Altata

Altata is a small town connected to the Pacific Ocean, located about 45 miles west of Culiacán, Sinaloa in Mexico by Freeway 30. It has a very nice beach and much wildlife: octopus, toninas, starfish, jellyfish, shark, birds, and many fish species. El Tambor and Nuevo Altata are nearby beaches. Altata currently has many residents who fish for a living. People from Culiacán usually go there to ride their dirt bikes and ATVs on the surrounding dirt roads, dunes and beaches.

Altata is a beautiful little town that used to have a nice beach until influence-buying merchants and vendors established permanent stands to sell tacos, seafood, fruits and plenty of alcohol. These stands form two parallel rows facing each other, one occupying the old beach and the other, occupies portions of the water, the narrow space between them is used as a road.

Behind the beach side stands, there are Restaurants specializing on seafood cocktails and fried fish which are very popular with families from the vicinity.

A recent private development called Nuevo Altata is taking shape just north from there. It has beautiful beaches and docks, but they are not for public use or access.

visit: www.altata.mx

Coordinates: 24°38′N 107°55′W / 24.633°N 107.917°W

Area code 55 (Mexico)

Area code 55 serves Mexico City and its metropolitan area. The area code was created in 2002 as a result of the consolidation of area codes and the realignment of numbering. The consolidation mandated by the Plan Nacional de Numeracion (PNN), assigned area codes based on geography, and took place during the process of phone numbering restructure in Mexico. The process objective was to alleviate saturation of existing area codes and consisted of progressively transferring numbers from the area code to the local number.

area code 55 covers an extensive surface and it is close to exhaustion with approximately 72,960,518 numbers assigned to this area code as of November 2018. A new overlaying area code has been assigned to Mexico City to address this issue. The new area code is 56.

States in the area code: 2

Municipalities in the area code: 45

Cities and Towns in the area code: 117

Companies providing phone service in the area code: 53

Local Number: 7 Digits

International dialing: +52 + 55 + 8 digits

Area code 56 (Mexico)

Area code 56 serves Mexico City and its metropolitan area. The area code was assigned in October 2018 to alleviate saturation of area code 55. Area code 56 is an overlay of area code 55 covering the same area with approximately 2,200,000 numbers assigned to this area code as of November 2018.

States in the area code: 2

Municipalities in the area code: 45

Cities and Towns in the area code: 117

Companies providing phone service in the area code: 53

Local Number: 7 Digits

International dialing: +52 + 56 + 8 digits

Area codes in Mexico by code (600-699)

The range of area codes 600-699 is reserved for Baja California, Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Durango, Sinaloa and Sonora.

(For other areas, see Area codes in Mexico by code).

Battle of San Pedro

The Battle of San Pedro was fought between the French and Mexican imperial forces and the Mexican Republicans during the Second French intervention in Mexico on 22 December 1864. The liberals achieved a decisive victory over the invading forces and captured the majority of the survivors.

After Emperor Maximilian appointed Domingo Cortés as his commander for the military affairs of Sinaloa in 1864, the Mexican general was still unable to take his office in the capital of Culiacan, as the road to the city was controlled by Jesús Rosales Flores and his republican brigade. The French garrison at Mazatlán could not provide him a military escort. Reinforcement from Acapulco allowed Gustave-Joseph Munier to organize a security detachment for the general's trip. The captain of the steamship Lucifer, Joseph-Léon Gazielle, was ordered to conduct this mission and was given 64 men of the tirailleurs algériens led by Captain Véran, an additional 40 marines from the warships Lucifer and Pallas, and the battalion of Jorge Carmona, which was trained and stationed in Mazatlan. They were set to sail on 18 December on the ship Lucifer and debarked in Altata the next evening. They needed to march 80 kilometres (50 mi) inland to reach Culiacan. Badly equipped and with only two small howitzers, the following day this small contingent advanced 30 kilometres (19 mi) and reached Bachimela. On 21 December 1864, they reached Navolato, where the rear guard was harassed by a cavalry ambush. The horsemen were pushed back and retreated to San Pedro.

The following day the French force pursued the Republicans through the Humaya River. When they arrived at San Pedro the rear guard commanded by Marquiset was attacked again by the Liberal cavalry. The French again repulsed them and were about to enter San Pedro. The troops of Rosales had already fortified themselves in the front houses of the village. To his left Rosales installed two pieces of artillery and had a half battalion put in reserve with four more artillery pieces. The cavalry was hiding behind the city hedges awaiting orders. The French launched an ill-considered and unprepared frontal assault on the left batteries, which resulted in heavy losses. Despite suffering heavy casualties they finally seized the cannons and thought they had the battle in hand. The Republican counterattack struck the Carmona's Mexican Imperialist division, whose men were mainly new recruits. After a short fusillade, the attacking soldiers started to flee and even defected to the Liberals. Some took up arms against the 100 men of the French column, which was significantly outnumbered.The tirailleurs algériens rapidly retreated, leaving behind the marines who were overpowered and slaughtered. Gazielle and forty of his men took up a defensive position around the captured cannons. Meanwhile, Captain Véron and his officers fell while trying to protect the French howitzers. As ammunition ran low, Gazielle ordered a general retreat while the Mexican continued to fire on the withdrawing forces. The Mexican uhlans from Jalisco launched three more charges until the French were driven back to the bridge on the Humaya River. Unfortunately for them, the Mexicans had already occupied the bridge. Colonel Gazielle was desperate to cross the river and sought a shallow ford on the river. With the rest of the company of thirty men, they were chased by the Mexican cavalry and he became trapped on an island in the river. Here the colonel decided to surrender. All but one of the tirailleurs were taken to Culiacan prison. Domingo Cortés was able to escape from the battlefield as well. Bel Kassem Ben Mohammed was wounded in the battle and after three and a half months he died of pneumonia at the military hospital of Parral, Chihuahua.

Culiacán

Culiacán (Spanish pronunciation: [kuljaˈkan] (listen)) is a city in northwestern Mexico. It is the largest city in and the capital of the state of Sinaloa. It is also the seat of Culiacán Municipality. It had an urban population of 785,800 in 2015 while 905,660 lived in the entire municipality. While the municipality has a total area of 4,758 km2 (1,837 sq mi), the city itself is considerably smaller, measuring only 65 km2 (25 sq mi).

The city is located in a valley at the confluence of the Tamazula and Humaya Rivers, where the two meet to form the Culiacán River, 55 m above sea level. It is in the center of the state, at about the same distance to the two other urban centers of the state: Los Mochis to the north and Mazatlán to the south.

Fourth Battle of Topolobampo

The Fourth Battle of Topolobampo was a single ship action fought during the Mexican Revolution and the last naval battle of the Topolobampo Campaign. In June 1914, a Huertista gunboat sank a Constitutionalist gunboat off Topolobampo, Sinaloa in the Gulf of California.

Hurricane Bud (2018)

Hurricane Bud was a powerful tropical cyclone that produced heavy rainfall and flash flooding across Northwestern Mexico and the Southwestern United States. The second named storm and major hurricane of the 2018 Pacific hurricane season, Bud originated from a tropical wave that departed from Africa on May 29. It then travelled across the Atlantic Ocean before crossing over South America and entering the Northeast Pacific Ocean late on June 6. The system then moved northwest and steadily organized, becoming a tropical depression late on June 9 and Tropical Storm Bud early the next day. Favorable upper-level winds and ample moisture allowed the storm to rapidly intensify to a hurricane late on June 10 and further to a major hurricane on June 11. Bud ultimately peaked the next morning with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) and a minimum barometric pressure of 943 mbar (hPa; 27.85 inHg). It curved north while rapidly succumbing to the effects of ocean upwelling, making landfall on Baja California Sur as a minimal tropical storm early on June 15. On the next day, land interaction and increasing wind shear caused Bud to degenerate to a remnant low, and Bud dissipated completely on June 16.

Bud prompted the issuance of multiple watches and warnings for Baja California Sur and Western Mexico. Additionally, Bud caused one death in Mexico City. Damages from the storm were reported to be minimal. Rains from Bud brought relief to drought-stricken areas and slowed the growth of wildfires in the Southwestern United States.

