Almora

Almora (Hindustani pronunciation: [əlmoːɽaː]) is a municipal board and a cantonment town in the Almora district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Almora district.[3] Almora is located on a ridge at the southern edge of the Kumaon Hills of the Himalaya range, at a distance of 363 km (via NH9)[4] from the national capital New Delhi and 415 km via Saharanpur Rd, 351 km via NH109 and 388.6 km via Ambala- Dehradun- Haridwar Rd from the state capital Dehradun. According to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India, Almora has a population of 35,513. Nestled within higher peaks of the Himalaya, Almora enjoys a year-round mild temperate climate.

Almora was founded in 1568[5] by King Kalyan Chand,[6][7][8] however there are accounts of human settlements in the hills and surrounding region in the Hindu epic Mahabharata[9] (8th and 9th century BCE[10]). Almora was the seat of Chand kings that ruled over the Kumaon Kingdom. It is considered the cultural heart of the Kumaon region of Uttarakhand.

Almora
Hill station
View of Almora City in 2013
View of Almora City in 2013
Almora is located in India
Almora
Almora
Location in Uttarakhand, India
Almora is located in Uttarakhand
Almora
Almora
Almora (Uttarakhand)
Coordinates: 29°35′50″N 79°39′33″E / 29.5971°N 79.6591°ECoordinates: 29°35′50″N 79°39′33″E / 29.5971°N 79.6591°E
Country India
StateUttarakhand
DivisionKumaon
DistrictAlmora
Established1568
Founded byKalyan Chand
Government
 • TypeMayor–Council
 • MayorPrakash Joshi[1]
Area
 • Total7.6 km2 (2.9 sq mi)
Elevation
1,642 m (5,387 ft)
Population
(2011)[2]
 • Total35,513
 • Rank14th (in Uttarakhand)
 • Density4,700/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialHindi
Sanskrit
 • SpokenKumaoni
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
263601
Telephone code91-5962
Vehicle registrationUK-01
Sex ratio1142 /
ClimateAlpine (BSh) and Humid subtropical(Cwb) (Köppen)
Avg. annual temperature−3 to 28 °C (27 to 82 °F)
Avg. summer temperature12 to 28 °C (54 to 82 °F)
Avg. winter temperature−3 to 15 °C (27 to 59 °F)
Websitealmora.nic.in

Etymology

Almora got its name from Bhilmora, a kind of sorrel,(although some have tried to derive it from Berberis "kilmora"[11][12]) a short plant commonly found there [13] which was used for washing the utensils of the sun temple at Katarmal. The people bringing the Bhilmora/kilmora were called Bhilmori/Kilmori and later "Almori" and the place came to be known as "Almora".[14][15]

When king Bhishm Chand laid the foundation of the town, he had initially named it Alamnagar. Prior to that, Almora was known as 'Rajapur' during the early phase of Chand rule.[16][17][18] The name 'Rajpur' is also mentioned over a number of ancient copper plates.[18] There is still a place called Rajpur in Almora.

History

Almora was founded in 1568[19] by Kalyan Chand during the rule of the Chand dynasty.[20] Prior to that the region was under the control of Katyuri King Bhaichaldeo who donated a part of Almora to Sri Chand Tiwari.

Almora, 1860s
Almora in the 1860s

According to local tradition, the earliest inhabitants in Almora were Tewaris who were required to supply Sorrel daily for cleansing the vessels of sun temple at Katarmal.[2]:8 Ancient lore mentioned in Vishnu Purana and Mahabharata present primordial accounts of human settlements in the City.[2]:8 The Sakas, the Nagas, the Kiratas, the Khasas and the Hunas are credited to be the most ancient tribes.[2]:8 The Kauravas and Pandavas of the Hastinapur royal family were the next important princes from the plains who are said to have affected the conquest of these parts.[21]:166 After the Mahabharata war the district seems to have remained for some time under the sway of the kings of Hastinapur whose authority was never more than nominal.[21]:166 The actual rulers were the local chiefs of whom the Kulindas (or Kunindas) were probably strong in the southern and western part of the city.[2]:8 The Khasas were another ancient people who belonged to an early Aryan stock and were widely scattered in those times.[21]:167 They gave this region the name Khasadesha or Khasamandala.[2]:8[21]:167

Almora Bazaar. c1860
Almora Bazaar, c1860

The next age's silent of them may probably be the ones signaling many petty states, rivaling each-other for supremacy and ultimately chartering the inauguration of the noted and enduring dynasty of Chands. Earlier to this, the Katyuris are recorded as the dominant clans in copper and stone engravings.[22] The Chand dynasty from their inception in 953 A.D. to their ouster in the late 18th century present a saga of strife, with horrifying series of wars with rulers of Garhwal culminating in the destruction of this prosperous land and establishment of inglorious Gurkha rule. This dynasty was peculiar in that it made Almora the seat of strongest hill power in 1563 A.D.[23] From that time onwards, the limits of kingdom of Kumaon extended over the entire tracts of districts of Almora and Nainital. Towards the end of the 17th century, Chand Rajas again attacked the Garhwal kingdom, and in 1688, king Udyot Chand erected several temples at Almora, including Tripur Sundari, Udyot Chandeshwer and Parbateshwer, to mark his victory over Garhwal and Doti. The Parbateshwar temple was renamed twice, to become the present Nanda Devi temple.

1777 Rennell - Dury Wall Map of Delhi and Agra, India - Geographicus - DelhiAgrah-dury-1777
Almora in the 1777 map of Delhi and Agra
View of Almora, with soldiers of 3rd Gurkha, 1895
View of Almora, with soldiers of 3rd Gurkha Rifles, 1895.

In 1791, the Gorkhas of Nepal while expanding their kingdom westwards across Kali River, invaded and overran Almora.[2]:8[24] In the meantime, the British were engaged in preventing the Gorkhas from over-running the whole of the northern frontier.[25] The Gorkha rule lasted for twenty-four years. Due to their repeated intrusion into British territories in the Terai from 1800 onwards, Lord Moira, the Governor-General of India, decided to attack Almora in December 1814,[26] marking the beginning of the Anglo-Gorkha war. The war that broke out in 1814,[27][28] resulted in the defeat of the Gorkhas and subsequently led to the signing of the Treaty of Sugauli in 1816.[29]:594[30] According to the treaty, Nepal had to cede all those territories which the Gorkhas had annexed to the British East India Company. After the war, the old Lal Mandi fort, near Almora was renamed ‘Fort Moira’.

Unlike the neighboring hill stations like Nainital and Shimla which were developed by the British,[31][32][33] Almora was developed much before by the Chand kings.[34] The place where the present cantonment is located was formerly known as Lalmandi.[18][35][36] Presently where the collectorate exists, the 'Malla Mahal' (Upper Court) of Chand kings was located.[18][37] The site of present District Hospital used to be 'Talla Mahal' (Lower Court) of Chand rulers.[18][38] Almora had a Population of 8596 in 1901.[39]

Geography

Location

Kosi River valley near Almora, Uttarakhand, India
Kosi River valley near Almora, Uttarakhand, India
1 Almora Uttarakhand India
Almora city in Uttarakhand India
Kasar Devi - panoramio
Himalayan view from Kasar Devi, Almora

Almora is located at 29°35′50″N 79°39′33″E / 29.5971°N 79.6591°E[40] in Almora district in Uttarakhand. Almora is situated 365 km north-east the national capital New Delhi and 415 km south-east the state capital Dehradun. It lies in the revenue Division Kumaon[41] and is located 63 km north of Nainital, the administrative headquarters of Kumaon.[42] It has an average elevation of 1,861 m (6,106 ft) above mean Sea Level.

Almora is situated on a ridge at the southern edge of the Kumaon Hills[18] of the Central Himalaya range in the shape of a horse saddle shaped hillock. The eastern portion of the ridge is known as Talifat[43] and the western one is known as Selifat.[18] The Almora Market is situated at the top of the ridge, where these two, Talifat and Selifat jointly terminate.[18] It is surrounded by thick forests of pine and fir trees. Flowing alongside the city are rivers of Koshi (Kaushiki) and Suyal (Salmale). The snow-capped Himalayas can be seen in the background.

Almora IMG 20160619 113441256 HDR (33029071745) (2) (Cropped)
View of Almora city

Climate

Almora after rain sunlight
view of Almora after rains

The climate of Almora is characterized by relatively high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. The main seasons are summer from March to June, the monsoon season from July to November and winter from December to February. In summer, Almora is largely under the influence of moist, maritime airflow from the western side of the subtropical anticyclonic cells over low-latitude ocean waters. Temperatures are high and can lead to warm, oppressive nights. Summers are usually somewhat wetter than winters, with much of the rainfall coming from convectional thunderstorm activity; tropical cyclones also enhance warm-season rainfall in some regions. The coldest month is usually quite mild, although frosts are not uncommon, and winter precipitation is derived primarily from frontal cyclones along the polar front. The Köppen climate classification subtype for this climate is Cwa (Humid Subtropical Climate).[44]

The average temperature for the year in Almora is 23.5 °C or 74.3 °F.[45] The warmest month, on average, is June with an average temperature of 31.1 °C or 88.0 °F.[45] The coolest month on average is January, with an average temperature of 13.3 °C or 55.9 °F.[45] The average amount of precipitation for the year in Almora is 1,132.5 millimetres or 44.59 inches.[45] The month with the most precipitation on average is August with 330.3 millimetres or 13.00 inches of precipitation.[45] The month with the least precipitation on average is November with an average of 4.8 millimetres or 0.19 inches.[45] There are an average of 46.8 days of precipitation, with the most precipitation occurring in August with 11.9 days and the least precipitation occurring in November with 0.6 days.[45]

Climate data for Almora
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 20.0
(68.0)
22.8
(73.0)
28.7
(83.7)
34.9
(94.8)
38.1
(100.6)
37.0
(98.6)
32.9
(91.2)
32.4
(90.3)
32.2
(90.0)
31.1
(88.0)
26.9
(80.4)
21.8
(71.2)
29.9
(85.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
15.9
(60.6)
21.1
(70.0)
27.1
(80.8)
30.6
(87.1)
31.1
(88.0)
28.7
(83.7)
28.4
(83.1)
27.5
(81.5)
24.5
(76.1)
19.4
(66.9)
14.7
(58.5)
23.5
(74.3)
Average low °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
8.9
(48.0)
13.5
(56.3)
19.3
(66.7)
23.0
(73.4)
25.2
(77.4)
24.7
(76.5)
24.5
(76.1)
22.9
(73.2)
17.9
(64.2)
12.0
(53.6)
7.7
(45.9)
17.2
(63.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 26.6
(1.05)
26.1
(1.03)
21.3
(0.84)
15.2
(0.60)
31.9
(1.26)
140.9
(5.55)
318.4
(12.54)
330.3
(13.00)
172.2
(6.78)
34.4
(1.35)
4.6
(0.18)
10.6
(0.42)
1,132.5
(44.6)
Average precipitation days 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.3 1.9 4.9 11.3 11.9 6.2 1.8 0.6 1.0 46.8
Average snowy days 6.3 3.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 4.4 15.2
Mean daily sunshine hours 10.9 11.6 12.4 13.3 14.1 14.5 14.3 13.6 12.7 11.8 11.1 10.7 12.6
Source: India Meteorological Department[46]
Weatherbase[47]

Flora and fauna

Forests and Valley of Uttarakhand India (2)
Forests in Almora over hills

The region is immensely rich with 4000 species of plants, having remarkable diversity in its natural vegetation by virtue of its being at a great range of elevation. In addition to its climatic variations, particularly in temperature and precipitation associated with the alignment and altitudes of ranges and nature of valleys, determine the altitudinal growth and variety of vegetation. The flora of this region may be classified into tropical, Himalayan sub-tropical and sub alpine and alpine vegetation. The alpine and sub alpine zones are considered as the most natural abode of the largest number of medicinal plants.

The sub-alpine zones of Almora and outskirts are a natural sanctuary for leopard, Langur, Himalayan black bear, kakar, goral etc. Whereas the high altitude zones abound musk deer, popularly called "Kastura Mrig", snow leopard, blue sheep, thar etc. The entire zone is rich in a remarkable variety of birds possessing plumage of magnificent design and colours like peacock, which include Grey Quail, Black francolin/Kala Titar, Whistling thrush, Chakor, Monal, cheer pheasant, koklas pheasant etc.

Demographics

Population Growth of Almora 
CensusPop.
18716,260
18817,39018.1%
18917,8265.9%
19018,5969.8%
191110,56022.8%
19218,359-20.8%
19319,68815.9%
194110,99513.5%
195112,75716.0%
196116,60230.1%
197120,88125.8%
198122,7058.7%
199128,05123.5%
200132,35815.4%
201135,5139.8%
source:[2][48][49][50][51]
<div style="border:solid transparent;position:absolute;width:100px;line-height:0;

Religions in Almora (2011)

  Hinduism (90.84%)
  Islam (7.54%)
  Sikhism (0.23%)
  Other or not religious (1.39%)

As of 2011 India census, Almora has population of 35,513 of which 18,306 are males while 17207 are females.[2]:20 out of the total population, The Almora Municipal Board has population of 34,122[52] while The Almora Cantonment Board has population of 1,391.[53] Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 3081 which is 8.67% of total population of Almora.[2]:20 Literacy rate of Almora city is 86.19 %[2]:21 higher than state average of 78.82%. Male literacy is around 88.06% while female literacy rate is 84.21%.[2]:21 Almora had a population of 32,358 according to the 2001 Census of India.[54]

The earliest known reference to the population of Almora occurs in the book Kingdom of Nepal by Francis Hamilton. In Fatehgarh Pt. Hariballav Pande had told Hamilton that in Almora, during the time of the Gorkha rule, there were around 1000 houses.[24]:297 Mr. G.W. Traill, the second commissioner of Kumaon division, writes that in 1821 A.D. there were 742 houses in Almora in which lived 1369 men, 1178 women and 968 children and thus the total population was 3505.[55]:115

Hinduism is Practised by 90.84% of the total population and is the majority religion of Almora. Islam is practised by 7.54% people and is the largest Minority religion. Other Religions like Sikhism, Christianity and Buddhism are also practised by small number of People. Hindi and Sanskrit are the official languages of the state while Kumaoni is the mother tongue of the majority.

Municipal board (Nagar Palika Parishad) of Almora was established in 1864. The Almora Nagar Palika Parishad has population of 34,122 of which 17,358 are males while 16,764 are females as per report released by Census India 2011.[52] Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 2950 which is 8.65% of total population of Almora (NPP).[52] In Almora Nagar Palika Parishad, Female Sex Ratio is of 966 against state average of 963.[52] Moreover, Child Sex Ratio in Almora is around 857 compared to Uttarakhand state average of 890.[52] Literacy rate of Almora city is 94.51% higher than state average of 78.82%.[52] In Almora, Male literacy is around 96.84% while female literacy rate is 92.13%.[52] Schedule Caste (SC) constitutes 16.38% while Schedule Tribe (ST) were 1.00% of total population in Almora (NPP).[52] Out of total population, 10,057 were engaged in work or business activity. Of this 7,901 were males while 2,156 were females.[52] Of total 10057 working population, 93.25% were engaged in Main Work while 6.75% of total workers were engaged in Marginal Work.[52] Almora Nagar Palika Parishad has total administration over 8,014 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage, it is divided into 11 wards for which elections are held every 5 years.

Culture

These mountains are associated with the best memories of our race: Here, therefore, must be one of centres, not merely of activity, but more of calmness of meditation, and of peace and I hope some one to realize it.

— Swami Vivekananda (replying to the address given to him by the people of Almora.)

[56][57]

Temples

Kasar Devi Temple
Kasar Devi Temple

Almora has many notable temples, including Kasar Devi, Nanda Devi, Doli Daana, Shyayi Devi, Khakmara, Asht Bhairav, Jakhandevi, Katarmal (Sun Temple), Pataal Devi, Raghunath Mandir, Badreshwar, Banari Devi, Chitai, Jageshwar,[58] Binsar Mahadev, Garhnath and Baijnath.

Kasar Devi temple was visited by Swami Vivekananda and this area has a Chabad House.[59][60]:96[61] Rudreshwar Mahadev Temple, near Sanara Ganiya, is dedicated to Lord Shiva. It is beside the river Ram Ganga. A sun temple (only the second in the world) is at Katarmal, a short distance from the town. The famous temple of Manila Devi, Devi Maa, the family goddess of the Katyuri clan, lies around 85 km from Ranikhet. Udaipur a famous temple of Golu devta is 5 km. from Binta near Dwarahat.

Dunagiri has the highly revered temple of Shakti or Mother Goddess. Dunagiri is known as the birthplace of modern-day Kriya Yoga. There is a very famous and notable temple in Almora district which is in the village of Chaura near Bhaisor Gaun, Someshwar. This temple is dedicated to lord Golu who is considered as a lord of justice in Uttarakhand. This temple is about 40 km from Almora town. Another very famous temple of Almora district is Airdau which is in Someshwar. Someshwar is a small town in Almora district, which is very rich in agricultural way.

Pandu Kholi is another famous and ancient temple in Almora district. According to Hindu mythology Pandvas spent some time here to escape from Duryodhana. The distance of this temple from Almora is about 80 km. Another very ancient and holy Shiva temple in Someshwar town is known as Khakeshwar Mahadev temple. It is in Bhaisor Gaun village, on the bank of a river.

Transport

  • KMOU Bus Station Mall Road
  • KMOU Bus Station Dharanaula
  • Uttarakhand Roadways Bus Station Dharanaula
  • ISBT Almora Laxmeshwer Lower Mall Road
Kathgodam station
Kathgodam is the nearest railway station to Almora

Pantnagar Airport, located in Pantnagar is the primary Airport serving entire Kumaon Region. Indira Gandhi International Airport, located in Delhi is the nearest international Airport. Kathgodam railway station is the nearest railway station. Kathgodam is the last terminus of the broad gauge line of North East Railways that connects Kumaon with Delhi, Dehradun and Howrah.

Almora is well connected by motorable roads with major destinations of Uttarakhand state and northern India. Uttarakhand Transport Corporation runs Buses from Almora bus station to Delhi and Dehradun. Taxis and Private Buses, mostly run by K.M.O.U, connect Almora to other major destinations of Kumaon region. Government of Uttarakhand is constructing an ISBT near lower mall road[62] which will be very helpful for establishing a large tourist network in city and around nearby destinations of kumaon region. It will be the second ISBT of uttarakhand after Dehradun.[63] A Sub Regional Transport Office is located in Almora[64] where Vehicles are registered by the number UK-01.[65]

Education

Almora has one university, Uttarakhand Residential University. Almora has a total of 23 Primary Schools, 7 Middle Schools, 2 Secondary Schools and 9 Senior Secondary Schools.

List of schools

  • Holy Angel Public School
  • Koormanchal Academy
  • NBU International School
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya Almora
  • K D Memorial public School
  • Vivekanand Girls Inter College
  • Vivekanand Intermediate College
  • Adam's Girls Inter College
  • New Modern Public School
  • New Inspiration School
  • Maharishi Vidya Mandir
  • Beersheba Sr. Secondary Public School
  • Sharda Public School
  • Almora Inter College
  • Ramsay's Inter College
  • Raja Anand Singh Govt. Girls Inter College
  • Govt. Inter College
  • Aarya Kanya Inter College
  • St. Paul public school
  • Army Public School
  • Grace Public School
  • Green Field Public School
  • Spring Dales public school
  • Saraswati Shishu Mandir Narsingh Badi, Shivaji Nagar, Jeewan Dham
  • Lorraine's Public School
  • Mangal Deep Vidya Mandir
  • Govt.Inter College Raingal
  • Blooming birds public school

Institutions

  • SSJ Government Institute of Medical Sciences & Research
  • Kumaon University SSJ Campus M. G. ROAD
  • G.B. Pant National Institute of Himalayan Environment and Sustainable Development, Ranikhet road
  • ICAR Vivekanand Institute of Hill Agriculture and Research, Mall road
  • Government Institute of Hotel Management & catering Technology Nainital road
  • Govt. Girls Polytechnic College Patal Devi
  • NRDMS Kumaon University
  • CEMS Almora
  • Govt. Law college SSJ Campus
  • Pandit Udit Uday Shankar Natya Academy
  • Uttarakhand Residential University Almora

Media and communications

All India Radio has a local station in Almora which transmits programs of mass interest.[66] Almora station of A.I.R. was founded in June 1986 and is a primary channel station running on medium wave catering the whole of Kumaon division.[67] The main service providers are Dish TV and Doordarshan. BSNL, Vodafone and Airtel have the three largest cellular networks in the city. There are Internet cafés in and around the city, but broadband connectivity is limited. Satellite dishes exist in most homes in the region and the channels available throughout India are also available here.

Multiple local Hindi and English newspapers are published, whereas regional and national Hindi and English newspapers, printed elsewhere in India, are also circulated in Almora. a number of historical newspapers and magazines have been published from Almora like Prabuddha Bharata, Almora Akhbar, Shakti and Swadhin Praja etc.[68]

In 1871 A.D. Pt. Buddhiballav Pant opened a debating club.[69]:134 When Sir William Muir, the then provincial Governor, came here he was highly pleased with the working of this club.[55]:120 It is said that he also advised to open a press here and publish a newspaper. Mr. Pant, as advised, opened a press here and started publishing a weekly magazine Almora Akhbar.[68]:21 Almora Akhbar was the oldest Hindi weekly of this province. In 1913 A.D. Badri Datt Pandey took over the editing work of the magazine. Almora Akhbar made much progress; The number of its customers rose from 50-60 to 1500; however, it was closed in 1917. In 1918 one of the partners purchased the Debating Club Press and named it Vindhyavasini Press. From 1922 A.D. a weekly named Zila Samachar began to be published.[55]:120 Later on it came to be called Kumaun Kumud and was still being published until the late 1930s.[55]:120

In 1893-94, Babu Devidas opened Kumaun Printing Press which published a weekly named Kurmanchal Samachar.[55]:120 Another weekly named Kurmanchal Mitra was also published but it was stopped after sometime.[55]:120 The Prabuddha Bharata started publication in August 1898 from Almora, and was edited by Swami Swarupananda.[70] In 1918 A.D. Badri Datt Pandey with the help of his friends opened a press named Deshbhakta and started publishing a magazine Shakti from it.[68]:21[69]:134[71]:45 Being displeased at the policy of Shakti, some of his partners filed suits and withdrew their shares and in 1919 A.D. opened Sombari Press from which for some time a magazine named 'Jyoti' was published.[55]:120 Later on this press also was sold and the publication was stopped. Shakti continued published till 1942, when owing to policies of the government, its publication was stopped.[69]:134 The publication resumed again in 1946 with the efforts of Pandit Gobind Ballabh Pant.[71][69]:134

In 1930 A.D. a paper named Swadhin Praja was published.[69]:134[72] Its director was patriot Victor Mohan Joshi.[72] In 1934 A.D. a weekly named Samta was published.[72] Directed by an artisan, Hari Prasad Tamta,[72] it received a monthly help of Rs. 2001- from the government.[55]:120 Formerly it was printed in Indra Printing Press but later the publication shifted to Krishna Press in Haldwani.[55]:120 Since 1935 A.D. an illustrated monthly magazine named Natkhat is being published from Indra Printing Press.[55]:120

Notable people

Vivekananda Image August 1894
Swami Vivekananda visited Almora thrice during his Himalayan sojourns
Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant
Govind Ballabh Pant was born in Almora
Mahendra Singh Dhoni January 2016
Cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni has Ancestral roots in Almora

Further reading

  • Rivett-Carnac, J. H. (1879). Archaeological notes on ancient sculpturings on rocks in Kumaon, India. Calcutta : G.H. Rouse.
  • Upreti, Ganga Dutt (1894). Proverbs & folklore of Kumaun and Garhwal. Lodiana Mission Press.
  • Oakley, E Sherman (1905). Holy Himalaya; the religion, traditions, and scenery of Himalayan province (Kumaon and Garwhal). Oliphant Anderson & Ferrier, London.
  • of Kumaon, Raja Rudradeva; (Ed. with English tr. Haraprasada Shastri) (1910). Syanika sastra: or A Book on Hawking. Asiatic Society, Calcutta.

References

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External links

Ajay Tamta

Ajay Tamta is a politician from Uttarakhand, India. He's currently Minister of State for Textiles and also Member of Parliament (MP) from Almora constituency . He was also elected as member of Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly from Someshwar, Almora in 2012 elections as a member of Bharatiya Janata Party.

He contested 2009 Lok Sabha elections from Almora of Uttarakhand.

Albert Almora

Reinaldo Albert Almora Jr. (born April 16, 1994) is an American professional baseball outfielder of Cuban descent, who currently plays for the Chicago Cubs of Major League Baseball (MLB). Almora primarily plays center field.

Almora, Illinois

Almora is an unincorporated community in Kane County, in the U.S. state of Illinois.

Almora district

Almora district is a district in the Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state, India. The headquarters is at Almora. It is 1,638 meters above sea level. The town of Almora is surrounded by Pithoragarh district to the east, Garhwal region to the west, Bageshwar district to the north and Nainital district to the south.

The hill station of Almora is situated on a horseshoe-shaped ridge of a mountain, the eastern portion of which is called Talifat and the western one is known as Selifat. The landscape of Almora attracts tourists each year for its views of the Himalayas, cultural heritage, handicrafts and cuisine, and is a business hub for the Kumaon region. Developed by the kings of Chand dynasty, it was later maintained and further developed by the British regime.

B. D. Pande

Bhairav Dutt Pande (born 17 March 1917; died 4 April 2009) was a member of the Indian Civil Service and Union Cabinet Secretary of the Government of India under Indira Gandhi. He served as the Governor of West Bengal (1981–1983), and Punjab (1983–1984), and the Administrator of Chandigarh for a brief period.Born in Almora, in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, Pande served as a Cabinet Secretary to the Union Government from 2 November 1972 to 31 March 1977. When President's rule was imposed on Punjab, he served as the Governor of the state.Pande was married to Vimla Pande. They had three children: Arvind Pande, environmentalist Lalit Pande, and Ratna Pande. His brother-in-law, Vinod Chandra Pande, was also a former Governor and Union Cabinet Secretary.He was one of the last living members of the Imperial Civil Service, having entered in the 1939 batch.The Government of India awarded Pande the fourth highest civilian honour of the Padma Shri, in 1972, for his contributions to Indian society and the Padma Vibhushan in 2000.

Chand kings

The Chand Kings were a medieval Rajput ruling clan of the Kumaon region of the Uttarakhand state of India, which ruled the region after the decline of Katyuri Kings in 11th century AD. It claimed Raghuvanshi ancestry.

Dwarahat

Dwarahat is a town and a nagar panchayat in Almora district in the state of Uttarakhand, India.

Ghananand Pande

Ghananand Pande (1 January 1902 – before 1995) was an Indian scientist. He not only served at key positions in the Government of India but also made significant contribution towards nurture and education of young talents. He was honored with the highest civilian award of India, Padma Vibhushan in year 1969.

Harish Rawat

Harish Chandra Singh Rawat (born 27 April 1948) is an Indian politician who was Chief Minister of Uttarakhand from 2014-2017. A five-time Member of Parliament, Rawat is a leader of the Indian National Congress party. As a member of 15th Lok Sabha, Rawat served as Union Minister of Water Resources in the cabinet of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh from 2012 to 2014. He also worked as Minister of State at the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Food Processing Industries (2011-2012) and Ministry of Labour and Employment (2009-2011).

Jageshwar Temples, Uttarkhand

Jageshwar Temples, also referred to as Jageswar Temples or Jageshwar valley temples, are a group of over 100 Hindu temples dated between 7th and 12th century near Almora, in the Himalayan Indian state of Uttarakhand. The valley has a number of temple clusters such as the Dandeshwar and Jageshwar sites. Some locations have attracted construction of new temples through the 20th-century. Together these clusters over the valley consist of over 200 structural temples built from cut stone. Many are small, while a few are substantial. They predominantly illustrate North Indian Nagara style of architecture with a few exceptions that show South and Central Indian style designs, many are dedicated to god Shiva, while others in immediate vicinity are dedicated to god Vishnu, Shakti goddesses and Surya traditions of Hinduism.Jageshwar is a Hindu pilgrimage town and one of the Dhams (pilgrimage region) in the Shaivism tradition. The site is protected under Indian laws, and managed by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). It includes Dandeshwar Temple, Chandi-ka-Temple, Jageshwar Temple, Kuber Temple, Mritunjaya Temple, Nanda Devi or Nau Durga, Nava-grah temple, a Pyramidal shrine, and Surya Temple. The site celebrates the Jageshwar Monsoon Festival during the Hindu calendar month of Shravan (overlaps with July–August) and the annual Maha Shivratri Mela (Shivratri festival), which takes place in early spring.

There are other Hindu temples in the Himalayan region that are called Jageshwar Temple such as one in Dalash, Himachal Pradesh.

Kumaon division

For Kumaoni people see Kumaoni people

Kumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of Uttarakhand, a mountainous state of northern India, the other being Garhwal. It includes the districts of Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udham Singh Nagar. It is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Nepal, on the south by the state of Uttar Pradesh, and on the west by the Garhwal region. The people of Kumaon are known as Kumaonis and speak the Kumaoni language.

Historically ruled by the kings of Katyuri and Chand Dynasties, the Kumaon division was formed in 1816, when the British reclaimed this region from the Gorkhas, who had annexed the erstwhile Kingdom of Kumaon in 1790. The division initially consisted of three districts, Kumaon, Terai and Garhwal, and formed the northernmost frontier of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces in British India, that later became North Western Provinces in 1836, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh in 1902, and United Provinces in 1937.

It is home to a famous Indian Army regiment, the Kumaon Regiment.

Important towns of Kumaon are Haldwani, Nainital, Almora, Pithoragarh, Rudrapur, Kichha, Kashipur, Pantnagar, Mukteshwar and Ranikhet. Nainital is the administrative centre of Kumaon Division and this is where the Uttarakhand high court is located.

Kumaoni language

The Kumaoni language is a Central Pahari language.

Kumaoni was spoken by over 2,360,000 (1998) people but it decreased to 2,011,286 (2011) in Uttarakhand, primarily in districts Almora, Nainital, Pithoragarh, Bageshwar, Champawat, Udham Singh Nagar as well as in areas of Himachal Pradesh and Nepal. It is also spoken by Kumaonis resident in other Indian states; Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Delhi and Madhya Pradesh.The Central Pahari languages include Kumaoni and Garhwali (spoken in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand). Kumaoni, like Garhwali, has many regional dialects spoken in different places in Uttarakhand. Amongst its dialects, the Central Kumauni is spoken in Almora and northern Nainital, Northeastern Kumauni is in Pithoragarh, Southeastern Kumauni is in Southeastern Nainital, Western Kumauni is west of Almora and Nainital.Almost all people who can speak and understand Kumaoni can also speak and understand Hindi, one of the official languages of India. Due to a number of reasons (including the predominance of Hindi), the use of Kumaoni is shrinking very rapidly. UNESCO’s Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger designates Kumaoni as language in the unsafe category and which requires consistent conservation efforts.

Lectures from Colombo to Almora

Lectures from Colombo to Almora (1897) is a book of Swami Vivekananda based on his various lectures. After visiting the West, Vivekananda reached Colombo, British Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) on 15 January 1897. Upon Vivekananda's arrival in South India, a forty-feet high monument was built by the king of Ramnad on the spot where he landed to celebrate his achievements at the West. He reached Calcutta via Madras on 20 January 1897. Then Vivekananda travelled extensively and visited many Indian states. On 19 June (1897) he reached Almora. The lectures delivered by him in this period were compiled into the book Lectures from Colombo to Almora. The book contains reports of his 17 lectures.

List of constituencies of the Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly

Following is the list of the constituencies of the Uttarakhand Legislative Assembly as of most recent delimitation of legislative assembly constituencies in 2008.

Murli Manohar Joshi

Murli Manohar Joshi (born 5 January 1934) is an Indian politician, a leading politician of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) of which he was the President between 1991 and 1993, and the current Member of Parliament for Kanpur. He later became the Union Human Resources Development minister in the National Democratic Alliance government. He is best known for his views on hindu social politics and for his humanistic policies based on integral humanism. Joshi was awarded Padma Vibhushan, the second-highest civilian award, in 2017 by the Government of India.

Nainital district

Nainital district is a district of Uttarakhand state, India. The headquarters is at Nainital.

Nainital District is located in Kumaon Division, and is bounded on the north by the Almora District and on the south by the Udham Singh Nagar District. Haldwani is the largest town in the district.

National Highway 109 (India)

National Highway 109 (NH 109), (Previously NH 87), is a highway in India which runs in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. It is one of the most important routes, connecting the entire Kumaon region to the state as well as the country. It is also the major route towards the hill stations such as Nainital, Kausani, Ranikhet, Mukteswar and Almora from Delhi. Previously known as NH 87, it was renumbered as NH 109 in 2010. The northern terminal is at NH 7 near Karnaprayag and the southern terminal is at National Highway 9 near Rudrapur. More than 10,000 vehicles travel through NH-109 in tourist season.

National Highway 309A (India)

National Highway 309A, commonly referred to as NH 309A, is a single lane highway connecting the city of Rameshwar to Almora in the Indian State of Uttarakhand. Before the separation of Uttarakhand in 2000, the Almora-Bageshwar stretch of this Highway was a part of the State Highway 37 of Uttar Pradesh, which ran from Bageshwar to Bareilly.

West Himalayish languages

The West Himalayish languages, also known as Almora and Kanauric, are a family of Sino-Tibetan languages centered in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and across the border into Nepal. LaPolla (2003) proposes that the West Himalayish languages may be part of a larger "Rung" group.

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