister-President Otto Braun from office. The establishment of Nazi Germany in 1933 began the Gleichschaltung process, ending legal challenges to the Preußenschlag and placing Prussia under the direct rule of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, with Hermann Göring as Minister-President. In 1934, all German states were de facto replaced by the Gaue system and converted to rudimentary bodies, effectively ending Prussia as a single territorial unit of Germany. After the end of World War II in 1945, Otto Braun approached Allied officials in occupied Germany to reinstate the legal Prussian government, but was rejected and Prussia was abolished in 1947.Hans Asmussen
Hans Christian Asmussen (born 21 August 1898 in Flensburg — died 30 December 1968 in Speyer) was a German Evangelical and Lutheran theologian.Asmussen was a pastor in Altona, Hamburg. He was removed from office by the Nazis because of his activity in the Reich Fraternal Council of the Confessing Church. He was jailed several times before 1945. He was co-author of the protest "Word and Affirmation of Altona Pastors amid the Misery and Confusion of Public Life" (11 January 1933), which rejected a pact with National Socialism and thus became a preliminary step toward the theological declaration of the Barmen Confessional Synod. From 1945 to 1948, Asmussen presided over the Evangelical Church Chancellery, and from 1949 to 1955, he was dean (German: Propst) in Kiel; he was a promoter of ecumenical dialogue. His writings include Seelsorge (Pastoral Care; 1934) and Der Römerbrief (Letter to the Romans; 1952).Jauch family
The Jauch family of Germany is a Hanseatic family which can be traced back till the Late Middle Ages. At the end of the 17th century the family showed up in the Free Imperial and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. The members of the family acted as long-distance merchants. They became hereditary grand burghers of Hamburg and were Lords of Wellingsbüttel Manor – nowadays a quarter of Hamburg.
The Jauch have brought forth some notable lineal descendants, both patrilineal and matrilineal. They can trace the nearer cognatic kinship of the issue of the progenitor Johann Christian Jauch the Elder (1638–1718) in the following centuries to a number of renowned contemporaries.July 17
July 17 is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 167 days remaining until the end of the year.List of people who were beheaded
The following is a list of people who were beheaded, arranged alphabetically by country or region and with date of decapitation. Special sections on "Religious figures" and "Fictional characters" are also appended.
These individuals may have lost their heads either accidentally or intentionally (as a form of execution or posthumously).Preußenschlag
The Preußenschlag of 1932 (German pronunciation: [ˈpʁɔʏsənˌʃlaːk], Prussian coup), also known in English as the coup in Prussia or the putsch in Prussia, was the takeover of the Free State of Prussia, the largest German state, by Chancellor Franz von Papen, using an emergency decree issued by President Paul von Hindenburg under Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution on July 20, 1932.
It was a major step towards the end of the Weimar Republic, as it later facilitated the Nazification (Gleichschaltung) of Germany after Adolf Hitler's rise to power.
The pretext for this measure was violent unrest in some areas of Prussia and the alleged inability of the Prussian government to handle the matter. The main trigger was the "Altonaer Blutsonntag" ("Altona Bloody Sunday"), a shootout between the SA and Communists in Altona on 17 July 1932, which claimed 18 lives.
It is more likely however that the Prussian government headed by Minister-President Otto Braun, with authority over the powerful Prussian police force, was simply one of the last major forces standing in the way of Papen's plans for nationalist rule.The move was facilitated by the unstable situation of the Prussian government. The centre-left coalition of the Social Democrats, Centre Party and liberal German Democratic Party had ruled Prussia without interruption since 1918, but had lost its majority in the Landtag (state parliament) in the 1932 elections. However, under the Prussian constitution, a government could be removed from office only if there was a positive majority for a prospective successor. This provision, known as a "constructive vote of no confidence," was intended to ensure that a government had sufficient support to govern.
The Communists and National Socialists held over half the seats between them, but would not cooperate with each other or with other parties. Thus, no politically realistic alternative government was possible, and the Braun-led coalition remained in office.
However, Papen also lacked majority support in the Reichstag. His only means to govern was through the emergency provisions of Article 48, and hence via decrees issued by the Reichspräsident Hindenburg, over whom Papen had great influence. The emergency decree of July 20 dismissed the Braun government and declared Papen Reichskommissar (Reich Commissioner) for Prussia, vested in him all the competences of the Prussian ministries, and gave him direct control over the Prussian government.The decree was declared partially unconstitutional on October 25, 1932, by the German Constitutional Court, but only in so far as the formal existence of the Prussian cabinet was concerned. The transfer of power to Papen was upheld, while the Braun cabinet retained the right to represent Prussia in the Reichsrat.
Prussia remained under direct administration of the federal government until April 1933. The Enabling Act of 1933 gave Hitler the effective power to enact legislation (including extraconstitutional laws) without the consent of the Reichstag. One of Hitler's first legislative acts was to dissolve all of the state parliaments (except Prussia's) and replace them with legislatures that were constituted based on the results of the partly-free federal election held in March. Prussia was excluded from this measure because it had held state elections at the same time, with a similar result (a Nazi plurality). With the banning of the Communist and Social Democratic parties, the Nazis now had a majority in the Prussian parliament, which elected Hermann Göring as Minister-President. However, under Hitler's rule, German states were effectively replaced by Nazi Gaue, so Göring's post was largely ceremonial.
The state of Prussia was finally dissolved by the Allies after the end of World War II.Rudolf Katz
Rudolf Katz (23 November 1895 – 23 July 1961) was a German politician and judge. He was Vice President of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany.