João Baptista da Silva Leitão de Almeida Garrett, 1st Viscount of Almeida Garrett (Portuguese pronunciation: [aɫˈmɐjdɐ ɡɐˈʁɛt(ɨ)]; 4 February 1799 – 9 December 1854) was a Portuguese poet, orator, playwright, novelist, journalist, politician, and a peer of the realm. A major promoter of theater in Portugal he is considered the greatest figure of Portuguese Romanticism and a true revolutionary and humanist. He proposed the construction of the D. Maria II National Theatre and the creation of the Conservatory of Dramatic Art.
The Viscount of Almeida Garrett
A lithograph of Garrett, by Pedro Augusto Guglielmi
|Born||João Baptista da Silva Leitão de Almeida Garrett|
4 February 1799
Porto, Kingdom of Portugal
|Died||9 December 1854 (aged 55)|
Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal
|Occupation||Poet, playwright, novelist, politician, journalist|
|Notable works||Viagens na Minha Terra, Camões, Frei Luís de Sousa|
|Minister and Secretary of State|
of Foreign Affairs
4 March 1852 – 17 August 1852
|Prime Minister||The Duke of Saldanha|
|Preceded by||António Jervis de Atouguia|
|Succeeded by||António Jervis de Atouguia|
|Chief Chronicler of the Kingdom of Portugal|
20 December 1838 – 16 July 1841
|Prime Minister||The Viscount of Sá da Bandeira|
|Preceded by||João Bernardo da Rocha Loureiro|
|Succeeded by||The Viscount of Santarém|
(as Guardian of the Royal Archives)
|Inspector-General of the National Theatres and Shows|
22 November 1836 – 16 July 1841
|Prime Minister||The Viscount of Sá da Bandeira|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Joaquim Larcher|
Garrett was born in Porto, the son of António Bernardo da Silva Garrett (1739–1834), a fidalgo of the Royal Household and knight of the Order of Christ, and his wife (they were married in 1796) Ana Augusta de Almeida Leitão (b. Porto, c. 1770), the daughter of an Irish father born in exile in France and an Italian mother born in Spain. At an early age, around 4 or 5 years old, Garrett changed his name to João Baptista da Silva Leitão, adding a name from his godfather and altering the order of his surnames.
In 1809, his family fled the second French invasion carried out by Soult's troops, seeking refuge in Angra do Heroísmo, Terceira Island, Azores. While in the Azores, he was taught by his uncle, Dom Frei Alexandre da Sagrada Família (Faial, Horta, 22 May 1737 – Terceira, Angra do Heroísmo, 22 April 1818), also a freemason, then the 25th Bishop of Angra (1816–1818) and former Bishop of Malacca and Timor; his two other uncles were Manuel Inácio da Silva Garrett, Archdeacon of Angra, and Inácio da Silva Garrett, also a clergyman of Angra. In childhood, his mulatto Brazilian nanny Rosa de Lima taught him some traditional stories that later influenced his work.
In 1818, he moved to Coimbra to study at the University law school. In 1818, he published O Retrato de Vénus , a work for which was soon to be prosecuted, as it was considered "materialist, atheist, and immoral"; it was during this period that he adopted and added his pen name de Almeida Garrett, who was seen as more aristocratic.
Although he did not take active part in the Liberal Revolution that broke out in Porto in 1820, he contributed with two patriotic verses, the Hymno Constitucional and the Hymno Patriótico, which his friends copied and distributed in the streets of Porto. After the "Vilafrancada", a reactionary coup d'état led by the Infante Dom Miguel in 1823, he was forced to seek exile in England. He had just married the beautiful Luísa Cândida Midosi who was only 12 or 13 years old at the time and was the sister of his friend Luís Frederico Midosi, later married to Maria Teresa Achemon, both related to theatre and children of José Midosi (son of an Italian father and an Irish mother) and wife Ana Cândida de Ataíde Lobo. While in England, in Edgbaston, Warwickshire, he began his association with Romanticism, being subject to the first-hand influences of William Shakespeare and Walter Scott, as well as to that of Gothic aesthetics. In the beginning of 1825, Garrett left for France where he wrote Camões (1825) and Dona Branca (1826), poems that are usually considered the first Romantic works in Portuguese literature. In 1826, he returned to Portugal, where he settled for two years and founded the newspapers O Portuguez and O Chronista. In 1828, under the rule of King Miguel of Portugal, he was again forced to settle in England, publishing Adozinda and performing his tragedy Catão at the Theatre Royal in Plymouth. 
Together with Alexandre Herculano and Joaquim António de Aguiar, he took part in the Landing of Mindelo, carried out during the Liberal Wars. When a constitutional monarchy was established, he briefly served as its Consul General to Brussels; upon his return, he was acclaimed as one of the major orators of Liberalism, and took initiative in the creation of a new Portuguese theatre (during the period, he wrote his historical plays Gil Vicente, D. Filipa de Vilhena, and O Alfageme de Santarém).
In 1843, Garrett published Romanceiro e Cancioneiro Geral, a collection of folklore; two years later, he wrote the first volume of his historical novel O Arco de Santana (fully published in 1850, it took inspiration from Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame). O Arco de Santana signified a change in Garrett's style, leading to a more complex and subjective prose with which he experimented at length in Viagens na Minha Terra  (Travels in My Homeland, 1846). His innovative manner was also felt in his poem collections Flores sem Fruto (Flowers without Fruit, 1844) and Folhas Caídas (Fallen Leaves) 1853).
Nobled by Dona Maria II of Portugal in 1852 with the title of 1st Viscount of Almeida Garrett, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs for only a few days in the same year (in the cabinet of the Duke of Saldanha).
Almeida Garrett ended his relationship with Luísa Midosi and divorced in 1835 (who later remarried Alexandre Desiré Létrillard) to join 17-year-old Adelaide Deville Pastor in 1836 – she was to remain his partner until her early death in 1839, causing him to break, and leaving a daughter named Maria Adelaide (who later married and had issue), whose early life tragedy and illegitimacy inspired her father in order to write the play Frei Luís de Sousa.
Later in his life he became the lover of Rosa de Montúfar y Infante, a Spanish noblewoman daughter of the 3rd Marquesses de Selva Alegre, wife of Joaquim António Velez Barreiros, 1st Baron and 1st Viscount de Nossa Senhora da Luz and twice (277th and 286th) Commander of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa, and Minister and Governor of Cape Verde, whom he celebrated at his last and probably best poetry book Folhas Caídas.
Garrett died of cancer in Lisbon at 6:30 in the afternoon of 9 December 1854. He was buried at the Cemetery of Prazeres and, on 3 May 1903, his remains were transferred to the national pantheon in the Jerónimos Monastery, where they rest near to those of Alexandre Herculano and Luís Vaz de Camões.
Despite the wish that it went to his natural daughter, one of the reasons why he accepted it, his title passed on to the descendants of his brother Alexandre José da Silva de Almeida Garrett (7 August 1797 – 24 October 1847), fidalgo of the Royal Household, who was a partisan of King Miguel I of Portugal for all his life, and wife (m. 16 June 1822) Angélica Isabel Cardoso Guimarães (2 February 1803 –). He also had a sister Maria Amália de Almeida Garrett, who married in the Azores where they were then living with Francisco de Meneses de Lemos e Carvalho (Terceira, Angra do Heroísmo, 20 September 1786 –) and had female issue.
Honour: Portugal issued a set of 4 postage stamps in honor of Joao Baptista da Silva Leitao de Almeida Garrett on 7 March 1957.
Alfacinha is a term to denote a person from Lisbon, the etymology of which is unclear. The first known reference arises in the mid-19th century, in the book Travels in My Land by Almeida Garrett (1846), "For you shall be Alfacinhas forever, supposing that all the squares of this world are like the Palace Square ...".According to one explanation, the term comes from the fact that in the region of Lisbon lettuce (alface) is an abundant plant, and given the Arabic origin of the word, has been cultivated on a large scale during the Muslim period.Almeida Garrett Library
Almeida Garrett Library (Portuguese: Biblioteca Almeida Garrett) is a library located in the civil parish of Lordelo do Ouro e Massarelos, in municipality of Porto, Portugal.Angra do Heroísmo
Angra do Heroísmo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈɐ̃ɡɾɐ du eɾuˈiʒmu]), generally known as Angra, is a municipality and city on the island of Terceira in the Portuguese autonomous region of the Azores. The population in 2011 was 35,402, in an area of 239.00 km². It forms the southern half of Terceira, with the north belonging to Praia da Vitória. Together with Ponta Delgada on São Miguel and Horta on Faial, Angra is one of the three regional capitals of the Azores. Each capital is responsible for one of the three branches of government. It is also the location of the Azorean bishop.
The town was established in the latter half of the 15th century. Angra served as a place of exile for Almeida Garrett during the Napoleonic Wars. It also served as a refuge for Queen Maria II of Portugal from 1830 to 1833. It was classified as a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1983.Ary dos Santos
José Carlos Ary dos Santos, GCIH or just Ary dos Santos (Lisboa, December 7, 1937 – Lisboa, January 18, 1984) was one of the most relevant names of the Portuguese popular poetry of the 20th century.
Born of a bourgeois family, Ary dos Santos soon developed several skills for poetry. At only 14, the family published some poems, against his will - (he thought the poems were not good enough). In 1954, at the age of 16, Ary saw some of his poems being selected for the Anthology of the Almeida Garrett prize. After that, Ary fell out with his father and left his family home, working on several jobs, like errand boy, bubblegum and machines seller, tutor, docker, clerk and finally publicist. His poetic work continued to develop and in 1963 he published his first book, A Liturgia do Sangue [Liturgy of Blood].
1969 was the year that changed Ary's life, as he liked to say. He became a member of the Portuguese Communist Party and quickly developed his revolutionary vein.
Ary dos Santos established himself as one of the best known poets of his time by virtue of his song-writing. Having a profound impact in the late 20-th century Portuguese music, Ary dos Santos authored more than 600 hundred lyrics, voiced by the most respected Portuguese singers such as Amalia Rodrigues, Simone de Oliveira, Carlos do Carmo, Paulo de Carvalho and Fernando Tordo.Ary participated, under a pseudonym, in the 1969's RTP Song Contest, writing the lyrics of the winning song: A Desfolhada, performed by Simone de Oliveira.During his career, Ary also wrote several revolutionary poems, for political intervention, about the Estado Novo regime's anti-democratic policies, the need for freedom and celebrating the post-revolutionary conquests, which led him to be called the poet of the revolution.
Ary dos Santos died at age 46 from cirrhosis.Chief Chronicler of the Kingdom of Portugal
Chief Chronicler of the Kingdom (Portuguese: Cronista-Mor do Reino) was a courtly position in the Kingdom of Portugal, formally instituted in 1434 by King Edward I. The Chief Chronicler was the official authority on Portuguese historiography, and the post was soon associated to the post of Keeper of the Royal Archives, already centralised in an autonomous way in the 1370s — a singularity in late medieval history in both its precocious creation and organisation.The first to occupy the position was Fernão Lopes, in 1434. The last occupant was writer and politician Almeida Garrett, who was sacked in 1841, after fiercely criticising António José de Ávila (who was then Minister of the Exchequer), and no one was appointed to replace him. The following year, Minister of the Kingdom Costa Cabral issued a decree extinguishing the position of Chief Chronicler and transferring its responsibilities to the Keeper of the Royal Archives.Donna Bianca
Donna Bianca is an opera in a prologue and four acts composed by Alfredo Keil to an Italian-language libretto by César Féréal. The libretto is based the narrative poem Dona Branca by Almeida Garrett. The opera premiered on 10 March 1888 at the Teatro São Carlos in Lisbon and had 30 performances between 1888 and 1899. The opera was revived at the Teatro São Carlos in September 2010 in a series of four concert performances sung in the original Italian.Set in Portugal during the reconquest of the Kingdom of the Algarve from the Moors in the second half of the 13th century, the opera recounts the tragic love story between Afonso III's daughter Dona Branca and the Moor ruler Aben-Afan.Francisco Gomes de Amorim
Francisco Gomes de Amorim (13 August 1827 in Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal – 4 November 1891 in Lisbon) was a Portuguese poet and dramatist who was a friend of Almeida Garrett.Frei Luís de Sousa
Frei Luís de Sousa is a play in three acts by Portuguese playwright Almeida Garrett, premiered on 4 July 1843 and first published the following year. A classical tragedy, it is loosely based on the true story of a 16th-century nobleman who, after being presumed killed in battle, returns to Portugal under Spanish rule, to the consternation of his wife who has since remarried.Frei Luís de Sousa is considered Almeida Garrett's dramatic masterpiece and the archetype of Portuguese Romantic theatre. José-Augusto França has called Frei Luís de Sousa "the masterpiece of 19th-century Portuguese theatre", and João Gaspar Simões notes that it is "easily the foremost document of national theatre."It has been adapted into the English language as The Pilgrim.Garrett Theatre
The Garrett Theatre (Portuguese: Teatro Garrett or Cine-Teatro Garrett, archaic and original Portuguese naming Theatro Garrett) is a theatre located at Rua José Malgueira Street (former rua da Senra street) in Junqueira quarter, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal which is often referred simply as Garrett. It is one of the historic theatres of Portugal, and some of the best performers of Portuguese, Brazilian and Spanish drama staged there, including Ary Fontoura, João Villaret, Laura Alves, Procópio Ferreira, and Ruy de Carvalho. Orchestras, tunas, variety shows, political meetings were also common in Garrett history.
