Alnus glutinosa

Alnus glutinosa, the common alder, black alder, European alder or just alder, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to most of Europe, southwest Asia and northern Africa. It thrives in wet locations where its association with the bacterium Frankia alni enables it to grow in poor quality soils. It is a medium size, short-lived tree growing to a height of up to 30 metres (100 ft). It has short-stalked rounded leaves and separate male and female flower in the form of catkins. The small, rounded fruits are cone-like and the seeds are dispersed by wind and water.

The common alder provides food and shelter to wildlife, with a number of insects, lichens and fungi being completely dependent on the tree. It is a pioneer species, colonising vacant land and forming mixed forests as other trees appear in its wake. Eventually common alder dies out of woodlands because the seedlings need more light than is available on the forest floor. Its more usual habitat is forest edges, swamps and riverside corridors. The timber has been used in underwater foundations and for manufacture into paper and fibreboard, for smoking foods, for joinery, turnery and carving. Products of the tree have been used in ethnobotany, providing folk remedies for various ailments, and research has shown that extracts of the seeds are active against pathogenic bacteria. In the Midwest, Alnus glutinosa is an invasive terrestrial plant soon to be legally banned in Indiana.

Alnus glutinosa
20120904Schwarzerle Reilingen01
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Betulaceae
Genus: Alnus
Subgenus: Alnus subg. Alnus
A. glutinosa
Binomial name
Alnus glutinosa
Alnus glutinosa range
Distribution map
  • Alnus glutinosa var. vulgaris Spach, nom. inval.
  • Alnus vulgaris Hill, nom. inval.
  • Betula alnus var. glutinosa L.
  • Betula glutinosa (L.) Lam.


Alnus glutinosa
Male inflorescence (left) and mature cone-like flowers (right)

Alnus glutinosa is a tree that thrives in moist soils, and grows under favourable circumstances to a height of 20 to 30 metres (66 to 98 ft) and exceptionally up to 37 metres (121 ft).[4] Young trees have an upright habit of growth with a main axial stem but older trees develop an arched crown with crooked branches. The base of the trunk produces adventitious roots which grow down to the soil and may appear to be propping the trunk up. The bark of young trees is smooth, glossy and greenish-brown while in older trees it is dark grey and fissured. The branches are smooth and somewhat sticky, being scattered with resinous warts. The buds are purplish-brown and have short stalks. Both male and female catkins form in the autumn and remain dormant during the winter.[5]

The leaves of the common alder are short-stalked, rounded, up to 10 cm (4 in) long with a slightly wedge-shaped base and a wavy, serrated margin. They have a glossy dark green upper surface and paler green underside with rusty-brown hairs in the angles of the veins. As with some other trees growing near water, the common alder keeps its leaves longer than do trees in drier situations, and the leaves remain green late into the autumn. As the Latin name glutinosa implies, the buds and young leaves are sticky with a resinous gum.[5][6][7]

The species is monoecious and the flowers are wind-pollinated; the slender cylindrical male catkins are pendulous, reddish in colour and 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in) long; the female flowers are upright, broad and green, with short stalks. During the autumn they become dark brown to black in colour, hard, somewhat woody, and superficially similar to small conifer cones. They last through the winter and the small winged seeds are mostly scattered the following spring. The seeds are flattened reddish-brown nuts edged with webbing filled with pockets of air. This enables them to float for about a month which allows the seed to disperse widely.[5][6][7]

Unlike some other species of tree, common alders do not produce shade leaves. The respiration rate of shaded foliage is the same as well-lit leaves but the rate of assimilation is lower. This means that as a tree in woodland grows taller, the lower branches die and soon decay, leaving a small crown and unbranched trunk.[8]


Alnus glutinosa was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, as one of two varieties of alder (the other being A. incana), which he regarded as a single species Betula alnus.[9] In 1785, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck treated it as a full species under the name Betula glutinosa.[10] Its present scientific name is due to Joseph Gaertner, who in 1791 accepted the separation of alders from birches, and transferred the species to Alnus.[2] The epithet glutinosa means "sticky", referring particularly to the young shoots.[11]

Within the genus Alnus, the common alder is placed in subgenus Alnus as part of a closely related group of species including the grey alder, Alnus incana,[12] with which it hybridizes to form the hybrid A. × hybrida.[13]

Distribution and habitat

The common alder is native to almost the whole of continental Europe (except for both the extreme north and south) as well as the United Kingdom and Ireland. In Asia its range includes Turkey, Iran and Kazakhstan, and in Africa it is found in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco. It is naturalised in the Azores.[14] It has been introduced, either by accident or by intent, to Canada, the United States, Chile, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Its natural habitat is in moist ground near rivers, ponds and lakes but it can also grow in drier locations and sometimes occurs in mixed woodland and on forest edges. It tolerates a range of soil types and grows best at a pH of between 5.5 and 7.2. Because of its association with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Frankia alni, it can grow in nutrient-poor soils where few other trees thrive.[15]

Ecological relationships

Alder nodules2
Nodules on the roots caused by the bacterium Frankia alni
Eriophyes inangulis N on upper surface
Galls on the leaves caused by the mite Eriophyes inangulis

The common alder is most noted for its symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Frankia alni, which forms nodules on the tree's roots. This bacterium absorbs nitrogen from the air and fixes it in a form available to the tree. In return, the bacterium receives carbon products produced by the tree through photosynthesis. This relationship, which improves the fertility of the soil, has established the common alder as an important pioneer species in ecological succession.[16]

The common alder is susceptible to Phytophthora alni, a recently evolved species of oomycete plant pathogen probably of hybrid origin. This is the causal agent of phytophthora disease of alder which is causing extensive mortality of the trees in some parts of Europe.[17] The symptoms of this infection include the death of roots and of patches of bark, dark spots near the base of the trunk, yellowing of leaves and in subsequent years, the death of branches and sometimes the whole tree.[15] Taphrina alni is a fungal plant pathogen that causes alder tongue gall, a chemically induced distortion of female catkins. The gall develops on the maturing fruits and produces spores which are carried by the wind to other trees. This gall is believed to be harmless to the tree.[18] Another, also harmless, gall is caused by a midge, Eriophyes inangulis, which sucks sap from the leaves forming pustules.[19]

The common alder is important to wildlife all year round and the seeds are a useful winter food for birds. Deer, sheep, hares and rabbits feed on the tree and it provides shelter for livestock in winter.[15] It shades the water of rivers and streams, moderating the water temperature, and this benefits fish which also find safety among its exposed roots in times of flood. The common alder is the foodplant of the larvae of a number of different butterflies and moths[20] and is associated with over 140 species of plant-eating insect.[19] The tree is also a host to a variety of mosses and lichens which particularly flourish in the humid moist environment of streamside trees. Some common lichens found growing on the trunk and branches include tree lungwort (Lobaria pulmonaria), Menneguzzia terebrata and Stenocybe pullatula, the last of which is restricted to alders.[19] Some 47 species of mycorrhizal fungi have been found growing in symbiosis with the common alder, both partners benefiting from an exchange of nutrients. As well as several species of Naucoria, these symbionts include Russula alnetorum, the milkcaps Lactarius obscuratus and Lactarius cyathula, and the alder roll-rim Paxillus filamentosus, all of which grow nowhere else except in association with alders. In spring, the catkin cup Ciboria amentacea grows on fallen alder catkins.[19]

As an introduced species, the common alder can affect the ecology of its new locality. It is a fast-growing tree and can quickly form dense woods where little light reaches the ground, and this may inhibit the growth of native plants. The presence of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the annual accumulation of leaf litter from the trees also alters the nutrient status of the soil. It also increases the availability of phosphorus in the ground, and the tree's dense network of roots can cause increased sedimentation in pools and waterways. It spreads easily by wind-borne seed, may be dispersed to a certain extent by birds and the woody fruits can float away from the parent tree. When the tree is felled, regrowth occurs from the stump, and logs and fallen branches can take root.[15] A. glutinosa is classed as an environmental weed in New Zealand.[21]

Cultivation and uses

The common alder is used as a pioneer species and to stabilise river banks, to assist in flood control, to purify water in waterlogged soils and to moderate the temperature and nutrient status of water bodies. It can be grown by itself or in mixed species plantations, and the nitrogen-rich leaves falling to the ground enrich the soil and increase the production of such trees as walnut, Douglas fir and poplar on poor quality soils. Although the tree can live for up to 160 years, it is best felled for timber at 60 to 70 years before heart rot sets in.[8]

On marshy ground it is important as coppice-wood, being cut near the base to encourage the production of straight poles. It is capable of enduring clipping as well as marine climatic conditions and may be cultivated as a fast-growing windbreak. In woodland natural regeneration is not possible as the seeds need sufficient nutrients, water and light to germinate. Such conditions are rarely found at the forest floor and as the forest matures, the alder trees in it die out.[22][23] The species is cultivated as a specimen tree in parks and gardens, and the cultivar 'Imperialis' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[24]


The wood is soft, white when first cut, turning to pale red; the knots are attractively mottled. The timber is not used where strength is required in the construction industry, but is used for paper-making, the manufacture of fibreboard and the production of energy.[8] Under water the wood is very durable and is used for deep foundations of buildings. The piles beneath the Rialto in Venice, and the foundations of several medieval cathedrals are made of alder. The Roman architect Vitruvius mentioned that the timber was used in the construction of the causeways across the Ravenna marshes.[25] The wood is used in joinery, both as solid timber and as veneer, where its grain and colour are appreciated, and it takes dye well. As the wood is soft, flexible and somewhat light, it can be easily worked as well as split. It is valued in turnery and carving, in making furniture, window frames, clogs, toys, blocks, pencils and bowls.[5]

Tanning and dyeing

The bark of the common alder has long been used in tanning and dyeing. The bark and twigs contain 16 to 20% tannic acid but their usefulness in tanning is limited by the strong accompanying colour they produce.[26] Depending on the mordant and the methods used, various shades of brown, fawn, and yellowish-orange hues can be imparted to wool, cotton and silk. Alder bark can also be used with iron sulphate to create a black dye which can substitute for the use of sumach or galls.[27] The Laplanders are said to chew the bark and use their saliva to dye leather. The shoots of the common alder produce a yellowish or cinnamon-coloured dye if cut early in the year. Other parts of the tree are also used in dyeing; the catkins can yield a green colour and the fresh-cut wood a pinkish-fawn colour.[26]

Other uses

It is also the traditional wood that is burnt to produce smoked fish and other smoked foods, though in some areas other woods are now more often used. It supplies high quality charcoal.[5]

The leaves of this tree are sticky and if they are spread on the floor of a room, their adhesive surface is said to trap fleas.[26]

Chemical constituents of Alnus glutinosa include hirsutanonol, oregonin, genkwanin,[28] rhododendrin {3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-l-methylpropyl-β-D-glucopyranoside} and glutinic acid (2,3-pentadienedioic acid).[29]


Pollen from the common alder, along with that from birch and hazel, is one of the main sources of tree pollen allergy. As the pollen is often present in the atmosphere at the same time as that of birch, hazel, hornbeam and oak, and they have similar physicochemical properties, it is difficult to separate out their individual effects. In central Europe, these tree pollens are the second most common cause of allergic conditions after grass pollen.[30]

The bark of common alder has traditionally been used as an astringent, a cathartic, a hemostatic, a febrifuge, a tonic and a restorative (a substance able to restore normal health). A decoction of the bark has been used to treat swelling, inflammation and rheumatism, as an emetic, and to treat pharyngitis and sore throat.[29] Ground up bark has been used as an ingredient in toothpaste, and the inner bark can be boiled in vinegar to provide a skin wash for treating dermatitis, lice and scabies. The leaves have been used to reduce breast discomfort in nursing mothers and folk remedies advocate the use of the leaves against various forms of cancer.[22] Alpine farmers are said to use the leaves to alleviate rheumatism by placing a heated bag full of leaves on the affected areas. Alder leaves are consumed by cows, sheep, goats and horses though pigs refuse to eat them. According to some people, consumption of alder leaves causes blackening of the tongue and is harmful to horses.[26]

In a research study, extracts from the seeds of the common alder have been found to be active against all the eight pathogenic bacteria against which they were tested, which included Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The only extract to have significant antioxidant activity was that extracted in methanol. All extracts were of low toxicity to brine shrimps. These results suggest that the seeds could be further investigated for use in the development of possible anti-MRSA drugs.[31]

Details of alder structure and galls

Briesetal bei Briese

Alder carr in Germany


Trees in winter, Germany

Alnus glutinosa R0015202


Alnus glutinosa R0015198


Taphrina amentorum tongue gall

Alder Tongue Gall fungus, Taphrina alni

Taphrina amentorum gall

Detail - Alder Tongue Gall

Black alder in spring

Black alder in Ås, Norway

Alnus glutinosa, Munkholmen

Black alder defies harsh conditions in the Swedish archipelago


  1. ^ Participants of the FFI; IUCN SSC Central Asian regional tree Red Listing workshop, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan (11–13 July 2006) (2007). "Alnus glutinosa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 8 October 2014.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ a b "Alnus glutinosa". The International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 2014-08-31.
  3. ^ "Alnus glutinosa". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2014-08-31.
  4. ^ "Spitzenbäume". Land Brandenburg. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
  5. ^ a b c d e Vedel, Helge; Lange, Johan (1960). Trees and Bushes in Woods and Hedgerows. Methuen. pp. 143–145. ISBN 978-0-416-61780-1.
  6. ^ a b Trees for Life Species Profile: Alnus glutinosa
  7. ^ a b Flora of NW Europe: Alnus glutinosa
  8. ^ a b c Claessens, Hugues; Oosterbaan, Anne; Savill, Peter; Rondeux, Jacques (2010). "A review of the characteristics of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and their implications for silvicultural practices". Forestry. 83 (2): 163–175. doi:10.1093/forestry/cpp038.
  9. ^ "Betula alnus var. glutinosa". The International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 2014-08-31.
  10. ^ "Betula glutinosa". The International Plant Names Index. Retrieved 2014-08-31.
  11. ^ Coombes, Allen J. (1994). Dictionary of Plant Names. London: Hamlyn Books. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-600-58187-1.
  12. ^ Chen, Zhiduan & Li, Jianhua (2004). "Phylogenetics and Biogeography of Alnus (Betulaceae) Inferred from Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA ITS Region". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 165 (2): 325–335. doi:10.1086/382795.
  13. ^ Stace, Clive (2010). New Flora of the British Isles (3rd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 296. ISBN 978-0-521-70772-5.
  14. ^ "Alnus glutinosa". Flora Europaea. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Retrieved 2014-08-09.
  15. ^ a b c d "Alnus glutinosa (tree)". Global Invasive Species Database. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group. 2010-08-27. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  16. ^ Schwencke, J.; Caru, M. (2001). "Advances in actinorhizal symbiosis: Host plant-Frankia interactions, biology, and application in arid land reclamation: A review". Arid Land Research and Management. 15 (4): 285–327. doi:10.1080/153249801753127615.
  17. ^ Phytophthora Disease of Alder
  18. ^ Ellis, Hewett A. (2001). Cecidology. Vol.16, No.1. p. 24.
  19. ^ a b c d Featherstone, Alan Watson (2012-11-26). "Common or black alder". Trees for life. Retrieved 2014-08-07.
  20. ^ Carter, David James; Hargreaves, Brian (1986). A field guide to caterpillars of butterflies and moths in Britain and Europe. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-219080-0.
  21. ^ Clayson, Howell (May 2008). Consolidated list of environmental weeds in New Zealand. Wellington: Department of Conservation. ISBN 978-0-478-14412-3.
  22. ^ a b "Alnus glutinosa - (L.)Gaertn". Plants For A Future. 2012. Retrieved 2014-08-05.
  23. ^ Kajba, D. & Gračan, J. (2003). "Alnus glutinosa" (PDF). EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use for black alder: 4 p.
  24. ^ "Alnus glutinosa Imperialis". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
  25. ^ Paterson, J. M. "The Alder Tree". A Tree in Your Pocket. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  26. ^ a b c d Grieve, M. "Alder, Common". A Modern Herbal. Retrieved 2014-08-05.
  27. ^ Adrosko, Rita J. (2012). Natural Dyes and Home Dyeing. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 41–42. ISBN 978-0-486-15609-5.
  28. ^ O'Rourke, Ciara; Sarker, Satyajit D.; Stewart, Fiona; Byres, Maureen; Delazar, Abbas; Kumarasamy, Yashodharan; Nahar, Lutfun (2005). "Hirsutanonol, oregonin and genkwanin from the seeds of Alnus glutinosa (Betulaceae)". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 33 (7): 749–752. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2004.10.005. ISSN 0305-1978.
  29. ^ a b Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O. P. (2011). "Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus". Pharmacognosy Reviews. 5 (10): 174–183. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.91115. PMC 3263052. PMID 22279375.
  30. ^ "Erle: Schwarzerle, Alnus glutinosa". Alles zur Allergologie (in German). Retrieved 2014-08-05.
  31. ^ Middleton, P.; Stewart, F.; Al-Qahtani, S.; Egan, P.; O'Rourke, C.; Abdulrahman, A.; Byres, M.; Middleton, M.; Kumarasamy, Y.; Shoeb, M.; Nahar, L.; Delazar, A.; Sarker, S. D. (2005). "Antioxidant, Antibacterial Activities and General Toxicity of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior and Papaver rhoeas". Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 4 (2): 101–103.

External links

Aglia tau

Aglia tau, the tau emperor, is a moth of the family Saturniidae. It is found in Europe. The species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae.

The wingspan is 60–84 mm. The moth flies in one generation from March to July depending on the location.

The larvae primarily feed on European beech, but also birch, Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea. and Sorbus aucuparia. The larvae look rather like hickory horned devil caterpillars in the early instar

Argyresthia brockeella

Argyresthia brockeella is a moth of the family Yponomeutidae. It is found in Europe, east Siberia and Japan. The wingspan is 9–12 mm. The moth flies from May to September. [1]. The larvae feed on the catkins of birch (Betula spp) and alder (Alnus glutinosa).

Caloptilia falconipennella

Caloptilia falconipennella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from all of Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula.

The wingspan is about 13 millimetres (0.51 in). Adults are on wing in September and overwinter, reappearing in the spring.The larvae feed on Alnus glutinosa. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a small lower-surface blotch near the leaf margin. The mine is in fact a tentiform mine, but so little silk is produced that the blotch hardly contracts at all. The mine is preceded by a quite short corridor, that is overrun by the later blotch. Older larvae leave the mine and start feeding under a flap of the leaf margin that is folded down and attached to the blade underside with silk. Two or three such folds are made on the same or another leaf.

Coleophora binderella

Coleophora binderella is a moth of the family Coleophoridae. It is found from Scandinavia and Finland to the Iberian Peninsula and Italy, and from Ireland to the Baltic States and Romania.

The wingspan is 8–12 millimetres (0.31–0.47 in). Head deep shining ochreous. Antennae white, indistinctly ringed with fuscous, basal joint ochreous. Forewings deep shining ochreous, coppery tinged. Hindwings blackish..Adults are on wing from late June to July.The larvae feed on Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Alnus viridis, Betula pubescens, Betula pendula, Carpinus betulus and Corylus avellana. They live in a composite leaf case composed of large leaf fragments. In spring, the case has two colours, consisting of dull yellowish and grey or pink old material dating from before hibernation and reddish brown new material.

Coleophora milvipennis

Coleophora milvipennis is a moth of the family Coleophoridae. It is found in all of Europe, east to Japan (Hokkaido).

The wingspan is 10–13 mm. Plain buff brown forewing with a pale costal streak. Only reliably identified by dissection and microscopic examination of the genitalia.

Adults are on wing in one generation per year from late June to July.The larvae feed on Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Alnus viridis, Betula nana, Betula pubescens, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana and Myrica gale. They create a spatulate leaf case. It is slender, bivalved and 8–11 mm long, with a slight curve at the rear end. The end is laterally compressed. The mouth angle is about 45°. The fleck mines are often conspicuously brown. Larvae can be found almost year-round.

Dominance (ecology)

Ecological dominance is the degree to which a taxon is more numerous than its competitors in an ecological community, or makes up more of the biomass.

