Alpes Cottiae

Alpes Cottiae [alˈpeːs ˈkɔt.tjae̯] was a province of the Roman Empire, one of three small provinces straddling the Alps between modern France and Italy.[1] Its name survives in the modern Cottian Alps. In antiquity, the province's most important duty was the safeguarding of communications over the Alpine passes.

Alpes Cottiae was bordered by Gallia Narbonensis to the west, Alpes Maritimae to the south, Italia to the east, and Alpes Graiae to the north. The provincial capital was at Segusio (modern Susa in Piedmont).

Provincia Alpes Cottiae
Province of the Roman Empire
15 BC–476 AD
Location of Alpes Cottiae
The Roman Empire ca. AD 125, with the province of Alpes Cottiae highlighted.
Capital Segusio
Historical era Antiquity
 •  Created by Augustus 15 BC
 •  Deposition of Romulus Augustulus 476 AD
Today part of  France
 Italy

History

The province had its origin in the kingdom controlled by Donnus, ruler of the local Ligurian tribes of the area in the middle of the 1st century BC, and was named after his son and successor Marcus Julius Cottius,[1] whose realm was integrated into the Roman imperial system under Augustus.[2][3]

Initially, Cottius and his successors Gaius Julius Donnus II (reigned 3 BC-4 AD) and Marcus Julius Cottius II (reigned 5-63 AD) continued to hold power as client rulers; afterwards, under Nero a procurator was appointed and it officially became a Roman province.[4] The governors of the province were prefects from the Equestrian order.

Settlements

Settlements in Alpes Cottiae included:

  • Ad Fines (Malano) ("mansio", customs post)
  • Ocelum (Celle) ("oppidum", Celtic village)
  • Ad Duodecimum (S. Didier) ("mutatio")
  • Segusio (Susa) (capital)
  • Venausio (Venaus)(oppidum)
  • Excingomago (Exilles) (oppidum, possible Donno's capital)
  • Caesao / Goesao (Cesana Torinese)("castrum")
  • Ad Martes Ultor (late imperial "Ulcense") (Oulx) ("castrum")
  • Brigantium (Briançon) (mansio)
  • Mons Matronae (Mont Genèvre)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Bertrand, E.; R. Talbert; S. Gillies; T. Elliott; J. Becker. "Places: 167636 (Alpes Cottiae)". Pleiades. Retrieved November 1, 2014.
  2. ^ Vitruvius, On architecture, 8,3,17
  3. ^ Goodman, M., The Roman World 44 BC–AD 180, p. 120
  4. ^ Bibliotheca classica or A classical dictionary, John Lemprière, G. and C. Carvill, 1831; pag. 414
  • Tilmann Bechert: Die Provinzen des römischen Reiches: Einführung und Überblick. von Zabern, Mainz 1999.
  • Bartolomasi : Valsusa Antica . Alzani, 1975.
  • Prieur - La province romaine des Alpes Cottiennes, Lyon 1968.

Coordinates: 45°01′00″N 6°47′03″E / 45.0167°N 6.7841°E

Alpes Maritimae

Alpes Maritimae ([alˈpeːs maˈri.ti.mae̯]) was a province of the Roman Empire. It was one of the three provinces straddling the Alps between modern France and Italy, along with Alpes Poeninae and Alpes Cottiae. The province included parts of the present-day French departments of Alpes-Maritimes, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and Hautes-Alpes.

Alpinorum auxiliary regiments

This article concerns the Roman auxiliary regiments of the Principate period originally recruited in the western Alpine regions of the empire (for the central/eastern Alps, see Raetorum auxiliary cohorts). The cohortes Alpinorum ("cohorts of Alpini") came from Tres Alpes, the three small Roman provinces of the western Alps, Alpes Maritimae, Alpes Cottiae and Alpes Graiae. The cohortes Ligurum were originally raised from the Ligures people of Alpes Maritimae and Liguria regio of NW Italia.

Cavour, Piedmont

Cavour (Italian pronunciation: [kaˈvur]; from the Piedmontese toponym, Cavor [kaˈʋʊr]; Latin: Caburrum) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Turin.

Cavour borders the following municipalities: Macello, Vigone, Bricherasio, Garzigliana, Villafranca Piemonte, Campiglione-Fenile, Bibiana, Bagnolo Piemonte, Barge.

Cottian Alps

The Cottian Alps (; French: Alpes Cottiennes [alp kɔtjɛn]; Italian: Alpi Cozie [ˈalpi ˈkɔttsje]); are a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps. They form the border between France (Hautes-Alpes and Savoie) and Italy (Piedmont). The Fréjus Road Tunnel and Fréjus Rail Tunnel between Modane and Susa are important transportation arteries between France (Lyon, Grenoble) and Italy (Turin).

Cottius

Marcus Julius Cottius was king of the Celtic and Ligurian inhabitants of the mountainous region then known as Alpes Taurinae and now as the Cottian Alps early in the 1st century BC. He was the son and successor of King Donnus and negotiated a dependent status with Rome that preserved considerable autonomy for his country.

Dacia Mediterranea

Dacia Mediterranea (Mediterranean Dacia; Greek: Επαρχία Δακίας Μεσογείου, Eparchia Dakias Mesogeiou) was a late Roman province, split off from the former Dacia Aureliana by Roman emperor Diocletian (284-305). Serdica (or Sardica; later Sradetz or Sredets, now Sofia) was the province capital.

Scholars have different opinions regarding the date and circumstances of the foundation of Dacia Mediterranea as a separate province.

Donnus

The chieftain called by Latins Donnus was the ruler of the Ligurian tribes inhabiting the mountainous region now known as the Cottian Alps during the 1st century BC. Although initially an opponent of Julius Caesar during the latter's conquest of Gaul, Donnus later made peace with him.

Donnus' son and successor, Cottius, initially maintained his independence in the face of Augustus' effort to subdue the various Alpine tribes, but afterwards agreed to an alliance, and the family continued to rule the region as prefects of Rome, until Nero annexed the dominion as the province of Alpes Cottiae.

His name was first cited in the Arch of Augustus of Susa engraving.

Europa (Roman province)

Europa was a Roman province within the Diocese of Thrace.

Exilles

Exilles (Occitan: Exilhas, local Occitan: Isiya, Piedmontese: Isiles, Latin: Scingomagus, Italianization under Italian Fascism: Esille) is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) west of Turin, on the border with France.

It is the location of the Exilles Fort, an alpine fortification which guarded the route between the Kingdom of France and the Duchy of Savoy.

Exilles borders the following municipalities: Bardonecchia, Bramans (France), Chiomonte, Giaglione, Oulx, Pragelato, Salbertrand, and Usseaux.

Hispania Carthaginensis

Hispania Carthaginensis was a Roman province segregated from Hispania Tarraconensis in the new division of Hispania by emperor Diocletian in 298.

The capital of the new province was settled in Carthago Nova, now Cartagena.

It encompassed the southern part of the Mediterranean coast of Spain, except that belonging to Hispania Baetica. Roughly speaking, the modern provinces of Valencia, Alicante and Murcia.

Imperial province

An imperial province was a Roman province during the Principate where the Roman Emperor had the sole right to appoint the governor (legatus Augusti). These provinces were often the strategically located border provinces.

The provinces were grouped into imperial and senatorial provinces shortly after the accession of Augustus.

The following provinces were imperial provinces:

Aegyptus

Alpes Cottiae

Alpes Maritimae

Alpes Poenninae

Armenia

Assyria

Britannia

Cilicia

Dacia

Dalmatia

Galatia

Gallia Aquitania

Gallia Belgica

Gallia Lugdunensis

Germania Inferior

Germania Superior

Hispania Tarraconensis

Judaea

Lusitania

Moesia

Noricum

Pannonia

Raetia

Syria

Thracia

Insulae (Roman province)

Insulae (Latin for "islands"; in Greek: νήσοι; fully Provincia Insularum and ἐπαρχία νήσων, "province of the islands") was a Late Roman province consisting of some islands in the Aegean, now part of Greece.

It should not be confused with the Roman province Insulae Baleares, which consists of the (now Spanish) Balearic islands.

Liguria (Roman province)

Liguria was a late Roman province in Italy in the 4th-6th centuries. Despite its name, it encompassed most of the modern Italian region of Piedmont and parts of Lombardy, but not the medieval and modern region of Liguria, which was included in the province of Alpes Cottiae. The province's capital was Milan (Mediolanum), and it was governed by an official of consularis rank. Administratively, it was subject to the Diocese of Annonarian Italy and to the praetorian prefecture of Italy.

List of Late Roman provinces

This article presents a list of Roman provinces in the Late Roman Empire, as found in the Notitia Dignitatum.

Marcellinus (consul 275)

Aurelius/Iulius Marcellinus (his nomen is uncertain) was a Roman soldier and Imperial functionary who had a brilliant equestrian career and was elevated to the Senate when he was chosen by the Emperor Aurelian as his consular colleague. His appointment as Consul is thought to have been a reward for his loyalty and steadfastness in 273 when, as Aurelian's deputy in charge of the eastern provinces of the Empire where the authority of the Imperial Government had only recently been restored, he resisted attempts to suborn him by a rebellious faction in the city of Palmyra.

His promotion was unusual in that he had not achieved the rank of Praetorian Prefect, the level of seniority in the Imperial Service at which equestrian officials might hope to be elevated to the Senate. However, this practice, which was to become a regular feature during the reign of Diocletian, was still inchoate in 275 AD.

Obviously a man of considerable capabilities who had attracted the Imperial patronage of Emperor Gallienus and whose services continued to be much valued by Aurelian, the paucity of the surviving records means that even the identity of Marcellinus is uncertain while nothing else is known of his life beyond the bare outlines recounted here.

Province of Apulia and Calabria

Apulia and Calabria (Latin: Apulia et Calabria) was a Late Roman province in Apulia and Calabria in southern Italy. Its capital was Canusium (modern Canosa di Puglia).

Segusini

The Segusini were a Gaulish tribe whose territory largely corresponded with the ancient Roman province of Alpes Cottiae, in the Cottian Alps.The capital of the Segusini was Segusio (modern Susa, in Piedmont), which voluntarily became part of the Roman Empire in the late 1st century BC. Segusio was also the capital of the province Alpes Cottiae. According to the medieval historian Rodulfus Glaber, Segusio was "the oldest of Alpine towns".

On the French side of Alpis Cottia (Mont Genèvre), Brigantium (modern Briançon) was, according to Ptolemy, within the limits of the Segusini. Brigantium had also formed part of the kingdom of King Cottius and was also in the ancient Roman province of Alpes Cottiae. The Tabula Peutingeriana places Brigantium 6 MP (Roman miles) from Alpis Cottia. The Jerusalem Itinerary makes the Alpes Cottiae commence at Rama between Ebrodunum (modern Embrun) and Brigantium.

Theodorias (province)

Theodorias (Greek: Θεοδωριάς) was a Byzantine province created in 528 by Emperor Justinian I and named in honour of his wife, the Empress Theodora.

Tres Alpes

Tres Alpes (literally, "Three Alps"), was the collective term used by the Romans to denote three small provinces of the Roman empire situated in the western Alps mountain range, namely Alpes Graiae (or Poeninae) (Val d'Aosta, Italy); Alpes Cottiae (Val di Susa, Italy) and Alpes Maritimae. The region was annexed by the Romans in 16 - 14 BC and the three provinces organised by 7 BC.

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