Alternative fuel

Alternative fuels, known as non-conventional and advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels like; fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors.

Some well-known alternative fuels include bio-diesel, bio-alcohol (methanol, ethanol, butane), refuse-derived fuel, chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells), hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural gas, vegetable oil, propane and other biomass sources.

Piracicaba 10 2008 151 Gast station selling four fuels
Typical Brazilian filling station with four alternative fuels for sale: biodiesel (B3), gasohol (E25), neat ethanol (E100), and compressed natural gas (CNG). Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background

The main purpose of fuel is to store energy, which should be in a stable form and can be easily transported to the place of use.

Almost all fuels are chemical fuels. The user employs this fuel to generate heat or perform mechanical work, such as powering an engine. It may also be used to generate electricity, which is then used for heating, lighting, or other purposes.

Bio-fuel

Biofuel pumps DCA 07 2010 9834
Alternative fuel dispensers at a regular gasoline station in Arlington, Virginia. B20 biodiesel at the left and E85 ethanol at the right.

Bio-fuels are also considered a renewable source. Although renewable energy is used mostly to generate electricity, it is often assumed that some form of renewable energy or a percentage is used to create alternative fuels. Research is ongoing into finding more suitable bio-fuel crops and improving the oil yields of these crops. Using the current yields, vast amounts of land and fresh water would be needed to produce enough oil to completely replace fossil fuel usage.

Biomass

Biomass in the energy production industry is living and recently dead biological material which can be used as fuel or for industrial production. It has become popular among coal power stations, which switch from coal to biomass in order to convert to renewable energy generation without wasting existing generating plant and infrastructure. Biomass most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, and are specifically called nitrocellulose biomass.[2] As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of bio-fuel.

Algae-based fuels

Algae-based bio-fuels have been promoted in the media as a potential panacea to crude oil-based transportation problems. Algae could yield more than 2000 gallons of fuel per acre per year of production.[1] Algae based fuels are being successfully tested by the U.S. Navy[2] Algae-based plastics show potential to reduce waste and the cost per pound of algae plastic is expected to be cheaper than traditional plastic prices.[3]

Bio-diesel

Bio-diesel is made from animal fats or vegetable oils, renewable resources that come from plants such as atrophy, soybean, sunflowers, corn, olive, peanut, palm, coconut, safflower, canola, sesame, cottonseed, etc. Once these fats or oils are filtered from their hydrocarbons and then combined with alcohol like methanol, diesel is brought to life from this chemical reaction. These raw materials can either be mixed with pure diesel to make various proportions or used alone. Despite one’s mixture preference, bio-diesel will release a smaller number of pollutants (carbon monoxide particulates and hydrocarbons) than conventional diesel, because bio-diesel burns both cleanly and more efficiently. Even with regular diesel’s reduced quantity of sulfur from the LSD (ultra-low sulfur diesel) invention, bio-diesel exceeds those levels because it is sulfur-free.[4]

Alcohol fuels

Methanol and ethanol fuel are primary sources of energy; they are convenient fuels for storing and transporting energy. These alcohols can be used in internal combustion engines as alternative fuels. Butane has another advantage: it is the only alcohol-based motor fuel that can be transported readily by existing petroleum-product pipeline networks, instead of only by tanker trucks and railroad cars.

Ammonia

Ammonia (NH3) can be used as fuel.[5][6] Benefits of ammonia include no need for oil, zero emissions, low cost, and distributed production reducing transport and related pollution.

Carbon-neutral and negative fuels

Carbon neutral fuel is synthetic fuel—such as methane, gasoline, diesel fuel or jet fuel—produced from renewable or nuclear energy used to hydrogenate waste carbon dioxide recycled from power plant flue exhaust gas or derived from carbolic acid in seawater.[7][8][9][10] Such fuels are potentially carbon neutral because they do not result in a net increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases.[11][12] To the extent that carbon neutral fuels displace fossil fuels, or if they are produced from waste carbon or seawater carbolic acid, and their combustion is subject to carbon capture at the flue or exhaust pipe, they result in negative carbon dioxide emission and net carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, and thus constitute a form of greenhouse gas remediation.[13][14][15] Such carbon neutral and negative fuels can be produced by the electrolysis of water to make hydrogen used in the Sabbatical reaction to produce methane which may then be stored to be burned later in power plants as synthetic natural gas, transported by pipeline, truck, or tanker ship, or be used in gas to liquids processes such as the Fischer–Troopship process to make traditional transportation or heating fuels.[16][17][18]

Carbon-neutral fuels have been proposed for distributed storage for renewable energy, minimizing problems of wind and solar intermittent, and enabling transmission of wind, water, and solar power through existing natural gas pipelines. Such renewable fuels could alleviate the costs and dependency issues of imported fossil fuels without requiring either electrification of the vehicle fleet or conversion to hydrogen or other fuels, enabling continued compatible and affordable vehicles.[16] Germany has built a 250-kilowatt synthetic methane plant which they are scaling up to 10 megawatts.[19][20][21] Audi has constructed a carbon neutral liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in Werlte, Germany.[22] The plant is intended to produce transportation fuel to offset LNG used in their A3 Sportback g-tron automobiles, and can keep 2,800 metric tons of CO2 out of the environment per year at its initial capacity.[23] Other commercial developments are taking place in Columbia, South Carolina,[24] Camarillo, California,[25] and Darlington, England.[26]

The least expensive source of carbon for recycling into fuel is flue-gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, where it can be extracted for about US $7.50 per ton.[9][12][17] Automobile exhaust gas capture has also been proposed to be economical but would require extensive design changes or retrofitting.[27] Since carbonic acid in seawater is in chemical equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide, extraction of carbon from seawater has been studied.[28][29] Researchers have estimated that carbon extraction from seawater would cost about $50 per ton.[10] Carbon capture from ambient air is more costly, at between $600 and $1000 per ton and is considered impractical for fuel synthesis or carbon sequestration.[12][13]

Nighttime wind power is considered the most economical form of electrical power with which to synthesize fuel, because the load curve for electricity peaks sharply during the warmest hours of the day, but wind tends to blow slightly more at night than during the day. Therefore, the price of nighttime wind power is often much less expensive than any alternative. Off-peak wind power prices in high wind penetration areas of the U.S. averaged 1.64 cents per kilowatt-hour in 2009, but only 0.71 cents/kWh during the least expensive six hours of the day.[16] Typically, wholesale electricity costs 2 to 5 cents/kWh during the day.[30] Commercial fuel synthesis companies suggest they can produce fuel for less than petroleum fuels when oil costs more than $55 per barrel.[31] The U.S. Navy estimates that shipboard production of jet fuel from nuclear power would cost about $6 per gallon. While that was about twice the petroleum fuel cost in 2010, it is expected to be much less than the market price in less than five years if recent trends continue. Moreover, since the delivery of fuel to a carrier battle group costs about $8 per gallon, shipboard production is already much less expensive.[32] However, U.S. civilian nuclear power is considerably more expensive than wind power.[33] The Navy's estimate that 100 megawatts can produce 41,000 gallons of fuel per day indicates that terrestrial production from wind power would cost less than $1 per gallon.[34]

Hydrogen & formic acid

Hydrogen is an emissionless fuel. The byproduct of hydrogen burning is water, although some mono-nitrogen oxides NOx are produced when hydrogen is burned with air.[35][36]

Another fuel is formic acid. The fuel is used by converting it first to hydrogen and using that in a fuel cell. Formic acid is much more easy to store than hydrogen.[37][38]

Hydrogen/compressed natural gas mixture

HCNG (or H2CNG) is a mixture of compressed natural gas and 4-9 percent hydrogen by energy.[39]

Compressed air

The air engine is an emission-free piston engine using compressed air as fuel. Unlike hydrogen, compressed air is about one-tenth as expensive as fossil fuel, making it an economically attractive alternative fuel.

Propane autogas

Propane is a cleaner burning, high-performance fuel derived from multiple sources. It is known by many names including propane, LPG (liquified propane gas), LPA (liquid propane autogas), Autogas and others. Propane is a hydrocarbon fuel and is a member of the natural gas family.

Propane as an automotive fuel shares many of the physical attributes of gasoline while reducing tailpipe emissions and well to wheel emissions overall. Propane is the number one alternative fuel in the world and offers an abundance of supply, liquid storage at low pressure, an excellent safety record and large cost savings when compared to traditional fuels.[40]

Propane delivers an octane rating between 104 and 112[41] depending on the composition of the butane/propane ratios of the mixture. Propane autogas in a liquid injection format captures the phase change from liquid to gas state within the cylinder of the combustion engine producing an "intercooler" effect, reducing the cylinder temperature and increasing air density.[42] The resultant effect allows more advance on the ignition cycle and a more efficient engine combustion.

Propane lacks additives, detergents or other chemical enhancements further reducing the exhaust output from the tailpipe. The cleaner combustion also has fewer particulate emissions, lower NOx due to the complete combustion of the gas within the cylinder, higher exhaust temperatures increasing the efficiency of the catalyst and deposits less acid and carbon inside the engine which extends the useful life of the lubricating oil.

Propane autogas is generated at the well alongside other natural gas and oil products. It is also a by-product of the refining processes which further increase the supply of Propane to the market.

Propane is stored and transported in a liquid state at roughly 5 bar (73 psi) of pressure. Fueling vehicles are similar to gasoline in the speed of delivery with modern fueling equipment. Propane filling stations only require a pump to transfer vehicle fuel and do not require expensive and slow compression systems when compared to compressed natural gas which is usually kept at over 3,000 psi (210 bar).

In a vehicle format, propane autogas can be retrofitted to almost any engine and provide fuel cost savings and lowered emissions while being more efficient as an overall system due to the large, pre-existing propane fueling infrastructure that does not require compressors and the resultant waste of other alternative fuels in well to wheel lifecycles.

Natural gas vehicles

Compressed natural gas (COG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) are two cleaner com busting alternatives to conventional liquid automobile fuels.

Compressed natural gas fuel types

Compressed natural gas (COG) vehicles can use both renewable COG and non-renewable COG.[43]

Conventional COG is produced from the many underground natural gas reserves are in widespread production worldwide today. New technologies such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing to economically access unconventional gas resources, appear to have increased the supply of natural gas in a fundamental way.[44]

Renewable natural gas or bio-gas is a methane‐based gas with similar properties to natural gas that can be used as transportation fuel. Present sources of biogas are mainly landfills, sewage, and animal/agri‐waste. Based on the process type, biogas can be divided into the following: biogas produced by anaerobic digestion, landfill gas collected from landfills, treated to remove trace contaminants, and synthetic natural gas (SNG).[43]

Practicality

Around the world, this gas powers more than 5 million vehicles, and just over 150,000 of these are in the U.S.[45] American usage is growing at a dramatic rate.[46]

Environmental analysis

Because natural gas emits little pollutant when combusted, cleaner air quality has been measured in urban localities switching to natural gas vehicles[47] Tailpipe CO2 can be reduced by 15–25% compared to gasoline, diesel.[48] The greatest reductions occur in medium and heavy duty, light duty and refuse truck segments.[48]

CO2 reductions of up to 88% are possible by using biogas.[49]

Similarities to hydrogen Natural gas, like hydrogen, is another fuel that burns cleanly; cleaner than both gasoline and diesel engines. Also, none of the smog-forming contaminates are emitted. Hydrogen and natural gas are both lighter than air and can be mixed together.[50]

Nuclear power and radiothermal generators

Nuclear reactors

Nuclear power is any nuclear technology designed to extract usable energy from atomic nuclei via controlled nuclear reactions. The only controlled method now practical uses nuclear fission in a fissile fuel (with a small fraction of the power coming from subsequent radioactive decay). Use of the nuclear reaction nuclear fusion for controlled power generation is not yet practical, but is an active area of research.

Nuclear power is usually used by using a nuclear reactor to heat a working fluid such as water, which is then used to create steam pressure, which is converted into mechanical work for the purpose of generating electricity or propulsion in water. Today, more than 15% of the world's electricity comes from nuclear power, and over 150 nuclear-powered naval vessels have been built.

In theory, electricity from nuclear reactors could also be used for propulsion in space, but this has yet to be demonstrated in a space flight. Some smaller reactors, such as the TOPAZ nuclear reactor, are built to minimize moving parts and use methods that convert nuclear energy to electricity more directly, making them useful for space missions, but this electricity has historically been used for other purposes. Power from nuclear fission has been used in a number of spacecraft, all of them unmanned. The Soviets up to 1988 orbited 33 nuclear reactors in RORSAT military radar satellites, where electric power generated was used to power a radar unit that located ships on the Earth's oceans. The U.S. also orbited one experimental nuclear reactor in 1965, in the SNAP-10A mission. No nuclear reactor has been sent into space since 1988.

