Alton B. Parker

Alton Brooks Parker (May 14, 1852 – May 10, 1926) was an American judge, best known as the Democrat who lost the presidential election of 1904 to incumbent Theodore Roosevelt in a landslide.

A native of upstate New York, Parker practiced law in Kingston, New York, before being appointed to the New York Supreme Court and elected to the New York Court of Appeals; he served as Chief Judge of the latter from 1898 to 1904, when he resigned to run for president. In 1904, he defeated liberal publisher William Randolph Hearst for the Democratic Party nomination for President of the United States. In the general election, Parker opposed popular incumbent Republican President Theodore Roosevelt. After a disorganized and ineffective campaign, Parker was defeated by 336 electoral votes to 140, carrying only the traditionally Democratic Solid South. He then returned to practicing law. He managed John A. Dix's successful 1910 campaign for Governor of New York and served as prosecution counsel for the 1913 impeachment of Dix's successor, Governor William Sulzer.

Alton Parker
AltonBParker
Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals
In office
January 1, 1898 – August 5, 1904
Preceded byCharles Andrews
Succeeded byEdgar M. Cullen
Personal details
Born
Alton Brooks Parker

May 14, 1852
Cortland, New York, U.S.
DiedMay 10, 1926 (aged 73)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Mary Schoonmaker
Amy Day Campbell
EducationUnion University, New York (LLB)

Early life

Parker was born in Cortland, New York, to John Brooks Parker, a farmer, and Harriet F. Stratton. Both of his parents were well educated and encouraged his reading from an early age. At the age of 12 or 13, Parker watched his father serve as a juror and was so fascinated by the proceedings that he resolved to become a lawyer.[1] However, he trained initially as a teacher and taught in Binghamton. There he became engaged to Mary Louise Schoonmaker, the daughter of a man who owned property near his school. Parker married Schoonmaker in 1872 and became a clerk at Schoonmaker & Hardenburgh, a legal firm at which one of her relatives was the senior partner.[1] He then enrolled at Albany Law School of Union University, New York. After graduating with an LL.B. degree in 1873, he practiced law in Kingston until 1878 as the senior partner of the firm Parker & Kenyon.[2][3]

Parker also became active with the Democratic Party and was an early supporter of future New York governor and US President Grover Cleveland. He served as a delegate to the 1884 Democratic National Convention, at which Cleveland was named the party's presidential nominee; Cleveland went on to narrowly defeat Republican James G. Blaine in the fall election.[2] During this time, Parker also became a protege of David B. Hill, managing Hill's 1884 gubernatorial campaign; Hill won in a landslide.[4]

Judicial career

After his election, Hill appointed Parker to fill an 1885 vacancy on the New York Supreme Court created by the death of Justice Theodore R. Westbrook.[1] In 1886, Parker was elected to his own fourteen-year term in the seat. Three years later, Parker became an appellate judge when Hill appointed him to the newly formed Second Department of the Appellate Division. In November 1897, Parker successfully ran for the post of Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals, defeating Republican William James Wallace.[2]

As a judge, Parker was notable for independently researching each case that he heard. He was generally considered to be pro-labor and was an active supporter of social reform legislation, for example upholding a maximum-hours law as constitutional. In the 1902 decision Roberson v. Rochester Folding Box Co, Parker found against Abigail Roberson, a teenager whose face had been used in advertisements without her permission, ruling that this use did not violate her common law privacy rights. The decision was unpopular in the press and led to the passage of a privacy law by the New York State Legislature the following year. In the same year, Parker upheld the death sentence given to convicted murderer Martha Place, who became the first woman to be executed by electric chair.

During his time as Chief Judge, Parker and his wife sold their Kingston home and bought an estate in Esopus on the Hudson River, calling the house "Rosemount".[1] The couple had one daughter and one son, the latter of whom died young of tetanus.[2]

Presidential nomination

Parker-Davis-poster
Parker/Davis campaign poster

As the 1904 presidential election approached, the Democrats began to search for a nominee to oppose popular incumbent Republican president Theodore Roosevelt, and Parker's name arose as a possible candidate. Roosevelt's Secretary of War Elihu Root said of Parker that he "has never opened his mouth on any national question",[5] but Roosevelt feared that the man's neutrality would prove a political advantage, writing that "the neutral-tinted individual is very apt to win against the man of pronounced views and active life".[4]

The 1904 Democratic National Convention was held in July in St. Louis, Missouri, then also hosting the 1904 World's Fair and the 1904 Summer Olympics. Parker's mentor David B. Hill—having attempted and failed to capture the nomination himself at the 1892 convention—now led the campaign for his protege's nomination.[4] William Jennings Bryan, who had been nominated but defeated by William McKinley in both 1896 and 1900, was no longer considered by delegates to be a viable alternative.[6] Radicals in the party supported publisher William Randolph Hearst but lacked sufficient numbers to secure the nomination due to opposition from Bryan and Tammany Hall, a powerful New York political machine.[7] Small clusters of delegates pledged support to other candidates, including Missouri Senator Francis Cockrell; Richard Olney, Grover Cleveland's Secretary of State; Edward C. Wall, a former Wisconsin State Representative; and George Gray, a former Senator from Delaware. Other delegates spoke of nominating Cleveland, who had already served two nonconsecutive terms, but Cleveland was no longer popular outside the party or even within it, due to his rift with Bryan.[8]

Parker's long service on the bench proved to be an advantage in his nomination, as he had avoided taking stands on issues that divided the party, particularly that of currency standards. Hill and other Parker supporters remained deliberately silent on their candidate's beliefs. By the time the convention cast their votes, it was clear that no candidate but Parker could unify the party, and he was selected on the first ballot.[8] Henry G. Davis, an elderly West Virginia millionaire and former senator, was selected as the vice presidential candidate in the hope that he would partially finance Parker's campaign.[9][10]

The convention was riven by debate over whether to include a free silver plank in the campaign's platform, opposing the gold standard and calling for the government to mint large numbers of silver dollars. The "free silver" movement, a key plank for the party in 1896 and 1900, was popular among indebted Western farmers who felt that inflation would help them repay their debts. Business interests, in contrast, supported the lower inflation of the gold standard. Bryan, famous for his 1896 "Cross of Gold" speech opposing the gold standard, fought bitterly to avoid the inclusion of the gold standard in the party platform in 1904. Ultimately the convention agreed not to include a plank on the subject.[11]

However, seeking to win the support of the Eastern "sound money" faction, Parker sent a telegram to the convention immediately upon hearing news of his nomination that he considered the gold standard "firmly and irrevocably established" and would decline the nomination if he could not state this in his campaign.[12] The telegram sparked a new debate and fresh opposition from Bryan, but the convention eventually replied to Parker that he was free to speak on the issue as he liked.[9] National support for Parker began to rise, and Roosevelt praised his opponent's telegram in private as "bold and skillful"[10] and "most adroit".[9]

Campaign

1904Dem-button
A Parker 1904 button attacking Republicans as tied to big business ("trusts").

After receiving the nomination, Parker resigned from the bench. On August 10, he was formally visited at Rosemount by a delegation of party elders to inform him of his nomination. Parker then delivered a speech criticizing Roosevelt for his administration's involvement in Turkish and Moroccan affairs and having failed to give a date on which the Philippines would become independent of American control; the speech was considered even by supporters to be impersonal and uninspiring.[13][14] Historian Lewis L. Gould described the speech as a "fiasco" for Parker from which the candidate did not recover.[15] After this initial speech, Parker retreated into a strategy of silence again, avoiding comment on all major issues.[16]

Parker's campaign soon proved to be poorly run as well.[14] Parker and his advisors opted for a front porch campaign, in which delegations would be brought to Rosemount to see Parker speak on the model of McKinley's successful 1896 campaign. However, due to Esopus' remote location and the campaign's inefficient use of funds to bring in delegates, Parker received few visitors.[14] Rather than introducing issues that would differentiate the two parties, the Democrats preferred to emphasize Roosevelt's character, portraying him as dangerously unstable.[17] Parker's campaign also failed to reach out to traditional Democratic voting blocs such as Irish Catholic immigrants.[14] In contrast, Roosevelt's campaign, headed by George Cortelyou, organized committees to appeal specifically to demographics including Jewish, black, and German-American voters.[17] John Hay, Roosevelt's Secretary of State, wrote of Parker's poor showing to Henry Adams, calling it "the most absurd political campaign of our time".[18]

A month before the election, Parker became aware of the large amount of corporate donations Cortelyou had solicited for the Roosevelt campaign, and made "Cortelyouism" a theme of his speeches, accusing the president of being insincere in previous trust busting efforts.[19] In late October, he also went on a speaking tour in the key states of New York and New Jersey, in which he reiterated the president's "shameless exhibition of a willingness to make compromise with dignity".[20] Roosevelt, enraged, released a statement calling Parker's criticisms "monstrous" and "slanderous".[21]

Parker's attacks came too late to turn the election, however. On November 8, Roosevelt won in a landslide of 7,630,457 votes to Parker's 5,083,880. Roosevelt carried every northern and western state, including Missouri, for a total of 336 electoral votes; Parker carried only the traditionally Democratic Solid South, accumulating 140 electoral votes.[22][3][a] Parker telegraphed his congratulations to Roosevelt that night and returned to private life.[24]

In Irving Stone's 1943 book They Also Ran about defeated presidential candidates, the author stated that Parker was the only defeated presidential candidate in history never to have a biography written about him. Stone theorized that Parker would have been an effective president and the 1904 election was one of a few in American history in which voters had two first-rate candidates to choose from. Stone professed that Americans liked Roosevelt more because of his colorful style.[25]

Later life

After the election, Parker resumed practicing law and served as the president of the American Bar Association from 1906 to 1907. He represented organized labor in several cases, most notably in Loewe v. Lawlor, popularly known as the "Danbury Hatters' case". In the case, the fur hat manufacturer D. E. Loewe & Company had attempted to enforce an open shop policy; when unions had subsequently boycotted the company, it sued the United Hatters of North America for violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. The conservative U.S. Supreme Court found for Loewe by ruling that the union had been acting in restraint of interstate commerce.[1] Parker had more success representing Samuel Gompers and other labor leaders in Gompers v. United States, in which the Supreme Court overturned their convictions for contempt of court on statute of limitations grounds.[26]

Parker later re-entered politics, managing John Alden Dix's successful 1910 gubernatorial campaign and delivering the keynote address of the 1912 Democratic National Convention, which nominated Woodrow Wilson for president.[1] In 1913, he was counsel for the managers of the trial leading to the impeachment of Dix's successor as governor, William Sulzer.[27]

Parker's wife, Mary, died in 1917. He remarried in 1923 to Amelia Day "Amy" Campbell. On May 10, 1926, only a few days after recovering from bronchial pneumonia, Parker died from a heart attack while riding in his car through New York City's Central Park, four days before his 74th birthday. He was survived by Mrs. Charles Mercer Hall, his daughter from his first wife, two grandchildren, and his second wife.[28] He was buried in Wiltwyck Cemetery in Kingston.[1]

