Alt Pirineu i Aran

Alt Pirineu i Aran[1] (in Catalan Vegueria de l'Alt Pirineu i Aran) is one of the seven vegueries (territories) defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is located in the Catalan High Pyrenees (in Catalan Alt Pirineu).

It is formed by six comarques (roughly equivalent to a county): Alt Urgell, Alta Ribagorça, Baixa Cerdanya, Pallars Jussà, Pallars Sobirà and Val d'Aran. Val d'Aran has an autonomous government called Conselh Generau d'Aran.

The veguerie of Alt Pirineu i Aran is the largest territory, with 18% of Catalonia's total surface area, but the one with the least population (69,335 inhabitants), with a density of 12.2 inhabitants/km2 (31.5/mi2).

Mapa poblacions Alt Pirineu i Aran
Percentage of population.
Comarques Population
Alta Ribagorça 4.332
Alt Urgell 21.942
Cerdanya 18.658
Pallars Jussà 13.715
Pallars Sobirà 7.446
Vall d'Aran 10.194
Espais d'interés natural de l'Alt Pirineu i Aran
Natural spaces in Alt Pirineu i Aran.
Àmbits de Catalunya 1995
Catalan regional plan 1995.   Alt Pirineu i Aran

Veguerie

The Veguerie (Vegueria in Catalan) was an important feudal land division in the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Duchy of Athens during the Middle Ages until the Nueva Planta decrees of 1716. It was the primary division of a county in Catalonia and the basic territorial unit of government in Sardinia and Athens after those countries became part of the Crown of Aragon. The office of a veguer was called a vigeriate (Latin: vigeriatus).

In 1936, Catalonia was reconstituted into comarques. Although these were quickly abolished in 1939 they were reconstituted again in 1987. Each comarca was grouped with two to four others into a veguerie, of which there were nine, with their capitals at Barcelona, Girona, Tremp, Vic, Manresa, Lleida, Reus, Tarragona, and Tortosa.

Since the 1987 reconstitution it has been decided that Vegueries will be formally re-established in 2011. Under the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, the four provinces which make up Catalonia are due to be replaced by seven vegueries, which will also take over many of the functions of the comarques. As of October 2008, the final boundaries of the new vegueries have yet to be formally approved, they are expected to incorporate largely historical boundaries: Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona, Alt Pirineu i Aran, Camp de Tarragona, Comarques Centrals, Comarques Gironines, Ponent or Lleida, Terres de l'Ebre.

References

  1. ^ Vegueries (in Catalan) (in Spanish) (in English) (in French)

Coordinates: 42°23′50″N 1°19′26″E / 42.39722°N 1.32389°E

2017 Catalan independence referendum

The Catalan independence referendum of 2017, also known by the numeronym 1-O (for "1 October") in Spanish media, was an independence referendum held on 1 October 2017 in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, passed by the Parliament of Catalonia as the Law on the Referendum on Self-determination of Catalonia and called by the Generalitat de Catalunya. It was declared illegal on 7 September 2017 and suspended by the Constitutional Court of Spain after a request from the Spanish government, who declared it a breach of the Spanish Constitution. Additionally, in early September the High Court of Justice of Catalonia had issued orders to the police to try to prevent it, including the detention of various persons responsible for its preparation. Due to alleged irregularities during the voting process as well as to the use of force by the National Police and Civil Guard, international observers invited by the Generalitat declared that the referendum failed to meet the minimum international standards for elections.The referendum was approved by the Catalan parliament in a session on 6 September 2017 along with the Law of juridical transition and foundation of the Republic of Catalonia the following day 7 of September, which stated that independence would be binding with a simple majority, without requiring a minimum turnout. After being suspended, the law was finally declared void on 17 October, being also illegal according to the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia which requires a two third majority, 90 seats, in the Catalan parliament for any change to Catalonia's status.The referendum question, which voters answered with "Yes" or "No", was "Do you want Catalonia to become an independent state in the form of a republic?". The "Yes" side won, with 2,044,038 (92.01%) voting for independence and 177,547 (7.99%) voting against, on a turnout of 43.03%. The Catalan government estimated that up to 770,000 votes were not cast due to polling stations being closed off during the police crackdown, although the "universal census" system introduced earlier in the day allowed electors to vote at any given polling station. Catalan government officials have argued that the turnout would have been higher were it not for Spanish and Catalan police suppression of the vote. On the other hand, many voters who did not support Catalan independence did not turn out, as the constitutional political parties asked citizens not to participate in what they considered an illegal referendum.On the day of the referendum, the inaction of part of the autonomous police force of Catalonia, the Mossos d'Esquadra, allowed many polling stations to open. The Spanish National Police Corps and the Guardia Civil intervened and raided several polling stations after they opened. 893 civilians and 111 agents of the National Police and the Guardia Civil were reported to have been injured. According to various sources these previously reported figures may have been exaggerated. According to the judge from Barcelona who is currently investigating the accusations of police violence, there were 218 persons injured on that day in the city of Barcelona alone, 20 of whom were agents. According to the official final report by the Catalan Health Service (CatSalut) of the Generalitat 1066 civilians, 11 agents of the National Police and the Guardia Civil and 1 agent of the regional police, the Mossos d'Esquadra, were injured. The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra'ad Al, urged the Spanish government to prove all acts of violence that took place to prevent the referendum. The police action also got criticism from Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch which defined it as an "excessive and unnecessary use of force". Spanish Supreme Court judge Pablo Llarena stated Puigdemont ignored the repeated warnings he received about the escalation of violence if the referendum was held.Mossos d'Esquadra are being investigated for disobedience, for allegedly not having complied with the orders of the High Court of Justice of Catalonia to prevent the referendum. Including Josep Lluís Trapero Álvarez, the Mossos d'Esquadra Major, who is being investigated for sedition by the Spanish National Court. Mossos d'Esquadra, deny those accusations and allege they obeyed the orders but applying the principle of proportionality, which is required by Spanish law in all police operations.

Camp de Tarragona

Camp de Tarragona (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈkam də tərəˈɣonə]) is a natural and historical region of Catalonia, Spain. It includes a central plain, surrounded by the Serralada Prelitoral mountain chain on the west and in the north, with the Mediterranean sand beaches of the Costa Daurada on the east and limited in the south by the Coll de Balaguer. The main towns are Tarragona, Reus, Valls and Cambrils. Salou is an important resort destination.

The region is regarded as the second metropolitan area of Catalonia, hosting the most important chemical complex in Spain as well as one of the main ports. Among the most distinctive agricultural produce of the region are hazelnuts, olives, wine and fish. It is also one of the major tourist areas in Catalonia, mainly due to the variety of beaches, holiday attractions like the remains of the Roman important past of Tarragona (one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Spain), samples of the Catalan Modernisme style (particularly in Reus, Gaudí's hometown) and PortAventura World (PortAventura Park, the most visited theme park in Spain, Ferrari Land and also the PortAventura Caribe Aquatic Park).

The area has a common history going back to 1356. In 1936, the region was politically divided into three comarques: Alt Camp, Baix Camp and Tarragonès.

According to the General Territorial Plan of Catalonia, the Camp de Tarragona region is one of the seven functional territorial sections of Catalonia. It covers, however, a greater area, as the neighbouring comarques of Baix Penedès, Priorat and Conca de Barberà are also included. Under the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, the four provinces which make up Catalonia are due to be replaced by seven vegueries, which will also take over many of the functions of the comarques. While the final boundaries of the new vegueries have yet to be approved, the vegueria of Camp de Tarragona will most likely be formed by the same six comarques above mentioned, with the only possible exception of Baix Penedès if the historical region of the Penedès was finally accepted as an eighth vegueria, as requested by many local councils.

Catalonia

Catalonia (; Catalan: Catalunya [kətəˈluɲə]; Aranese: Catalonha [kataˈluɲɔ]; Spanish: Cataluña [kataˈluɲa];) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia (with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales, Occitanie). It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra (Andorra la Vella, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana and Sant Julià de Lòria) to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.In the late 8th century, the counties of the March of Gothia and the Hispanic March were established by the Frankish kingdom as feudal vassals across and near the eastern Pyrenees as a defensive barrier against Muslim invasions. The eastern counties of these marches were united under the rule of the Frankish vassal, the count of Barcelona, and were later called Catalonia. In the 10th century the County of Barcelona became independent de facto. In 1137, the lineages of the rulers of Catalonia and rulers of the Kingdom of Aragon were united by marriage under the Crown of Aragon, when the King of Aragon married his daughter to the Count of Barcelona. The de jure end of Frankish rule was ratified by French and Aragonese rulers in the Treaty of Corbeil in 1258. The Principality of Catalonia developed its own institutional system, such as courts (parliament), and constitutions, becoming the base for the Crown of Aragon's naval power, trade and expansionism in the Mediterranean. In the later Middle Ages, Catalan literature flourished. During the last Medieval centuries natural disasters, social turmoils and military conflicts affected the Principality. Between 1469 and 1516, the king of Aragon and the queen of Castile married and ruled their kingdoms together, retaining all of their distinct institutions and legislation.

During the Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659), Catalonia revolted (1640–1652) against a large and burdensome presence of the royal army in its territory, being briefly proclaimed a republic under French protection. Within a brief period France took full control of Catalonia, until it was largely reconquered by the Spanish army. Under the terms of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, the Spanish Crown ceded the northern parts of Catalonia, mostly the County of Roussillon, to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), the Crown of Aragon sided against the Bourbon Philip V of Spain; following Catalan defeat on 11 September 1714, Philip V, inspired by the model of France imposed a unifying administration across Spain, enacting the Nueva Planta decrees, suppressing the main Catalan institutions and rights like in the other realms of the Crown of Aragon. This led to the eclipse of Catalan as a language of government and literature, replaced by Spanish. Along the 18th century, Catalonia experienced economic growth, reinforced in the late quarter of the century when the Castile's trade monopoly with American colonies ended.

In the 19th century, Catalonia was severely affected by the Napoleonic and Carlist Wars. In the second half of the century, Catalonia experienced significant industrialisation. As wealth from the industrial expansion grew, Catalonia saw a cultural renaissance coupled with incipient nationalism while several workers movements appeared. In 1914, the four Catalan provinces formed a commonwealth, and with the return of democracy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat of Catalonia was restored as an autonomous government. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government and banning the official use of the Catalan language again. After a first period of autarky, from the late 1950s through to the 1970s Catalonia saw rapid economic growth, drawing many workers from across Spain, making Barcelona one of Europe's largest industrial metropolitan areas and turning Catalonia into a major tourist destination. Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalonia has regained considerable autonomy in political, educational, environmental, and cultural affairs and is now one of the most economically dynamic communities of Spain. In the 2010s there has been growing support for Catalan independence.

On 27 October 2017, the Catalan Parliament declared independence from Spain following a disputed referendum. The Spanish Senate voted in favour of enforcing direct rule by removing the entire Catalan government and calling a snap regional election for 21 December. On 2 November of the same year, the Spanish Supreme Court imprisoned 7 former ministers of the Catalan government on charges of rebellion and misuse of public funds, while several others, including President Carles Puigdemont, fled to other European countries.

Comarques Centrals

Comarques Centrals is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is located in the central part of Catalonia and will be formed by five comarques: Anoia, Bages, Berguedà, Osona and Solsonès.

Comarques Gironines

Comarques Gironines is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is located in the north-east of Catalonia and will be formed by seven comarques: Gironès, Selva, Pla de l'Estany, Garrotxa, Ripollès, Alt Empordà and Baix Empordà.

La Seu d'Urgell

La Seu d'Urgell (Catalan: [lə ˈsɛw ðuɾˈʒeʎ]; Spanish: Seo de Urgel, formerly in Catalan: Urgell) is a town located in the Catalan Pyrenees in Spain. La Seu d'Urgell is also the capital of the comarca Alt Urgell, head of the judicial district of la Seu d'Urgell and the seat of Bishop of Urgell, one of the Andorra co-princes. It is in the district of Alt Pirineu i Aran (High Pyrenees and Aran), and is the town with the most inhabitants, having 17.4% of the district population. La Seu d'Urgell and Puigcerdà together have 30% of the population of the area.It is located at the confluence of the Segre and the Valira rivers. The city is in the local region of Urgellet, a Pyrenean region formed by 16 municipalities of Alt Urgell. Urgellet and Andorra were the originary County of Urgell with capital in la Seu d'Urgell before the county expansion to the south.Alt Urgell is the gateway to the state of Andorra and the proximity to this important population center and economic activity is largely one of the reasons for the current drive of the city of la Seu d'Urgell within Alt Pirineu i Aran.The town's patron saints are Saint Ot of Urgell, Saint Sebastian, and the Virgin of Urgell. While the Virgin of Núria and Sant Ermengol are the main patrons of the diocese of Urgell. Sant Ermengol is the most prominent in the city than other patrons. Probably that's why there are various events throughout the year dedicated to Sant Ermengol, such as the Sant Ermengol Fair, one of the oldest in Catalonia, and the altarpiece of Sant Ermengol.

The Parc Olímpic del Segre, built in 1992 for the Barcelona Summer Olympic Games, is a pump-driven canoe and kayak sports venue located adjacent to the historical centre of la Seu d'Urgell.

Olià

Olià (Catalan: Olià) is located 1080 m and is a small village belonging to the municipality of Bellver de Cerdanya, in the comarca of Cerdanya, vegueria of Alt Pirineu i Aran (Catalonia, Spain).

Outline of Catalonia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Catalonia:

Catalonia – nationality and one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain, located on the northeastern part of the Iberian Peninsula.

Pi, Catalonia

Pi is a small village belonging to the municipality of Bellver de Cerdanya, in the comarca of Cerdanya, vegueria of Alt Pirineu i Aran (Catalonia).

Ponent

Ponent, Lleida or Terres de Lleida is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is not clear what name will have, being all of them traditionally accepted names for the region.It is located in the westernmost part of Catalonia, around the city of Lleida, its administrative capital and most populated municipality, and will be formed by five existing comarques: Segrià, Noguera, Pla d'Urgell, Urgell, Segarra and Garrigues.

Province of Lleida

The Province of Lleida (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈʎɛjðə]; Spanish: Lérida [ˈleɾiða]; Occitan: Lhèida) is one of the four provinces of Catalonia. It lies in north-eastern Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Catalonia, and is bordered by the provinces of Girona, Barcelona, Tarragona, Zaragoza and Huesca and the countries of France and Andorra. It is often popularly referred to as Ponent (i.e. the West).

Of the population of 414,015 (2007), about 30% live in the capital, Lleida. Some other towns in Lleida province are La Seu d'Urgell (see of the archbishop, who is also the co-prince to Andorra), Mollerussa, Cervera, Tàrrega, Balaguer. There are 231 municipalities in Lleida. (See List of municipalities in Lleida).

Located in the Pyrenees, the Aran Valley is a special comarca with greater autonomy and with Aranese, a variety of Occitan, as its official language.

The Aigüestortes i Estany de Sant Maurici National Park is located in this province.

The province enjoys a thriving fruit-growing industry, including pears and peaches.

According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, the provinces of Catalonia are due to be superseded by territorial units (unitats territorials) or vegueries based on a more historical political division, and the Province of Lleida would become two territorial units: Ponent or Terres de Lleida Vegueria (the entire southern area) and Alt Pirineu i Aran Vegueria (the entire northern part plus the comarca of Cerdanya, part of which is currently in the Province of Girona), the county of Solsona going to the Comarques Centrals (Central Counties) Vegueria. The plan is on hold for the time being (2015).

Tabarnia

Tabarnia (Catalan pronunciation: [təβəɾˈni.ə]; Spanish: [taˈβaɾnja]) is a fictional region within Catalonia, a satirical parody of the Catalan independence movement and a movement against the independence of Catalonia from Spain advocating a referendum to create a new Spanish autonomous community out of coastal urban parts of Catalonia that would decide to remain part of Spain in case of a hypothetical Catalan independence. It would encompass the current Catalan comarques of Maresme, Baix Camp, Baix Penedès, Alt Penedès, Garraf, Baix Llobregat, Barcelonès, Vallès Oriental, Vallès Occidental and Tarragonés.

Proponents believe the area somewhat corresponds to the historic County of Barcelona, although its extent is considerably different.

This proposal, from a platform created in 2011, was shown to map the electoral results of the Catalan regional election of 21 December 2017, which provoked renewed interest. The word 'Tabarnia' went viral on 26 December 2017, reaching worldwide top-trending status with over 648,000 mentions. The first major demonstration organized by the Tabarnia movement took place in Barcelona on 4 March 2018, with 15,000 participants according to the Guarda Urbana and 200,000 according to organizers.The reaction from Catalan pro-secession movements has been very critical, with some separatists using the same arguments against the proposal to create Tabarnia as those used by those who oppose the creation of an independent Catalan Republic. Jaume Vives, the self-claimed spokesman for the Tabarnia proposal, stated: "It is starting to achieve its objective, that the (Catalan) independentists start debunking their own arguments."Currently it is not known who is in charge of the so-called Tabarnia movement and who invented the original concept of Tabarnia. Jaume Vives, simpathizer of the far-right Spanish party Vox, and Albert Boadella, considered one of the founders of Ciudadanos, have self-proclaimed to be the spokesman and president of Tabarnia. Miquel Martinez presents itself as the representative of Platform for Tabarnia, but in the association registry of Catalonia only exists the "Associació Somos Tabarnia" (Association We are Tabarnia). At a Spain level two other platforms exist: "Coordinadora por Tabarnia" and "Asamblea Nacional de Tabarnia".Several unionist parties have publicized and participated in events in support of the idea of Tabarnia, those include Ciudadanos, Partido Popular and the far-right anti-immigrant parties Vox and Plataforma per Catalunya.

Terres de l'Ebre

Les Terres de l'Ebre (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈtɛrəz ðə ˈleβɾə], literally in English 'The Ebre Lands') is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia. It is located in the south-west of Catalonia, in the southern part of river Ebre, and will be formed by four comarques: Baix Ebre, Montsià, Terra Alta and Ribera d'Ebre.The northern coastal limit of the territory is marked by the Coll de Balaguer, a natural limit with the Camp de Tarragona.

Vegueria

The vegueria (Catalan pronunciation: [bəɣəˈɾi.ə]; pl. vegueries) was the feudal administrative territorial jurisdiction of the Principality of Catalonia (to the Crown of Aragon) during the Middle Ages and into the Modern Era until the Nueva Planta decrees of 1716. The vegueria was headed by a veguer (Latin: vigerius) and its office was called a vigeriate (Latin: vigeriatus).

Vegueries were also in place during the Crown of Aragon dominion of Sardinia, and –briefly– during the same in the Duchy of Athens .

Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona

Àmbit metropolità de Barcelona (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈambid mətɾupuliˈta ðə βəɾsəˈlonə]) is one of the seven territories defined by the Regional Plan of Catalonia (Catalan: Pla territorial general de Catalunya). It is located in the central coast of Catalonia, in Barcelona (capital city of Catalonia) and its influence area.

It is formed of five comarques: Baix Llobregat, Barcelonès, Maresme, Vallès Occidental and Vallès Oriental. It has been suggested by local authorities that Alt Penedès and Garraf should form a separate administrative entity called Vegueria del Penedès, as Penedès was a historical territory, or vegueria, with two comarques: Baix Penedès (Camp de Tarragona) and Anoia (Comarques Centrals). To a large extent coincides with the Barcelona metropolitan area.

Àmbit metropolità is the most populous vegueria with 5,012,961 inhabitants (2010), and a density of 1,549 inhabitants/km2.

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