Most ecological communities are defined by their dominant species.

In many examples of wet woodland in western Europe, the dominant tree is alder (Alnus glutinosa).

In temperate bogs, the dominant vegetation is usually species of Sphagnum moss.

Tidal swamps in the tropics are usually dominated by species of mangrove (Rhizophoraceae)

Some sea floor communities are dominated by brittle stars.

Exposed rocky shorelines are dominated by sessile organisms such as barnacles and limpets.

Epinotia immundana

Epinotia immundana is a moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found in China (Qinghai), Russia and Europe.The wingspan is 12–14 mm. In the British Isles and adjoining areas of continental Europe, the moth flies from April to June and again, in the south, in August and September.

The larvae mainly feed on alder Alnus glutinosa, birch and rose.

Heliozela resplendella

Heliozela resplendella is a moth of the Heliozelidae family. It is found from Fennoscandia and northern Russia to the Pyrenees, Alps and Romania and from Ireland to the Baltic region.

The wingspan is 5–7 mm. Head dark bronzy. Forewings dark greyish-bronze ; a white dorsal spot towards base, and another beyond middle. Hindwings rather dark brassy grey.Adults are on wing from late May to July in one generation per year.The larvae feed on Alnus glutinosa, Alnus glutinosa x incana and Alnus incana. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine starts in a heavy leaf vein. The larva bores in the vein, descending towards the midrib. The larva may move from one thick vein to another with a thin transverse corridor. From the midrib, the larva descends into the petiole. Finally, the larva returns to the leaf through the midrib. Here, it makes a short, full depth, widening corridor with a clear central frass line. Larvae can be found from June and July to October. When full-grown, they cut out an oval case, in which they descend to the ground to pupate.

Kennet Valley Alderwoods

Kennet Valley Alderwoods is a 56.8 hectare (140.35 acre) Site of Special Scientific Interest in the civil parishes of Welford and Speen in the English county of Berkshire, notified in 1997.

Located at grid reference SU400675 and at grid reference SU444669, these woodlands are the largest remaining fragments of damp, ash-alder woodland in the Kennet floodplain. The SSSI includes two woods, the Wilderness and part of Ryott's Plantation, which are important because they support a very great diversity of plants associated with this woodland type, dominated by Alder (Alnus glutinosa), though Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is abundant in places and there is occasional Oak (Quercus robur) and Wych Elm (Ulmus glabra). In addition to the wide range of higher plants the woods support a diverse bryophyte flora including the uncommon epiphytes Radula complanata, Zygodon viridissimus and Orthotrichum affine.

Morchella fluvialis

Morchella fluvialis is a species of fungus in the family Morchellaceae. It was described as new to science in 2014 by Clowez and colleagues, following collections from riparian forests in Spain under Alnus glutinosa, Ulmus minor and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, although previous collections from Turkey under Pinus nigra have also been reported. This species, which corresponds to phylogenetic lineage Mes-18, is very close to Morchella esculenta, from which it differs in its elongated cap with oblong pits and predominantly longitudinal ridges, pronounced rufescence, as well as its Mediterranean hygrophilic distribution along rivers and streams.

Phyllonorycter klemannella

Phyllonorycter klemannella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from all of Europe, except Greece.

The wingspan is 7.5-9.5 mm.The larvae feed on Alnus glutinosa and Alnus incana. They mine the leaves of their host plant. They create a lower-surface tentiform mine between two side veins, often quite far from the midrib. There are many weak folds. There may be several mines in a single leaf. Pupation takes place in a white cocoon within the mine. The cocoon is attached to the roof of the mine and is free from frass, which is concentrated in a corner of the mine, opposite of the cocoon.

Phyllonorycter rajella

Phyllonorycter rajella is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from all of Europe, except the Iberian Peninsula and Greece.

The wingspan is 7–9 mm. There are two generations per year with adults on wing in May and again in August.The larvae feed on Alnus cordata, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Alnus oregona and Alnus viridis, mining the leaves of their host plant. They create a lower-surface tentiform mine, usually in the axle of a thick lateral vein and there is one strong lengthwise fold. Pupation takes place in a tough off-white cocoon that is attached to the floor and the roof of the mine. Most frass is incorporated in the sides of the cocoon.