References

Notes

  1. ^ A third candidate, Socialist Party of America leader Eugene V. Debs, received 2.98% of the popular vote but no electoral votes.[23]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Robert M. Mandelbaum. "Alton Brooks Parker". New York State Unified Court System. Archived from the original on April 29, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d "Appellate Division First Department: Alton B. Parker". New York State United Court System. Archived from the original on April 29, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Alton B. Parker". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on April 29, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
  4. ^ a b c Morris 2010, p. 340.
  5. ^ Morris 2010, p. 327.
  6. ^ Morris 2010, p. 339.
  7. ^ Dalton 2002, p. 263.
  8. ^ a b Gould 1991, p. 137.
  9. ^ a b c Gould 1991, p. 138.
  10. ^ a b Morris 2010, p. 342.
  11. ^ Morris 2010, pp. 340–41.
  12. ^ Morris 2010, pp. 341–42.
  13. ^ Morris 2010, pp. 349–50.
  14. ^ a b c d Gould 1991, p. 139.
  15. ^ Gould 1991, p. 141.
  16. ^ Morris 2010, p. 360.
  17. ^ a b Gould 1991, p. 140.
  18. ^ Morris 2010, p. 361.
  19. ^ Dalton 2002, p. 265.
  20. ^ Morris 2010, p. 362.
  21. ^ Dalton 2002, p. 266.
  22. ^ Dalton 2002, p. 267.
  23. ^ "1904 Presidential General Election Results". US Election Atlas. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
  24. ^ Gould 1991, p. 143.
  25. ^ Stone, Irving. They Also Ran, 2nd edition. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1968.
  26. ^ Gompers v. United States, 233 U.S. 604 (1914).
  27. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "Parker, Alton Brooks" . Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.
  28. ^ "Judge Parker Dies in His Auto in Park - Democratic Nominee for the Presidency in 1904 Succumbs at 73 to Heart Disease - On Way To Country Home - Only Recently Recovered From Pneumonia, He Was Riding Through Central Park". New York Times. May 11, 1926. p. 1 (subscription required. Retrieved 9 October 2016.

Bibliography

  • Dalton, Kathleen (8 October 2002). Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-679-44663-7.
  • Gould, Lewis L. (1991). The presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-0435-7.
  • Morris, Edmund Morris (24 November 2010). Theodore Rex. Random House Digital, Inc. ISBN 978-0-307-77781-2.
  • Shoemaker, Fred C. "Alton B. Parker: the images of a gilded age statesman in an era of progressive politics" (MA thesis, The Ohio State University, 1983) online.

Primary sources

External links

Legal offices
Preceded by
Charles Andrews
Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals
1898–1904
Succeeded by
Edgar M. Cullen
Party political offices
Preceded by
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic nominee for President of the United States
1904
Succeeded by
William Jennings Bryan
Preceded by
Theodore Arlington Bell
Keynote Speaker of the Democratic National Convention
1912
Succeeded by
Martin H. Glynn
1904 Democratic National Convention

The 1904 Democratic National Convention was an American presidential nominating convention that ran from July 6 through 10 in the Coliseum of the St. Louis Exposition and Music Hall in St. Louis, Missouri. Breaking with eight years of control by the Democratic Party's reform wing, the convention nominated conservative Judge Alton B. Parker of New York for President and Henry G. Davis of West Virginia for Vice President.

The Democratic ticket lost in the November 1904 presidential election to the Republican Party and its ticket of Theodore Roosevelt and Charles W. Fairbanks.

1904 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1904 was the 30th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1904. Incumbent Republican President Theodore Roosevelt defeated the Democratic nominee, Alton B. Parker. Roosevelt's victory made him the first president to win a term in his own right after having ascended to the presidency upon the death of a predecessor.

Roosevelt took the office in September 1901 following the assassination of his predecessor, William McKinley. After the February 1904 death of McKinley's ally, Senator Mark Hanna, Roosevelt faced little opposition at the 1904 Republican National Convention. The conservative Bourbon Democrat allies of former President Grover Cleveland temporarily regained control of the Democratic Party from the followers of William Jennings Bryan, and the 1904 Democratic National Convention nominated Alton B. Parker, Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals. Parker triumphed on the second ballot of the convention, defeating newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst.

As there was little difference between the candidates' positions, the race was largely based on their personalities; the Democrats argued the Roosevelt presidency was "arbitrary" and "erratic." Republicans emphasized Roosevelt's success in foreign affairs and his record of firmness against monopolies. Roosevelt easily defeated Parker, sweeping every region in the nation except the South. Two third-party candidates, Eugene V. Debs of the Socialist Party and Silas C. Swallow of the Prohibition Party, each took over 1% of the popular vote. Roosevelt's popular vote margin of 18.8% was the largest since James Monroe's victory in the 1820 presidential election.

