Aloha

Aloha (/ɑːˈloʊhɑː/; Hawaiian: [əˈloːˌha]) is the Hawaiian word for love, affection, peace, compassion and mercy, that is commonly used as a simple greeting[1][2] but has a deeper cultural and spiritual significance to native Hawaiians.

The word is found in all Polynesian languages and always with the same basic meaning of "love, compassion, sympathy, kindness"[3] although the use in Hawai’i has a seriousness lacking in the Tahitian and Samoan meanings.[4] Mary Kawena Pukui wrote that the "first expression" of aloha was between a parent and child.[3] The word has become a part of the English vocabulary in an awkward misuse.[5][6] The Oxford English Dictionary defined the word as a "greeting" like "welcome" and "farewell" using a number of examples dating back as far as 1798 and up to 1978 where it was defined as a substitute for welcome.

Lorrin Andrews wrote the first Hawaiian dictionary, called A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language.[7] In it he describes aloha as "A word expressing different feelings; love, affection, gratitude, kindness, pity, compassion, grief, the modern common salutation at meeting; parting".[8] Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert's Hawaiian Dictionary: Hawaiian-English, English-Hawaiian also contains a similar definition. Anthropologist Francis Newton states that "Aloha is a complex and profound sentiment. Such emotions defy definition".[4] Anna Wierzbicka concludes that the term has "no equivalent in English".[4]

The state of Hawai’i introduced an "Aloha Spirit law" in 1986, which mandates that city and state employees greet the public by using the words Aloha and Mahalo.[9]

Flowers arranged to ALOHA, Hilo, Hawaii
Flowers arranged to make the word aloha

See also

  • As-salamu alaykum, a greeting in Arabic that means "Peace be upon you"
  • Mahalo (word), a Hawaiian word meaning thanks, gratitude, admiration, praise, esteem, regards, or respects
  • Namaste, a customary Hindu greeting
  • Ohana, a Hawaiian term meaning "family"
  • Shalom, a Hebrew word meaning peace, harmony, wholeness, completeness, prosperity, welfare and tranquility
  • Talofa, a salutation or greeting in the Samoan language

References

  1. ^ Pukui, Mary Kawena (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary: Hawaiian-English, English-Hawaiian. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0824807030. OCLC 229095.
  2. ^ Van Valkenburg, June A. (2012), Feeling My Way: Finding Purpose, BalboaPress, p. 69, ISBN 978-1-4525-5462-4
  3. ^ a b Kanahele, George Hu'eu Sanford (1992). Ku Kanaka Stand Tall: A Search for Hawaiian Values. University of Hawaii Press. p. 470. ISBN 978-0-8248-1500-4.
  4. ^ a b c Wierzbicka, Anna (1992). Semantics, Culture, and Cognition: Universal Human Concepts in Culture-Specific Configurations. Oxford University Press. pp. 152–155. ISBN 978-0-19-536091-2.
  5. ^ Ludwig, Sämi (2017). American Multiculturalism in Context: Views from at Home and Abroad. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 287. ISBN 978-1-4438-7482-3.
  6. ^ First Pan-Pacific Educational Conference, Honolulu, August 11-24, 1921: Held Under the Auspices of the Pan-Pacific Union and Called by the U. S. Department of Education. Invitations for Participation of Pacific Governments Sent Through the Department of State of the United States of America. Program and Proceedings. Pan-Pacific Union. 1921. p. 25.
  7. ^ Forbes, David W. (1998). Hawaiian National Bibliography, Vol 3: 1851–1880. University of Hawaii Press. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-8248-2503-4.
  8. ^ Andrews, Lorrin; Parker, Henry (1922). A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language. Honolulu: Board of Commissioners of Public Archives of the Territory of Hawaii. p. 52.
  9. ^ Kerr, Breena (April 23, 2018). "In Hawaii, being nice is the law". BBC. Retrieved July 14, 2019.
1985 Aloha Bowl

The 1985 Aloha Bowl, part of the 1985 bowl game season, took place on December 28, 1985, at Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Hawaii. The competing teams were the Alabama Crimson Tide, representing the Southeastern Conference (SEC), and the USC Trojans of the Pacific-10 Conference (Pac-10). Alabama was victorious in by a final score of 24–3. Alabama running back Gene Jelks and linebacker Cornelius Bennett were named the game's co-MVPs.

ALOHAnet

ALOHAnet, also known as the ALOHA System, or simply ALOHA, was a pioneering computer networking system developed at the University of Hawaii. ALOHAnet became operational in June, 1971, providing the first public demonstration of a wireless packet data network. ALOHA originally stood for Additive Links On-line Hawaii Area.The ALOHAnet used a new method of medium access (ALOHA random access) and experimental ultra high frequency (UHF) for its operation, since frequency assignments for communications to and from a computer were not available for commercial applications in the 1970s. But even before such frequencies were assigned there were two other media available for the application of an ALOHA channel – cables & satellites. In the 1970s ALOHA random access was employed in the nascent Ethernet cable based network and then in the Marisat (now Inmarsat) satellite network.In the early 1980s frequencies for mobile networks became available, and in 1985 frequencies suitable for what became known as Wi-Fi were allocated in the US. These regulatory developments made it possible to use the ALOHA random-access techniques in both Wi-Fi and in mobile telephone networks.

ALOHA channels were used in a limited way in the 1980s in 1G mobile phones for signaling and control purposes. In the late 1980s, the European standardisation group GSM who worked on the Pan-European Digital mobile communication system GSM greatly expanded the use of ALOHA channels for access to radio channels in mobile telephony. In addition SMS message texting was implemented in 2G mobile phones. In the early 2000s additional ALOHA channels were added to 2.5G and 3G mobile phones with the widespread introduction of GPRS, using a slotted-ALOHA random-access channel combined with a version of the Reservation ALOHA scheme first analyzed by a group at BBN.

Aloha, Oregon

Aloha (, not ) is a census-designated place and unincorporated community in Washington County, Oregon, United States. By road it is 10.9 miles (17.5 km) west of downtown Portland. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 49,425. Fire protection and EMS services are provided through Tualatin Valley Fire and Rescue.

Aloha, Scooby-Doo!

Aloha, Scooby-Doo! is a 2005 direct-to-video animated comedy horror mystery film, and the eighth in a series of direct-to-video animated films based upon the Scooby-Doo Saturday morning cartoons. It was released on February 8, 2005, and it was produced by Warner Bros. Animation, though it featured a copyright and logo for Hanna-Barbera Cartoons at the end. It is also Ray Bumatai's last performance before his death in October 2005. This movie, along with Scooby-Doo and the Cyber Chase, were the first Scooby-Doo movies to be re-released on Blu-ray on April 5, 2011.

Aloha (crater)

Aloha is a tiny impact crater on the Moon, that lies to the northwest of the Montes Agricola ridge, on the Oceanus Procellarum. It is located near the faint terminus of a ray that crosses the mare from the southeast, originating at the crater Glushko.

Aloha Air Cargo

Aeko Kula, Inc., operating as Aloha Air Cargo, is an American cargo airline headquartered in Honolulu, Hawaii, operating from a hub at Honolulu International Airport. Formerly part of Aloha Airlines, it became an independent cargo operator following the closure of the passenger airline in 2008.

Aloha Airlines

Aloha Airlines was an American airline headquartered in Honolulu, Hawaii, operating from a hub at Honolulu International Airport. Operations began on July 26, 1946, and ceased on March 31, 2008.

Aloha Airlines Flight 243

Aloha Airlines Flight 243 (IATA: AQ243, ICAO: AAH243) was a scheduled Aloha Airlines flight between Hilo and Honolulu in Hawaii. On April 28, 1988, a Boeing 737-297 serving the flight suffered extensive damage after an explosive decompression in flight, but was able to land safely at Kahului Airport on Maui. There was one fatality, flight attendant Clarabelle Lansing, who was ejected from the airplane. Another 65 passengers and crew were injured. Despite the substantial damage inflicted by the decompression, and the loss of one cabin crew member, the safe landing of the aircraft established the incident as a significant event in the history of aviation, with far-reaching effects on aviation safety policies and procedures.

Aloha Bowl

The Aloha Bowl was a National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision (then known as Division I-A) college football bowl game played in Honolulu, Hawaii at Aloha Stadium.

Aloha Festivals

The Aloha Festivals are an annual series of free cultural celebrations observed in the state of Hawaii in the United States. It is the only statewide cultural festival in the nation. Highlights include the presentation of the Royal Court, a ho'olaule'a in Waikiki, and the Floral Parade. Approximately 30,000 people volunteer to plan, organize, and provide labor for the Aloha Festivals each year. Their efforts entertain over 1,000,000 people from throughout the state and visitors from all over the world.

Aloha Paradise

Aloha Paradise is an American comedy series that aired on ABC on Wednesday night from February 25, 1981, to April 22, 1981. The series stars Debbie Reynolds and was created by Tom Greene.

Aloha Paradise was executive produced by Douglas S. Cramer and Aaron Spelling, the same team that produced The Love Boat to which the series bore a resemblance.

Aloha Stadium

Aloha Stadium is a stadium located in Halawa, Hawaii, a western suburb of Honolulu (though with a Honolulu address). It is the largest stadium in the state of Hawaii. Aloha Stadium is home to the University of Hawaiʻi Rainbow Warriors football team (Mountain West Conference, NCAA Division I FBS).

It hosts the NCAA's Hawai'i Bowl, and formerly was home to the National Football League's Pro Bowl from 1980 through 2016 (except in 2010 and 2015) and to the NCAA's Hula Bowl from 1975 to 1997 and again from 2006 to 2008. It also hosts numerous high school football games during the season, and serves as a venue for large concerts and events, including high school graduation ceremonies. A swap meet in the stadium's parking lot every Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday draws large crowds.Aloha Stadium was home field for the AAA Hawaii Islanders of the Pacific Coast League (PCL) from 1975 to 1987, before the team moved to Colorado Springs.

Aloha State Park

Aloha State Park is a public recreation area located six miles (9.7 km) south of Cheboygan in Cheboygan County, Michigan. The state park covers 107 acres (43 ha) on the northeast side of Mullett Lake at the center of the Inland Lakes Waterways. The park offers camping, boating, swimming, and fishing and is skirted by the North Eastern State Trail.

Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite

Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite is a concert that was headlined by Elvis Presley, and was broadcast live via satellite on January 14, 1973. The concert took place at the Honolulu International Center (HIC) in Honolulu (now known as the Neal S. Blaisdell Center) and aired in over 40 countries across Asia and Europe (who received the telecast the next day, also in primetime). Despite the satellite innovation, NBC did not broadcast an edited version of the concert in the United States until April 4, 1973 because the concert took place the same day as Super Bowl VII. The decision paid off handsomely for the network, attracting 51 percent of the television viewing audience to become NBC’s highest rated program of the year. The show was the most expensive entertainment special at the time, costing $2.5 million.

Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite (album)

Aloha from Hawaii Via Satellite is a live album by American singer and musician Elvis Presley, released by RCA Records in February 1973. It peaked at #1 on the Billboard chart in the spring of the same year. Despite the satellite innovation, the US did not air the concert until April 4. Aloha from Hawaii (which was a worldwide ratings smash) went to #1 on the Billboard album chart. The album dominated the charts, reaching #1 in both the pop and country charts in the US.

The album was certified Gold on February 13, 1973, platinum and 2× Platinum on May 20, 1988, 3× Platinum on July 15, 1999, and 5× Platinum on August 1, 2002, by the RIAA. On April 15, 2016, the BPI certified the album Silver for sales of 60,000 units.

Aloha shirt

The Aloha shirt, also referred to as a Hawaiian shirt, is a style of dress shirt originating in Hawaii. They are collared and buttoned dress shirts, usually short-sleeved and cut from printed fabric. They are often worn untucked, but can be worn tucked in as well. They are not only casual, informal wear, but serve as formal business attire in Hawaii.

"Aloha Friday", a now-common tradition of celebrating the end of the workweek by wearing more casual attire on Fridays, initially grew out of an effort to promote Aloha shirts.

Pro Bowl

The Pro Bowl is the all-star game of the National Football League (NFL). From the merger with the rival American Football League (AFL) in 1970 up through 2013 and since 2017, it is officially called the AFC–NFC Pro Bowl, matching the top players in the American Football Conference (AFC) against those in the National Football Conference (NFC). From 2014 through 2016, the NFL experimented with an unconferenced format, where the teams were selected by two honorary team captains (who are each in the Hall of Fame), instead of selecting players from each conference. The players were picked in a televised "schoolyard pick" prior to the game.Unlike most major sports leagues, which hold their all-star games roughly midway through their regular seasons, the Pro Bowl is played around the end of the NFL season. The first official Pro Bowl was played in January 1951, three weeks after the 1950 NFL Championship Game (between 1939 and 1942, the NFL experimented with all-star games pitting the league's champion against a team of all-stars). Between 1970 and 2009, the Pro Bowl was usually held the weekend after the Super Bowl. Since 2010, it has been played the weekend before the Super Bowl. Players from the two teams competing in the Super Bowl do not participate.

For years, the game has suffered from lack of interest due to perceived low quality, with observers and commentators expressing their disfavor with it in its current state. It draws lower TV ratings than regular season NFL games, although the game draws similar ratings to other major all-star games, such as the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. However, the biggest concern of teams is to avoid injuries to the star players. The Associated Press wrote that players in the 2012 game were "hitting each other as though they were having a pillow fight".Between 1980 and 2016, the game was played at Aloha Stadium in Hawaii except for two years (2010 and 2015). On June 1, 2016, the NFL announced that they reached a multi-year deal to move the game to Orlando, Florida as part of the league's ongoing efforts to make the game more relevant.

Scouting in Hawaii

Scouting in Hawaii began in the 1900s. It serves thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live.

Languages

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