Alois Friedrich von Brühl

Alois Friedrich von Brühl (Polish: 'Alojzy Fryderyk Bruhl'; 31 July 1739 Dresden – 30 January 1793 Berlin) was a Polish-Saxon diplomat, politician, Freemason, soldier, actor and playwright.

Alois Friedrich von Brühl
Krafft the Elder Alois Friedrich von Brühl
Born31 July 1739
Died30 January 1793 (aged 53)


He was the eldest son of minister Heinrich von Brühl, one of the advisors to King August II of Poland and member of the noble Brühl family. He was sent to the University of Leipzig, but his mother was not satisfied with the progress the much pampered minister's son was making there and sent him on to Leyden, where the foundation of his knowledge was laid. When he was 19, his father contrived to have him appointed as a general master of ordnance for the Polish crown, and he traveled through most of Europe without significant expenditure. During the Seven Years' War, he participated in several of the campaigns as a volunteer in the Emperor's army.

With the death of king August III in 1763, he lost all his offices, and thereafter devoted his time to his passion for the theater: he wrote plays and performed on stage.

He was also briefly a governor of Warsaw. In that role, he founded the modern sewer system there.


  • Theatralische Belustigungen, 5 Bände, 1785–1790


  • Johann Georg Meusel: Lexikon der vom Jahr 1750 bis 1800 verstorbenen teutschen Schriftsteller. Band 1, 1802. S. 625–627 (GBS)
  • Hans von Krosigk: Karl Graf von Brühl, General-Intendant der Königlichen Schauspiele, später der Museen in Berlin und seine Eltern. Lebensbilder auf Grund der Handschriften des Archivs zu Seifersdorf. Mittler & Sohn, Berlin, 1910
  • Juliusz Dudziak: Alojzy Fryderyk von Brühl (1739 - 1793), Zielona Góra, 2010


  • "BRÜHL (Heinrich Reichsgraf v.)". Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste. 13. pp. 202–205. Alois Friedrich von Brühl is discussed on pages 203 and 204.
Brühl (surname)

Brühl or Bruhl is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Alois Friedrich von Brühl (1739–1793), Polish-Saxon diplomat, politician, soldier, actor and playwright

Carl Brühl (1820–1899), Austrian physician and anatomist

Carl von Brühl (1772–1837), German theater manager

Carlrichard Brühl (1925–1997), German historian of medieval history and philatelist

Daniel Brühl (b. 1978), German actor

Friedrich-August Graf von Brühl (1913–1981), German Major in the Wehrmacht, Oberstleutnant in the Bundeswehr

Gabriel Brühl (died 1743), robber in the then Duchy of Limburg

Gustav Brühl (1871–1939), German otorhinolaryngologist

Gustav Brühl (author) (1826–1903), United States physician, poet and archaeologist

Hans Moritz von Brühl (1736–1809), German diplomat and astronomer also known as John Maurice, Count of Brühl

Heidi Brühl (1942–1991), German singer and actress

Heinrich von Brühl (1700–1763), German statesman

Helmut Müller-Brühl (1933–2012), German conductor

Jeremy James Bruhl (b. 1956), Australian botanist

Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (1857–1939), French scholar

Louis Burleigh Bruhl (1861–1942), English landscape artist

Marie von Brühl (1739–1836), wife and assistant to Carl von Clausewitz

Paul Johannes Brühl (1855-1935), botanist

Brühl family

Brühl (de Brüel, von Brühl) is the name of an old German noble family from Saxony-Thuringia, with their ancestral seat in Gangloffsömmern in Thuringia. Branches of the family still exist today.

With the era of Heinrich von Brühl during the 18th century, who indirectly controlled Saxony and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and was thus one of the most powerful men in the Holy Roman Empire, the family was one of the most influential families in Europe and has been compared to the House of Medici, the Richelieu family, and the Rothschild family.One of the most important branches of the Brühl family uses the spelling Brüel, and mainly resides in Denmark and Sweden.

Clemens August Graf von Galen

Clemens August Graf von Galen (16 March 1878 – 22 March 1946) was a German count, Bishop of Münster, and cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. During World War II, Galen led Catholic protest against Nazi euthanasia and denounced Gestapo lawlessness and the persecution of the church. He was appointed a Cardinal by Pope Pius XII in 1946. He was beatified by Pope Benedict XVI in 2005.

Born into the German aristocracy, Galen received part of his education in Austria from the Jesuits at the Stella Matutina School in the town of Feldkirch. After his ordination he worked in Berlin at Saint Matthias. He intensely disliked the liberal values of the Weimar Republic and opposed individualism, socialism, and democracy. A staunch German nationalist and patriot, he considered the Treaty of Versailles unjust and viewed Bolshevism as a threat to Germany and the Church. He espoused the stab-in-the-back theory: that the German military was defeated in 1918 only because it had been undermined by defeatist elements on the home front. He expressed his opposition to modernity in his book Die Pest des Laizismus und ihre Erscheinungsformen (The Plague of Laicism and its Forms of Expression) (1932).After serving in Berlin parishes from 1906 to 1929, he became the pastor of Münster's St. Lamberti Church, where he was noted for his political conservatism before being appointed Bishop of Münster in 1933.

Galen began to criticize Hitler's movement in 1934. He condemned the Nazi worship of race in a pastoral letter on 29 January 1934. He assumed responsibility for the publication of a collection of essays that criticized the Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg and defended the teachings of the Catholic Church. He was an outspoken critic of certain Nazi policies and helped draft Pope Pius XI's 1937 anti-Nazi encyclical Mit brennender Sorge (With Burning Concern). In 1941, he delivered three sermons in which he denounced the arrest of Jesuits, the confiscation of church property, attacks on the Church, and in the third, the state-approved killing of invalids. The sermons were illegally circulated in print, inspiring some German Resistance groups, including the White Rose.Despite Bishop Galen's opposition to National Socialism, he nonetheless believed Germany was the last bulwark against the spread of godless Bolshevism. Parts of a sermon he gave in 1943 were used by the Nazis to aid in the enlistment of Dutch men to voluntarily join the SS. Galen feared that German Catholics were being relegated to second-class status in Hitler's Germany and believed Hitler was missing the point that the Catholic Church and the state could be aligned against Bolshevism.. Bishop von Galen's selective opposition to elements of National Socialism never amounted to solidarity with excluded groups such as the Jews however, and whilst he spoke out against the euthanasia project he was silent on the equally important issues of roundups, deportations and mass murder of Jews.


The Hauke-Bosak (more commonly called Hauke) family was originally a German middle class family of allegedly Dutch origin which, after having settled in Poland at the end of the 18th century, achieved great importance and titles of nobility in Congress Poland.

Heinrich von Brühl

Heinrich, count von Brühl (Polish: Henryk Brühl, 13 August 1700 – 28 October 1763), was a Polish-Saxon statesman at the court of Saxony and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and a member of the powerful German von Brühl family. The incumbency of this ambitious politician coincided with the decline of both states. Brühl was a skillful diplomat and cunning strategist, who managed to attain control over of Saxony and Poland, partly by controlling its king, Augustus III, who ultimately could only be accessed through Brühl himself.

Polish historian and writer Józef Ignacy Kraszewski wrote a novel under the title Count Brühl, in which he described Heinrich as an oppressive and stubborn dictator, who, with greed, but also great determination, unsuccessfully attempted to gain control of the entire nation.It is widely believed that Brühl had Europe's largest collection of watches and military vests; attributed to him was also a vast collection of ceremonial wigs, hats and the largest collection of Meissen porcelain in the world. He had also one of the biggest collection of kabbala books in Europe.

Izabela Maria Lubomirska

Princess Izabela Maria Sanguszko (née Princess Izabela Maria Lubomirska), in Polish Izabela Maria z książąt Lubomirskich księżna Sanguszkowa (1 March 1808 – 18 March 1868) was a Polish noblewoman.

Princess Izabela Maria was born to Prince Henryk Ludwik Lubomirski (15 September 1777 – 20 October 1850) and Princess Teresa Czartoryska (30 July 1785 – 31 December 1868). Through her father she was great-granddaughter of Prince Stanisław Lubomirski and through her mother she was granddaughter of Prince Józef Klemens Czartoryski. She had two sisters: Dorota and Jadwiga Julia (she married Eugène, 8th Prince of Ligne) and brother Jerzy Henryk.

On 6 July 1829, in Przeworsk she married Prince Władysław Hieronim Sanguszko. They had five children:

Jadwiga Klementyna Sanguszko (1830–1918) – she married Prince Adam Stanisław Sapieha

Roman Damian Sanguszko (1832–1917) – he married Countess Karolina of Thun and Hohenstein, great-granddaughter of Count Alois Friedrich von Brühl

Pawel Roman Sanguszko (1834–1876) – he married firstly Countess Marie Gfn von der Borch-Warkland and secondly Georgina Apponyi de Nagy-Appony

Helena Sanguszko (1836–1891)

Eustachy Stanisław Sanguszko (1842–1903) – he married Countess Konstancja Anna ZamoyskaShe died in 1868.

Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (1734–1790)

For other people to use this name see: Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł

Prince Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł (Belarusian: Караль Станіслаў Радзівіл II, Lithuanian: Karolis Stanislovas Radvila II, Exonym: Charles Stanislaus: 27 February 1734 – 21 November 1790) was a Polish nobleman, politician, diplomat, prince of the Crown Kingdom of Poland and the Commonwealth, statesman of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Voivode of Vilnius, governor of Lwów and Sejm Marshal between 1767 and 1768. He is frequently referred to by his well-known idiolect "Panie Kochanku" ("My Dear Sir") to distinguish him from his earlier namesake.Prince Radziwiłł held several important posts in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. From 1752 he was the Master Swordbearer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. On 3 August 1757 he was awarded the Order of the White Eagle and was officially one of that decoration's first recipients. From 1762 he was Voivode of Vilnius.

In 1767 he became Marshal General of the Radom Confederation and, the following year, Marshal of the Bar Confederation. After its fall in 1772 he emigrated, but in 1777 returned to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and resumed all his previous posts after having first pledged his loyalty to Polish King Stanisław II Augustus, whom he had previously opposed. During the Great Sejm from 1788 until his death in 1790 he was a leading opponent of reform, King Stanisław Augustus and his allies; the members of the so-called Familia political party headed by the Czartoryski family.

Radziwiłł was the wealthiest magnate in Poland, in the second half of the 18th century, and one of the richest men in Europe. His private properties and wealth, including 16 cities, 683 villages and 25 counties, both in Poland and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, could have been compared to those of the King himself. Legends about him abounded, and he was featured in historical novels and poems reflecting his contributions to the nation. On one hand, he was pictured as a drunkard and degenerate reveler; on the other, as a flamboyant character, the best representative of Sarmatism in the country, and a great patriot who fought for a free nation, that soon after his death would be partitioned between Austria, Prussia and the Russian Empire. He was popular among the poorer nobility and remains today a symbol of his era.The prince owned a house on the Rue Neuve des Bons Enfants in Paris. The street is now called Rue Radziwill.

List of Polish people

This is a partial list of notable Polish or Polish-speaking or -writing persons. Persons of partial Polish heritage have their respective ancestries credited.


The Societaetstheater is the oldest popular theatre in Dresden, Germany. Founded in 1776 as an amateur theatre by a society of friends from both the nobility and the middle class, it was initially respected and influential but declined in the early 19th century after the fashion shifted to elaborate historical and verse dramas and the national theatre movement grew in importance, and was eventually dissolved in 1832. The Baroque building on Hauptstraße in the Innere Neustadt was abandoned for many years in the second half of the 20th century, but beginning in 1979, a movement grew to restore it. The theatre reopened in 1999 and is now operated by the city.

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