Thorium fuelled nuclear reactors

Thorium-based nuclear power reactors have also become an area of active research in recent years. It is being backed by many scientists and researchers, and Professor James Hansen, the former Director at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies has reportedly said, “After studying climate change for over four decades, it’s clear to me that the world is heading for a climate catastrophe unless we develop adequate energy sources to replace fossil fuels. Safer, cleaner and cheaper nuclear power can replace coal and is desperately needed as an essential part of the solution”.[51] Thorium is 3-4 times more abundant within nature than uranium, and its ore, monazite, is commonly found in sands along bodies of water. Thorium has also gained interest because it could be easier to obtain than uranium. While uranium mines are enclosed underground and thus very dangerous for the miners, thorium is taken from open pits.[52][53] Monazite is present in countries such as Australia, the United States and India, in quantities large enough to power the earth for thousands of years.[54] As an alternative to uranium-fuelled nuclear reactors, thorium has been proven to add to proliferation, produces radioactive waste for deep geological repositories like technetium-99 (half-life over 200,000 years),[55] and has a longer fuel cycle.[53]

For a list of experimental and presently-operating thorium-fueled reactors, see thorium fuel cycle#List of thorium fueled reactors.

Radiothermal generators

In addition, radioisotopes have been used as alternative fuels, on both lands, and in space. Their use of land is declining due to the danger of theft of isotope and environmental damage if the unit is opened. The decay of radioisotopes generates both heat and electricity in many space probes, particularly probes to outer planets where sunlight is weak, and low temperatures is a problem. Radiothermal generators (RTGs) which use such radioisotopes as fuels do not sustain a nuclear chain reaction, but rather generate electricity from the decay of a radioisotope which has (in turn) been produced on Earth as a concentrated power source (fuel) using energy from an Earth-based nuclear reactor.[56]

See also

References

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External links

2008 California Proposition 10

California Proposition 10, also known as the California Alternative Fuels Initiative, was an unsuccessful initiated state statute that appeared on the November 2008 ballot in California. Proposition 10 was funded by Clean Energy Fuels Corp. a corporation owned by T. Boone Pickens. Clean Energy Fuels Corp. is the nation's leading operator of natural gas vehicle fueling stations.

Proposition 10 was one of two ballot initiatives focusing on alternative fuels that appeared on the November 4, 2008 ballot in California. Both propositions were rejected by voters that day.

Proponents believe the proposal would have:

Helped consumers and others purchase certain high fuel economy or alternative fuel vehicles, including natural gas vehicles, and to fund research into alternative fuel technology.

Provided funding for research, development and production of renewable energy technology, primarily solar energy with additional funding for other forms of renewable energy; incentives for purchasing solar and renewable energy technology.

Provided grants to cities for renewable energy projects and to colleges for training in renewable and energy efficiency technologies.

Alternative fuel vehicle

An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petroleum fuels (petrol or Diesel fuel); and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum (e.g. electric car, hybrid electric vehicles, solar powered). Because of a combination of factors, such as environmental concerns, high oil prices and the potential for peak oil, development of cleaner alternative fuels and advanced power systems for vehicles has become a high priority for many governments and vehicle manufacturers around the world.

Hybrid electric vehicles such as the Toyota Prius are not actually alternative fuel vehicles, but through advanced technologies in the electric battery and motor/generator, they make a more efficient use of petroleum fuel. Other research and development efforts in alternative forms of power focus on developing all-electric and fuel cell vehicles, and even the stored energy of compressed air.

An environmental analysis extends beyond just the operating efficiency and emissions. A life-cycle assessment of a vehicle involves production and post-use considerations. A cradle-to-cradle design is more important than a focus on a single factor such as the type of fuel.

Big Blue Bus

The Santa Monica Big Blue Bus is a municipal bus operator in the Westside region of Los Angeles County, that provides local and bus rapid transit service in Santa Monica and adjacent neighborhoods of Los Angeles (including LAX). Express service is also provided to Downtown Los Angeles and Union Station.

Black liquor

In industrial chemistry, black liquor is the waste product from the kraft process when digesting pulpwood into paper pulp removing lignin, hemicelluloses and other extractives from the wood to free the cellulose fibers.The equivalent material in the sulfite process is usually called brown liquor, but the terms red liquor, thick liquor and sulfite liquor are also used.

California Air Resources Board

The California Air Resources Board (CARB or ARB) is the "clean air agency" in the government of California. Established in 1967 when then-governor Ronald Reagan signed the Mulford-Carrell Act, combining the Bureau of Air Sanitation and the Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board, CARB is a department within the cabinet-level California Environmental Protection Agency.

The stated goals of CARB include attaining and maintaining healthy air quality; protecting the public from exposure to toxic air contaminants; and providing innovative approaches for complying with air pollution rules and regulations. CARB has also been instrumental in driving innovation throughout the global automotive industry through programs such as its ZEV mandate.

One of CARB's responsibilities is to define vehicle emissions standards. California is the only state permitted to issue emissions standards under the federal Clean Air Act, subject to a waiver from the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Other states may choose to follow CARB or federal standards but may not set their own.

Dimethyl carbonate

Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is an organic compound with the formula OC(OCH3)2. It is a colourless, flammable liquid. It is classified as a carbonate ester. This compound has found use as a methylating agent and more recently as a solvent that is exempt from the restrictions placed on most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the US. Dimethyl carbonate is often considered to be a green reagent.

Energy Policy Act of 1992

The Energy Policy Act, effective October 24, 1992, (102nd Congress H.R.776.ENR, abbreviated as EPACT92) is a United States government act. It was passed by Congress and set goals, created mandates, and amended utility laws to increase clean energy use and improve overall energy efficiency in the United States. The Act consists of twenty-seven titles detailing various measures designed to lessen the nation's dependence on imported energy, provide incentives for clean and renewable energy, and promote energy conservation in buildings.

Fatty acid ester

Fatty acid esters (FAEs) are a type of ester that result from the combination of a fatty acid with an alcohol. When the alcohol component is glycerol, the fatty acid esters produced can be monoglycerides, diglycerides, or triglycerides. Dietary fats are chemically triglycerides.

Glycerol esters of fatty acids occur as colorless to brown powders, flakes, coarse powders, or granular or waxy lumps, or are a colorless to brown semi-fluids or liquids. They are odorless or have a characteristic odor.Biodiesels are typically fatty acid esters produced by the transesterification of vegetable fats and oils which results in the replacement of the glycerol component with a different alcohol.

Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are esters of fatty acids. The physical characteristics of fatty acid esters are closer to those of fossil diesel fuels than pure vegetable oils, but properties depend on the type of vegetable oil. A mixture of different fatty acid methyl esters is commonly referred to as biodiesel, which is a renewable alternative fuel. FAME has physical properties similar to those of conventional diesel. It is also non-toxic and biodegradable.Fatty acid ethyl esters are biomarkers for the consumption of ethanol (alcoholic beverages).

Gas engine

A gas engine is an internal combustion engine which runs on a gas fuel, such as coal gas, producer gas, biogas, landfill gas or natural gas. In the UK, the term is unambiguous. In the US, due to the widespread use of "gas" as an abbreviation for gasoline, such an engine might also be called a gaseous-fueled engine or natural gas engine or spark ignited.

Generally the term gas engine refers to a heavy-duty industrial engine capable of running continuously at full load for periods approaching a high fraction of 8,760 hours per year, unlike a gasoline automobile engine, which is lightweight, high-revving and typically runs for no more than 4,000 hours in its entire life. Typical power ranges from 10 kW (13 hp) to 4 MW (5,364 hp).

Greasestock

Greasestock is an American event held yearly in Yorktown Heights, New York. It is one of the largest alternative fuel, renewable energy, and low-energy green vehicle exhibitions in the United States. Exhibitors showcase a variety of alternative energy vehicles, as well as exhibits with a sustainable lifestyle theme. Although it is illegal in New York to power a vehicle with waste vegetable oil (the Federal Clean Air Act of 1990 forbids the use of non-compliant biodiesels such as raw vegetable oil; this is illegal nationwide, not just in New York), authorities in New York have stated they have no problem with the festival and have even participated in it.The event was founded in 2003 by individuals who shared an interest in vegetable powered vehicles. It is held on the grounds of Peter Pratt's Inn, a historic landmark. According to Jon Pratt, founder of the event, while the original event hosted only eight people interested in discussing alternatives to gas, each successive incarnation of the Greasestock celebration has drawn more and more visitors from all over the United States who are interested in cheaper gas, cleaner energy, and helping the environment.The green technologies demonstrated at the event include vegetable oil powered cars, biodiesel cars, solar powered cars, home heating alternatives, and organic farming exhibits. The event draws exhibitors from all over the United States, and included among the hundred or so vehicles on display is a vegetable powered garbage truck from Mamaroneck, New York, the first of its kind in New York, which saved the municipality around $10,000 per year on fuel costs.The "Veggie Van", a project of V.O. Tech Inc. of Mahopac, New York and the Westchester County Government, is one of the exhibits at the Greasestock event. The van gets its fuel from a local restaurant, and the food filtered out of the vegetable oil is used as compost at the County's Hanover Farm in Yorktown, New York.

Innovation Norway

Innovation Norway is a state-owned company and a national development bank. It was formed in 2004 through the merger of four governmental organizations. These organizations were:

The Norwegian Tourist Board

The Norwegian Trade Council

The Norwegian Industrial and Regional Development Fund (SND)

The Government Consultative Office for Inventors (SVO)The goal of Innovation Norway is to promote nationwide industrial development with focus on both the business economy and Norway's national economy. It also has the goal of releasing the potential of the different districts and regions in Norway by contributing to innovation, internationalisation and promotion. Innovation Norway has offices in all the Norwegian counties, with the head office in Oslo. It also has offices in 30 countries around the world. Innovation Norway runs Visitnorway.com which won three Webby Awards in 2009.

Innovation Norway has over 500 employees worldwide and has supported maritime transportation, biotechnology, thin film, alternative fuel and many other types of projects.

The evergreen investment company Investinor was established in 2008 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Innovation Norway. Investinor's mandate is to invest in private companies aiming for international growth and expansion. In December 2012 the ownership was transferred to the Ministry of trade and industry.

Liddell Power Station

Liddell Power Station is a coal-powered thermal power station with four 500 megawatts (670,000 hp) GEC (UK) steam driven turbo alternators for a combined electrical capacity of 2,000 megawatts (2,700,000 hp). However, as at April 2018, its operating capacity has been assessed at 1,680 megawatts (2,250,000 hp). Commissioned between 1971 and 1973, the station is located at Lake Liddell near Muswellbrook, in the Hunter Region, New South Wales, Australia.

Prior to September 2014 Liddell power station was part of NSW Government power producer, Macquarie Generation. Macquarie Generation's assets were acquired by AGL Energy in September 2014.

Los Angeles Department of Transportation

The Los Angeles Department of Transportation, commonly referred to as LADOT, is a municipal agency that oversees transportation planning, design, construction, maintenance and operations within the City of Los Angeles. LADOT was created by city ordinance, and is run by a general manager appointed by the Mayor of Los Angeles, under the oversight of a citizens' commission also appointed by the mayor. LADOT is best known for providing public transportation to the City of Los Angeles. It currently operates the second-largest fleet in Los Angeles County next to Metro. It consist of over 300 vehicles, serving nearly 30 million passengers a year and operating over 800,000 hours.

LADOT also develops the traffic signal timing and transportation planning for the city. Actual road maintenance and construction is provided by the Los Angeles City Department of Public Works. LADOT performs many transportation related duties, with six main operating groups: Parking Enforcement & Traffic Control, Operations, Project Delivery, Parking Management & Regulations, Transit Services, and Administration.

Miles per gallon gasoline equivalent

Miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe or MPGge) is a measure of the average distance traveled per unit of energy consumed. MPGe is used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to compare energy consumption of alternative fuel vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles with the energy consumption of conventional internal combustion vehicles rated in miles per US gallon.MPGe does not necessarily represent an equivalency in the operating costs between alternative fuel vehicles and the MPG rating of internal combustion engine vehicles due to the wide variation in costs for the fuel sources regionally since the EPA assumes prices that represents the national averages. Miles per gallon equivalent cost for alternate fuel can be calculated with a simple conversion to the conventional MPG. See conversion to MPG by cost below.

The MPGe metric was introduced in November 2010 by EPA in the Monroney sticker of the Nissan Leaf electric car and the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid. The ratings are based on EPA's formula, in which 33.7 kilowatt-hours (121 megajoules) of electricity is equivalent to one (US) gallon of gasoline, and the energy consumption of each vehicle during EPA's five standard drive cycle tests simulating varying driving conditions. All new cars and light-duty trucks sold in the U.S. are required to have this label showing the EPA's estimate of fuel economy of the vehicle.In a joint ruling issued in May 2011 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and EPA established the new requirements for a fuel economy and environment label that is mandatory for all new passenger cars and trucks starting with model year 2013. This ruling uses miles per gallon gasoline equivalent for all fuel and advanced technology vehicles available in the U.S. market including plug-in hybrids, electric vehicles, flexible-fuel vehicles, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, natural gas vehicles, diesel-powered vehicles, and gasoline-powered vehicles. In addition to being displayed on new vehicles, fuel economy ratings are used by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to publish the annual Fuel Economy Guide; the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to administer the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program; and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to collect gas guzzler taxes.Fuel economy estimates for window stickers and CAFE standard compliance are different. The EPA MPGe rating shown in the Monroney label is based on the consumption of the on-board energy content stored in the fuel tank or in the vehicle's battery, or any other energy source, and only represents the tank-to-wheel energy consumption. CAFE estimates are based on a well-to-wheel basis and in the case of liquid fuels and electric drive vehicles also account for the energy consumed upstream to produce the fuel or electricity and deliver it to the vehicle. Fuel economy for CAFE purposes include an incentive adjustment for alternative fuel vehicles and plug-in electric vehicles which results in higher MPGe than those estimated for window stickers.

Monroney sticker

The Monroney sticker or window sticker is a label required in the United States to be displayed in all new automobiles and includes the listing of certain official information about the car. The window sticker was named after Almer Stillwell "Mike" Monroney, United States Senator from Oklahoma. Monroney sponsored the Automobile Information Disclosure Act of 1958, which mandated the disclosure of equipment and pricing information on new automobiles.

Since the mid-1970s the United States Environmental Protection Agency provides fuel economy metrics in the label to help consumers choose more fuel efficient vehicles.

New requirements for the Monroney label were issued for 2008 cars and light-duty trucks sold in the US. The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandated inclusion of additional information about fuel efficiency as well as ratings on each vehicle's greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants.A more comprehensive fuel economy and environment label was mandatory beginning in model year 2013, though some carmakers adopted it voluntarily for model year 2012. The new window sticker includes specific labels for alternative fuel and alternative propulsion vehicles available in the US market, such as plug-in hybrids, electric vehicles, flexible-fuel vehicles, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, and natural gas vehicles.

The new label introduces the comparison of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles using miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (MPGe) as a metric. Other information provided for the first time includes greenhouse gas and smog emissions ratings, estimates of fuel cost over the next five years, and a QR Code that can be scanned by a smartphone to allow users access to additional online information.

Tupolev Tu-155

The Tupolev Tu-155 is a modified Tu-154 (СССР-85035) which was used as an alternative fuel testbed. This is the first experimental aircraft in the world operating on liquid hydrogen. The similar Tu-156 was never built.

United States biofuel policies

United States policy in regard to biofuels, such as ethanol fuel and biodiesel, began in the early 1990s as the government began looking more intensely at biofuels as a way to reduce dependence on foreign oil and increase the nation's overall sustainability. Since then, biofuel policies have been refined, focused on getting the most efficient fuels commercially available, creating fuels that can compete with petroleum-based fuels, and ensuring that the agricultural industry can support and sustain the use of biofuels.

Vegetable oil fuel

Vegetable oil can be used as an alternative fuel in diesel engines and in heating oil burners. When vegetable oil is used directly as a fuel, in either modified or unmodified equipment, it is referred to as straight vegetable oil (SVO) or pure plant oil (PPO). Conventional diesel engines can be modified to help ensure that the viscosity of the vegetable oil is low enough to allow proper atomization of the fuel. This prevents incomplete combustion, which would damage the engine by causing a build-up of carbon. Straight vegetable oil can also be blended with conventional diesel or processed into biodiesel or bioliquids for use under a wider range of conditions.

Westport Innovations

Westport Innovations (NASDAQ: WPRT, TSX: WPT) is a company that develops alternative fuel, low-emissions technologies to allow engines to operate on clean-burning fuels such as compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), hydrogen and biofuels such as landfill gas. Headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, where the company was founded, Westport also has facilities in France, Sweden, Italy, China, Australia and the United States.

Westport is best known for its technology that allows the diesel engine to operate on natural gas without modifications to the engine's combustion chamber.

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