Pyhä-Häkki National Park

Pyhä-Häkki National Park (Pyhä-Häkin kansallispuisto) is a national park in Central Finland. It was established in 1956 (extended in 1982 when Kotaneva was joined to it) and covers 13 square kilometres (5 sq mi). Its foundation was planned already in the late 1930s, but the Second World War interrupted these plans.

The national park protects old Scots pine and Norway spruce copses, which started growing when Finland was still under Swedish rule, and bogs, which comprise half of the national park. The national park is the largest remaining area of virgin forest in the southern half of Finland. In addition to the pine and the spruce, Betula pendula, Betula pubescens, Populus tremula, and Alnus glutinosa (the latter along some creeks) are the taller tree species encountered in the national park.


Salebriopsis is a genus of snout moths. It was described by Hannemann in 1965. It contains only one species Salebriopsis albicilla, which is found in most of Europe, except Ireland, Portugal, most of the Balkan Peninsula and Ukraine.The wingspan is 19–21 mm. Adults are on wing from May to July in one generation per year.The larvae feed on Salix species, Tilia cordata, Corylus and Alnus glutinosa. They feed between rolled leaves of their host plant.

Stegania cararia

Stegania cararia, the ringed border, is a species of moth of the family Geometridae. It is found from France east to Russia. It is an immigrant in Great Britain. The habitat consists of damp forested areas.

The wingspan is 20–23 mm. Adults are on wing from May to mid-July in one generation per year.The larvae feed on Populus species (including Populus tremula) and Alnus glutinosa. Larvae can be found from July to October.

Stigmella alnetella

Stigmella alnetella is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found in all of Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula.

The wingspan is 3.9-4.8 mm.Head orange, collar deep bronze-fuscous. Antennal eyecaps white. Forewings golden brown, becoming lighter golden towards dorsum anteriorly; a bright shining silvery fascia beyond middle, preceded by a dark purplish-fuscous suffusion, apical area beyond this dark purplish fuscous. Hindwings grey. The larvae feed on Alnus cordata and Alnus glutinosa. They mine the leaves of their host plant. There is usually only one mine in a leaf. Pupation takes place outside of the mine.

Stigmella glutinosae

Stigmella glutinosae is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found in all of Europe (except Iceland, Spain and the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula).

The wingspan is 4.4–5.2 millimetres (0.17–0.20 in).The head is ochreous-yellowish or orange, collar yellow -whitish. Antennal eyecaps yellowwhitish. Forewings bronze-fuscous, sometimes purplish-tinged a narrow whitish fascia beyond middle ; apical area beyond this dark purplish-fuscous. Hindwings light grey. Adults are on wing in May. There are two generations per year.

The larvae feed on Alnus glutinosa, Alnus cordata, Alnus incana, Alnus subcordata and Alnus viridis. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine consists of a full depth, slender corridor. There might be several mines in a single leaf. Pupation takes place outside of the mine.

Westernhope Burn Wood

Westernhope Burn Wood is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in the Wear Valley district of south-west County Durham, England. It occupies the steeply-incised ravine of the Westernhope Burn, a tributary of the River Wear, which it joins from the south about halfway between the villages of Eastgate and Westgate.

The semi-natural deciduous woodland on the slopes of the ravine area is characteristic of the North Pennines, and this is one of the least disturbed areas of such vegetation in County Durham. Ash, Fraxinus excelsior, and wych elm, Ulmus glabra, are the dominant canopy species; hazel, Corylus avellana, is dominant in the understorey, in which holly, Ilex aquifolium, is also common. Alder, Alnus glutinosa, is the dominant species in wetter areas, next to the burn and in valley-side flushes.On the east side of the valley, the underlying sandstone and limestone is exposed as cliffs; these support a vegetation in which wood sage, Teucrium scorodonia, and foxglove, Digitalis purpurea, are among the commonest species. At the base of the cliffs, there are deposits of tufa, which are covered with bryophytes, especially curled hook-moss, Palustriella commutata, scented liverwort, Conocephalum conicum and Pellia spp.

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