The theatre is named in honor of famed 19th-century Portuguese playwright Almeida Garrett, who got inspiration to write his most famous work Frei Luís de Sousa after watching a play in Póvoa around this location. The current location is from 1890 and was, by far, the theater with most longevity and social impact in the city and its vicinity. In the middle of the 20th century, with the popularization of cinema, it became known as Cine-Teatro Garrett or Cinema Garrett.João Silva
João Silva or da Silva may refer to:
João Silva (footballer, born 1926), Portuguese footballer
João Silva (photographer) (born 1966), Portuguese journalist and photographer based in South Africa
João Silva (triathlete) (born 1989), competitor in the ITU World Championship Series competitions
João Silva (footballer, born 1990), Portuguese footballer
João Luiz Ferreira da Silva (born 1981), Brazilian footballer known as Preto
João Batista da Silva (born 1955), Brazilian football defender
João Batista da Silva (athlete) (born 1963), Brazilian sprint athlete
João Alves de Assis Silva (born 1987), Brazilian footballer known as Jô
João Baptista da Silva Leitão de Almeida Garrett (1799–1854), Portuguese poet, playwright, novelist and politician known as Almeida Garrett
João Carlos Marinho Silva (born 1935), Brazilian writer
João Domingos da Silva Pinto (born 1961), Portuguese footballer and manager
João J. R. Fraústo da Silva (born 1933), Portuguese chemist
João Marques da Silva Oliveira (1853-1927), Portuguese painter
João da Silva (boxer) (born 1946), Brazilian Olympic boxer
João Silva (footballer, born 1998), Portuguese footballerLeitão
Leitão or Leitao is a Portuguese surname meaning "piglet". Notable people with the surname include:
Alexandre Filipe Clemente Leitão (born 1979), Portuguese footballer
João Baptista da Silva Leitão de Almeida Garrett (1799-1854), Portuguese poet, playwright, novelist and politician
António Leitão (1960–2012), Portuguese athlete
Ashley Leitão (born 1986), Canadian singer
Carlos Leitão, (born 1959), former finance minister, Canadian province of Quebec
Dave Leitao (born 1960), American basketball coach
Joaquim Leitão (born 1956), Portuguese film director
Jorge Leitão (born 1974), Portuguese football player
José Leitão de Barros (1896–1967), Portuguese film director and playwright
Rafael Leitão (born 1979), Brazilian chess grandmaster
Maria Luisa Leitao, Hong Kong television host and actressLenda de Gaia
The Lenda de Gaia (Legend of Gaia) is a medieval Portuguese legend recorded in two manuscripts, the Livro Velho (1286/1290) and the Livro de Linhagens do Conde Dom Pedro (1340/1383), both of which are collections of aristocratic genealogies embellished with a mix of history and legend. The Lenda de Gaia concerns the tenth-century king Ramiro II of León and the origins of the Maia family. The main events take place in Gaia at the mouth of the river Douro.The Lenda de Gaia is generally seen as part of a literary tradition common to the Iberian peninsula, France and Germany inspired by the Biblical story of the marriage King Solomon and the pharaoh's daughter. It has many tropes common to folk tales, including the adulterous wife who hides her husband to meet her lover, the king who goes undercover as a beggar and the summoning of help by means of a hunting horn. Although it is not overtly political, it sends the clear message that illicit interfaith sexual liaisons have disastrous consequences. Like similar legends in Castilian and Aragonese literature, the deaths of the illicit lovers result in a positive military outcome for the Christians.Lisbon Theatre and Film School
The Lisbon Theatre and Film School (Escola Superior de Teatro e Cinema) of the Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon
inherited the function of the National Conservatoire, founded by Almeida Garrett, in 1836, and of teaching Film, introduced in the same establishment since 1971. The main goal of the Lisbon Theatre and Film School is training in the fields of Theatre and Cinema. Sometimes it is still referred to by its former designation "Conservatório Nacional". It is a public institution of higher education created in Lisbon but now located in Amadora, Portugal.Maria Helena da Costa Dias
Maria Helena Ferreira Chaves da Costa Dias (1917-1994) was a Portuguese writerMiracle of the Sun
The Miracle of the Sun (Portuguese: O milagre do sol), also known as the Miracle of Fátima, was an event that is reported to have occurred on 13 October 1917, attended by a large crowd who had gathered in Fátima, Portugal, in response to a prophecy made by three shepherd children. The prophecy was that the Virgin Mary (referred to as Our Lady of Fátima), would appear and perform miracles on that date. Newspapers published testimony from people who said that they had witnessed extraordinary solar activity, such as the Sun appearing to "dance" or zig-zag in the sky, careen towards the Earth, or emit multicolored light and radiant colors. According to these reports, the event lasted approximately ten minutes.
The local bishop opened a canonical investigation of the event in November 1917, to review witness accounts and assess whether the alleged private revelation from Mary were compatible with Catholic theology. The local priest conducting the investigation was particularly convinced by the concurring testimony of extraordinary solar phenomena from secular reporters, government officials, and other skeptics in attendance. Bishop José da Silva declared the miracle "worthy of belief" on 13 October 1930, permitting "officially the cult of Our Lady of Fatima" within the Catholic Church.At a gathering on 13 October 1951 at Fátima, the papal legate, Cardinal Federico Tedeschini, told the million people attending that on 30 October, 31 October, 1 November, and 8 November 1950, