Alphonse de Châteaubriant

Alphonse Van Bredenbeck de Châteaubriant (French pronunciation: ​[alfɔ̃s də ʃatobʁjɑ̃]; 25 March 1877 – 2 May 1951) was a French writer who won the Prix Goncourt in 1911 for his novel Monsieur de Lourdines and Grand prix du roman de l'Académie française for La Brière in 1923.

After a visit to Germany in 1935 he became an enthusiastic advocate for Nazism.[1]

Along with other Breton nationalists he supported fascist and anti-semitic ideas in opposition to the French state. In 1940 he founded the pro-Nazi weekly newspaper La Gerbe and served as President of the Groupe Collaboration.[2] During World War II, he was a member of the central committee of the Légion des Volontaires Français contre le Bolchévisme, an organisation founded in 1941 by Fernand de Brinon and Jacques Doriot to recruit volunteers to fight alongside the Germans in Russia. In 1945 he fled to Austria, where he lived under the alias Dr. Alfred Wolf until his death at a monastery in Kitzbühel.

Alphonse de Châteaubriant
Chateaubriant, Alphonse
Alphonse de Châteaubriant in 1933
Born25 March 1877
Died2 May 1951 (aged 74)

Works

  • 1908 : Le Baron de Puydreau (novella)
  • 1909 : Monsieur de Buysse (novella)
  • 1911 : Monsieur des Lourdines (novel - Prix Goncourt)
  • 1923 : La Brière (novel - Grand prix du roman de l'Académie française)
  • 1927 : La Meute
  • 1928 : Locronan
  • 1933 : La Réponse du Seigneur
  • 1937 : La Gerbe des forces
  • 1937 : Le bouquet fané
  • 1938 : Les pas ont chanté
  • 1953 : ...Des saisons et des jours... Journal de l'auteur, 1911-1924
  • 2004 : Fragments d'une confession – La sainteté

References

  1. ^ Saintin, Alexandre (2017). "Des intellectuels français à la rencontre du Duce et du Führer". Vingtième Siècle. Revue d'histoire. 1 (133): 83–97. doi:10.3917/ving.133.0083 – via Cairn.info.
  2. ^ David Littlejohn, The Patriotic Traitors, Heinemann, 1972, p. 222

External links

Catholicism and far-right politics

1951

1951 (MCMLI)

was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1951st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 951st year of the 2nd millennium, the 51st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1950s decade.

Ernest Fornairon

Ernest Fornairon was a French writer, former general secretary of the Groupe Collaboration led by Alphonse de Châteaubriant.

Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française

Le Grand Prix du Roman is a French literary award, created in 1918, and given each year by the Académie française. Along with the Prix Goncourt, it is one of the oldest and most prestigious literary awards in France. The Académie française gives out over 60 literary awards each year, the Grand Prix du roman is the most senior for an individual novel.

Groupe Collaboration

The Groupe Collaboration was a French collaborationist group active during the Second World War. Largely eschewing the street politics of many such contemporary groups, it sought to establish close cultural links with Nazi Germany and to appeal to the higher echelons of French life. It promoted a "Europeanist" outlook and sought the rebirth of France through part of Europe-wide "National Revolution".

History of far-right movements in France

The far-right tradition in France finds its origins in the Third Republic with Boulangism and the Dreyfus Affair. The modern "far right" or radical right grew out of two separate events of 1889: the splitting off in the Socialist International of those who chose the nation and the culmination of the "Boulanger Affair", which championed the demands of the former Minister of War General Georges Boulanger. The Dreyfus Affair provided one of the political division lines of France. Nationalism, which had been before the Dreyfus Affair a left-wing and Republican ideology, turned after that to be a main trait of the right-wing and, moreover, of the far right. A new right emerged, and nationalism was reappropriated by the far right who turned it into a form of ethnic nationalism, itself blended with anti-Semitism, xenophobia, anti-Protestantism and anti-Masonry. The Action française, first founded as a review, was the matrix of a new type of counter-revolutionary right-wing, and continues to exist today. During the interwar period, the Action française (AF) and its youth militia, the Camelots du Roi, were very active. Far right leagues organized riots.

The Organisation armée secrète (OAS) was created in Madrid by French military opposed to the independence of Algeria.

Jean-Marie Le Pen founded the Front National (FN) party in 1972. At the 1986 legislative elections, the FN managed to obtain 35 seats, with 10% of the votes. Mark Frederiksen, a French Algeria activist, created in April 1966 a neo-Nazi group, the FANE (Fédération d'action nationaliste et européenne, Nationalist and European Federation of Action). However, in 1978, neo-Nazi members of the GNR-FANE broke again with the FN. During the 1980s, the National Front managed to gather, under Jean-Marie Le Pen's leadership, most rival far-right tendencies of France, following a succession of splits and alliances with other, minor parties, during the 1970s.

Jean Boissel

Jean Anselme Boissel (1 May 1891 – 19 October 1951) was a French architect, journalist, and far right political activist who was convicted of collaboration with Nazi Germany.

A disabled veteran of World War I, Boissel founded Le Front Franc— and the Paris-based periodical, Le Réveil du peuple ([Revival of the People])— which espoused anti-Masonic, anti-parliamentarian, and "antijudéométèque" views. Originally sentenced to death after the war, Boissel died in prison.

La Gerbe

La Gerbe (French pronunciation: ​[la ʒɛʁb], The Sheaf) was a weekly newspaper of the French collaboration with Nazi Germany during World War II that appeared in Paris from July 1940 till August 1944. Its political-literary line was modeled after Candide and Gringoire, two right-wing newspapers founded in the interwar period.

Founder and editor was the writer Alphonse de Châteaubriant, and chief editor was Marc Augier. Also involved in the management was the German journalist Eitel Moellhausen, who wrote under the pen names Aimé Cassar and Pierre Cousinery. Gabrielle Storms-Castelot, the mother of André Castelot and mistress of Châteaubriant, was director's secretary.

The first issue of La Gerbe, announced by a huge poster campaign in Paris, consisted of only four pages. But within three months the publication's size had reached ten pages and its circulation 100,000. In 1943 it sold 140,000 copies.The newspaper's title was taken from Châteaubriant's 1937 naively pro-Hitler book La gerbe des forces. But it also alluded to the position it advanced: France, destined to be an agrarian country, should become a part of the new Europe created by Hitler. Violently anticommunist, antirepublican and antisemitic, and hostile to the Popular Front, the newspaper drew its ideology from Fascism and more particularly from Nazism.

According to La Gerbe, the country had to undergo a "national alignment" and had to fight with all its strength against individualism. Châteaubriant's vision of Hitler was that he would form a unified Catholic Europe as it last existed under Charlemagne.Openly eugenic and racist, the newspaper made its columns available to Georges Montandon, and declared in its edition of 7 November 1940: "The time has come to say that Apollo and Pallas Athena are the images of the Nordic man and the Nordic woman, an affirmation that was impossible at the time of the Jewish conspiracy."

Like its founder, La Gerbe synthesized Catholicism and racism. The newspaper demanded that the mass should accentuate what would bring it closer to a racist ceremony (21 November 1940) and asked: "Joy, said Father Janvier in one of his talks, is the motor of life. Did Hitler say otherwise when he said 'Kraft durch Freude' [i.e. Strength Through Joy]?"

Strongly pro-nazi intellectuals writing for the newspaper included Drieu La Rochelle, Louis-Ferdinand Céline and Robert Brasillach. Other writers were the pro-nazi Henry de Montherlant, Jean Giono, and the more ambiguous Marcel Aymé, Jean Anouilh and Colette. Further contributors included Paul Morand, Lucien Combelle and André Castelot, who was in charge of the theatre reviews. It was closely associated with the Groupe Collaboration, an initiative established by Châteaubriand in September 1940.La Gerbe was subsidized, and in some sense created, by the German embassy, with Châteaubriand serving as a front for the ambassador Otto Abetz. As the only French newspaper created by the German occupants, it was meant to replace Candide and Gringoire. Some of the newspaper's last editorials referred to the Allied bombings as terrorism. After the Liberation of Paris the police searched the offices of La Gerbe in Rue Chauchat, which were then taken over by a newspaper of the French Resistance.

Lycée Georges Clemenceau (Nantes)

The Lycée Georges Clemenceau, French pronunciation: ​[lise ʒɔʁʒ klemɑ̃so], usually called Lycée Clemenceau is a public secondary school located in Nantes, France, formerly known as the Lycée of Nantes. Inaugurated in 1808, it is the oldest secondary school of the town of Nantes and in the department of Loire-Atlantique.

It is located next to a botanic garden (Jardin des plantes). Train and tram stations offer an easy access to the school for students.

Furthermore there is a lovely chapel inside. Tests often take place there.

It offers both a sixth-form college curriculum (as a lycée), and a post-secondary-level curriculum (classes préparatoires).

The Emperor Napoleon visited the Lycée on 9 August 1808. The school was rebuilt from 1886 to 1892 to a design by the architects Antoine Demoget and Léon Lenoir. Many famous people studied in Clemenceau, like the writer Jules Verne and the politician Georges Clemenceau who give his name to the school.

Marc Augier

Marc Augier (nom de plume: Saint-Loup) (19 March 1908 in Bordeaux – 16 December 1990 in Paris) was a French anti-capitalist, later turned into fascist, politician, writer and mountaineer.

Pierre de Hérain

Pierre de Hérain (24 July 1904 – 25 September 1972) was a French film director.

Prix Goncourt

The Prix Goncourt (French: Le prix Goncourt, IPA: [lə pʁi ɡɔ̃kuʁ], The Goncourt Prize) is a prize in French literature, given by the académie Goncourt to the author of "the best and most imaginative prose work of the year". Four other prizes are also awarded: prix Goncourt du Premier Roman (first novel), prix Goncourt de la Nouvelle (short story), prix Goncourt de la Poésie (poetry) and prix Goncourt de la Biographie (biography). Of the "big six" French literary awards, the Prix Goncourt is the best known and most prestigious. The other major literary prizes are the Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française, the Prix Femina, the Prix Renaudot, the Prix Interallié and the Prix Médicis.

The Sorrow and the Pity

The Sorrow and the Pity (French: Le Chagrin et la Pitié) is a two-part 1969 documentary film by Marcel Ophüls about the collaboration between the Vichy government and Nazi Germany during World War II. The film uses interviews with a German officer, collaborators, and resistance fighters from Clermont-Ferrand. They comment on the nature of and reasons for collaboration, including antisemitism, Anglophobia, fear of Bolsheviks and Soviet invasion, and the desire for power.

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