Hurricane Paul (1982)

Hurricane Paul was a particularly deadly and destructive Pacific hurricane which killed a total of 1,625 people and caused $520 million in damage. The sixteenth named storm and tenth hurricane of the 1982 Pacific hurricane season, Paul developed as a tropical depression just offshore Central America on September 18. The depression briefly moved inland two days later just before heading westward out to sea. The storm changed little in strength for several days until September 25, when it slowly intensified into a tropical storm. Two days later, Paul attained hurricane status, and further strengthened to Category 2 intensity after turning northward. The hurricane then accelerated toward the northeast, reaching peak winds of 110 mph (175 km/h). Paul made landfall over Baja California Sur on September 29, and subsequently moved ashore in Sinaloa the next day.

Prior to making landfall near the El Salvador–Guatemala border as a tropical depression, the precursor disturbance dropped heavy rainfall over the region, which later continued after landfall. Many rivers in the region burst their banks after five days of rainfall, causing severe flooding and multiple mudslides. Throughout Central America, at least 1,363 people were killed, with most of the fatalities occurring in El Salvador, although some occurred in Guatemala. Another 225 deaths were attributed to floods from the depression in southern Mexico. In addition, Paul was responsible for moderate damage and 24 fatalities in northwestern Mexico, where it made landfall at hurricane strength.

Hurricane Rick (2009)

Hurricane Rick is the third-most intense Pacific hurricane on record. Developing south of Mexico on October 15, 2009, Hurricane Rick traversed an area favoring rapid intensification, allowing it to become a hurricane within 24 hours of being declared a tropical depression. An eye began to form during the afternoon of October 16; once fully formed, the storm underwent another period of rapid strengthening. During the afternoon of October 17, the storm attained Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Several hours later, Rick attained its peak intensity as the third-strongest Pacific hurricane on record with winds of 180 mph (285 km/h) and a barometric pressure of 906 mbar (hPa; 26.75 inHg).

After maintaining this intensity for several hours, Rick began to weaken in response to a combination of an eyewall replacement cycle and increasing wind shear. By October 19, the storm was downgraded to a Category 3 hurricane and the following day to a tropical storm. The long-anticipated northeast turn took place near the end of this phase, also accompanied by a brief decrease in forward motion. On October 21, Rick quickly moved northeast, brushing the tip of Baja California Sur before making landfall near Mazatlán with winds of 60 mph (97 km/h; 52 kn). Several hours after moving inland, the final advisory from the NHC was issued as the storm weakened to a tropical depression and dissipated.

Prior to landfall, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) initially forecast Rick to make landfall in southern Baja California as a high-end Category 2 hurricane, prompting hurricane watches. Officials ordered several hundred residents to evacuate from low-lying areas, although tropical storm warnings replaced the hurricane watches after the storm had weakened. Overall, the damage from Rick was significantly less than initially anticipated. In Mexico, three people were killed by the storm, one in Oaxaca and two in Baja California Sur.

Hurricane Sandra (2015)

Hurricane Sandra was the latest-forming major hurricane in the northeastern Pacific basin, the strongest November Pacific hurricane on record, and the record eleventh major hurricane of the 2015 Pacific hurricane season. Originating from a tropical wave, Sandra was first classified as a tropical depression on November 23 well south of Mexico. Environmental conditions, including high sea surface temperatures and low wind shear, were highly conducive to intensification and the storm quickly organized. A small central dense overcast developed atop the storm and Sandra reached hurricane status early on November 25 after the consolidation of an eye. Sandra reached its peak intensity as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale with winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) and a pressure of 934 mbar (hPa; 27.58 inHg) early on November 26. This made Sandra the strongest November hurricane on record in the Northeastern Pacific. Thereafter, increasing shear degraded the hurricane's structure and weakening ensued. Rapid weakening took place on November 27 and Sandra's circulation became devoid of convection as it diminished to a tropical storm that evening. The cyclone degenerated into a remnant low soon thereafter and ultimately dissipated just off the coast of Sinaloa, Mexico, on November 29.

As the precursor to Sandra traversed Central America, it produced unseasonably heavy rainfall that triggered flooding and landslides. Four people died in various incidents related to the system: three in El Salvador and one in Honduras. Initially expecting a landfalling storm, officials in Northwestern Mexico prepared equipment for power outages, closed schools, and evacuated 180 residents. Sandra's effects largely consisted of light to moderate rainfall; some traffic accidents and landslides resulted from this, though the overall impacts were limited.

List of eastern shore communities on the Gulf of California

A List of eastern shore communities on the Gulf of California.

North

Sonora

Puerto Peñasco

El Desemboque

Punta Chueca

Puerto Libertad

Kino Nuevo

Bahía Kino

San Carlos, Sonora

Guaymas

San Carlos Nuevo Guaymas

Bácum

Empalme, Sonora

San Ignacio Río Muerto

Villa Juárez

Huatabampo

Punta Rosa Yávaros

Los Bocas

Sonora

Sinaloa

Higuera de Zaragoza

Ahome

Ahome, Sinaloa

Los Mochis

Topolobampo

Las Glorias

La Reforma

Navolato, Sinaloa

Altata

El Dorado, Sinaloa

La Cruz, Sinaloa

Dimas

Mazatlán

SinaloaSouth

List of street railways in Mexico

This is a list of street railways in Mexico by state. The list includes all tram systems, past and present.

Note for Mexico (in general): Approximately 1,000 towns had tramways. Most were worked by animal traction, and connected railway stations with town centers. Some lines were worked by small steam locomotives. Horse- or mule-drawn vehicles used on some lines were eventually equipped with petrol (gasoline) engines (Morrison [1]). Opening and closing dates are difficult to establish because the Mexican government did not conduct surveys of tramway systems between 1907 and 1922 (Morrison [2].

Data for 1907 were published in 1912, by which time the Mexican Revolution (1910–1921) was underway. Thereafter, government statistics included only those tramway systems with federal concessions—e.g. intercity lines—for the years 1922–1934.

The tables below includes fewer than half the number of towns stated by Morrison. Peschkes (Part One, 1980, pages 10–38) tabulates 406 systems, and states (Part Four, 1998, page 140) that an additional 51 systems had been located. The list below excludes hacienda tramways, which transported crops, other goods and passengers to and from plantations.

Navolato, Sinaloa

Navolato is a city in Navolato Municipality in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. It is located on the central coast part of the state, the municipality bordering on the Gulf of California.

The municipality reported 135,681 inhabitants in the 2005 census, while the city reported 28,676 inhabitants. The city is located about 25 kilometers west of Culiacán and can be reached by road. The municipality has an areal extent of 2,285 km2 (882 sq mi) and includes many smaller communities in addition to the city of Navolato; the largest of these are the towns of Campo Gobierno, and General Ángel Flores (La Palma).

The name Navolato comes from the native Nahuatl language. The people in Navolato produce sugarcane, corn, and other agricultural products. Nearby tourist destinations are Altata, Nuevo Altata, and El Tambor.

Operation Sinaloa

Operation Sinaloa or Operation Culiacan - Navolato (Spanish: Operacion Sinaloa/Operacion Conjunto Sinaloa) is an ongoing Anti-drug trafficking operation in the Mexican state of Sinaloa by the Federal Police and the Mexican Armed Forces. Its main objective is to cripple all cartel organizations such as the Sinaloa Cartel, Beltrán-Leyva Cartel and Los Zetas that operate in that state. The Military was deployed in response to the murder of Mexico's Federal Police commissioner Édgar Eusebio Millán Gómez.

Second Battle of Topolobampo

The Second Battle of Topolobampo was a bloodless naval engagement during the Mexican Revolution. In March 1914, a rebel Constitutionalist gunboat attempted to break the blockade of Topolobampo, Sinaloa in Mexico. The attack forced federal gunboats to a further distance but failed to lift the blockade.

Third Battle of Topolobampo

The Third Battle of Topolobampo was a single ship action during the Mexican Revolution. At the end of March 1914, a Constitutionalist gunboat attempted to break the blockade of Topolobampo, Sinaloa after failing in the First and Second Battles of Topolobampo. Constitutionalist warship, Tampico, was sunk in a battle lasting a few hours by a Huertista gunboat.

Tropical Storm Lowell (2008)

Tropical Storm Lowell was a moderate tropical storm that developed during the 2008 Pacific hurricane season. The fourteenth tropical cyclone and thirteen named storm of the season, Lowell formed out of a western side of a trough on September 6. It quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Lowell, peaking as a moderate tropical storm. It pass directly over Socorro Island and began a weakening trend. It weakened into depression before landfall in Baja California Sur and dissipated before striking Sonora. It later joined with a frontal boundary and Hurricane Ike which caused severe damage as far inland as Chicago. In all, the storm had caused 6 deaths and $15.5 million damage.

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