1904 United States presidential election in California

The 1904 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1904 United States presidential election. California voted for the Republican incumbent, Theodore Roosevelt, in a landslide over the Democratic challenger, New York judge Alton B. Parker.

1904 United States presidential election in Kentucky

The 1904 United States presidential election in Kentucky took place on November 8, 1904. All contemporary 45 states were part of the 1904 United States presidential election. Kentucky voters chose thirteen electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Kentucky was won by the Democratic nominees, Chief Judge Alton B. Parker of New York and his running mate Henry G. Davis of West Virginia.

1904 United States presidential election in Louisiana

The 1904 United States presidential election in Louisiana took place on November 8, 1904. All contemporary 45 states were part of the 1904 United States presidential election. Louisiana voters chose nine electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Louisiana was won by the Democratic nominees, Chief Judge Alton B. Parker of New York and his running mate Henry G. Davis of West Virginia.

1904 United States presidential election in Maryland

The 1904 United States presidential election in Maryland took place on November 8, 1904. All contemporary 45 states were part of the 1904 United States presidential election. Maryland voters chose eight electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Maryland was won by the Democratic nominees, Chief Judge Alton B. Parker of New York and his running mate Henry G. Davis of West Virginia.

1904 United States presidential election in Massachusetts

The 1904 United States presidential election in New Hampshire took place on November 8, 1904. Voters chose 16 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Massachusetts voted for the Republican nominee, President Theodore Roosevelt, over the Democratic nominee, former Chief Judge of New York Court of Appeals Alton B. Parker. Roosevelt won the state by a margin of 20.68%.

1904 United States presidential election in Michigan

The 1904 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 8, 1904, as part of the 1904 United States presidential election. Michigan voters chose fourteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Republican Party candidate and incumbent Theodore Roosevelt won Michigan in a landslide, garnering nearly 70% of the popular vote. Democratic challenger Alton B. Parker received 25.79% of ballots cast.

1904 United States presidential election in Mississippi

The 1904 United States presidential election in Mississippi took place on November 8, 1904. All contemporary 45 states were part of the 1904 United States presidential election. Mississippi voters chose ten electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Mississippi was won by the Democratic nominees, Chief Judge Alton B. Parker of New York and his running mate Henry G. Davis of West Virginia.

1904 United States presidential election in Missouri

The 1904 United States presidential election in Missouri took place on November 8, 1904. Voters chose 18 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Missouri voted for the Republican nominee, President Theodore Roosevelt, over the Democratic nominee, former Chief Judge of New York Court of Appeals Alton B. Parker. Roosevelt won the state by a narrow margin of 3.91%.

With his victory, Roosevelt became the second Republican presidential candidate to win Missouri as well as the first one since Ulysses S. Grant in 1868. In voting for the GOP, Missouri repositioned itself from being associated with the Solid South to being seen as a bellwether swing state throughout the 20th century.

1904 United States presidential election in Montana

The 1904 United States presidential election in Montana took place on November 8, 1904. Voters chose three representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Montana overwhelmingly voted for the Republican nominee, President Theodore Roosevelt, over the Democratic nominee, former Chief Judge of New York Court of Appeals Alton B. Parker. Roosevelt won Montana by a landslide margin of 20.42 percent. It was the first time Montana was won by a Republican candidate since it was won by Benjamin Harrison in 1892.

1904 United States presidential election in New Hampshire

The 1904 United States presidential election in New Hampshire took place on November 8, 1904 as part of the 1904 United States presidential election. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

New Hampshire voted for the Republican nominee, President Theodore Roosevelt, over the Democratic nominee, former Chief Judge of New York Court of Appeals Alton B. Parker. Roosevelt won the state by a margin of 22.28 percent.

1904 United States presidential election in New Jersey

The 1904 United States presidential election in New Jersey took place on November 8, 1904. All contemporary 45 states were part of the 1904 United States presidential election. New Jersey voters chose 12 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

New Jersey was won by the Republican nominees, incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt of New York and his running mate incumbent Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana. Roosevelt and Fairbanks defeated the Democratic nominees, Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals Alton B. Parker of New York and his running mate Senator Henry G. Davis of West Virginia Also in the running was the Socialist Party candidate, Eugene V. Debs, who ran with Ben Hanford.

Roosevelt carried New Jersey with 56.68% of the vote to Parker's 38.05%, a victory margin of 18.63%. Eugene Debs came in a distant third, with 2.22%.

Like much of the Northeast, New Jersey in the early decades of the 20th century was a staunchly Republican state, having not given a majority of the vote to a Democratic presidential candidate since 1892. While winning a landslide victory nationwide, Roosevelt easily held New Jersey in the Republican column in 1904.

On the county level map, Roosevelt carried 17 of the state's 21 counties, breaking 60% of the vote in 7 counties. Parker's most significant win was urban Hudson County, which he won along with the 3 rural counties in western North Jersey, Warren, Sussex, and Hunterdon, which had long been reliably Democratic enclaves in an otherwise Republican state.

Amidst Roosevelt's nationwide landslide, New Jersey's election result in 1904 made the state less than 1% more Democratic than the national average. Roosevelt's victory in New Jersey was underwhelming in part because of Alton Parker's popularity in the New York City area, his victory in New York City spilling over to allow him to win heavily populated urban Hudson County, New Jersey just across the Hudson River, which is part of the New York City metro area.

1904 United States presidential election in North Carolina

The 1904 United States presidential election in North Carolina took place on November 8, 1904. All contemporary 45 states were part of the 1904 United States presidential election. North Carolina voters chose twelve electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

North Carolina was won by the Democratic nominees, Chief Judge Alton B. Parker of New York and his running mate Henry G. Davis of West Virginia.

1904 United States presidential election in Rhode Island

The 1904 United States presidential election in Rhode Island took place on November 8, 1904. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Rhode Island overwhelmingly voted for the Republican nominee, President Theodore Roosevelt, over the Democratic nominee, former Chief Judge of New York Court of Appeals Alton B. Parker. Roosevelt won Rhode Island by a margin of 24.42%.

1904 United States presidential election in Tennessee

The 1904 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 8, 1904. All contemporary 45 states were part of the 1904 United States presidential election. Tennessee voters chose twelve electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Tennessee was won by the Democratic nominees, Chief Judge Alton B. Parker of New York and his running mate Henry G. Davis of West Virginia.

1904 United States presidential election in Texas

The 1904 United States presidential election in Texas took place on November 8, 1904. All contemporary 45 states were part of the 1904 United States presidential election. Texas voters chose eighteen electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Texas was won by the Democratic nominees, Chief Judge Alton B. Parker of New York and his running mate Henry G. Davis of West Virginia.

1904 United States presidential election in Vermont

The 1904 United States presidential election in Vermont took place on November 8, 1904. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Vermont overwhelmingly voted for the Republican nominee, President Theodore Roosevelt, over the Democratic nominee, former Chief Judge of New York Court of Appeals Alton B. Parker. Roosevelt won Vermont by a landslide margin of 59.13 percentage points.

With 77.97 percent of the popular vote, Vermont would be Roosevelt’s strongest victory in terms of percentage of the popular vote.

Newspaper endorsements in the 1904 United States presidential election

Newspapers made endorsements of candidates in the 1904 United States presidential election. Incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt who took office after William McKinley was assassinated in 1901 was the Republican candidate, and Alton B. Parker the Democratic candidate. Harper's Weekly ran a cartoon in September 1904 called "Tom's Dream", a reference to DNC Chairman Thomas Taggart, and his hope that the major newspapers of the country would endorse Parker. His dream largely did not come true, as most newspapers endorsed Roosevelt in this election.

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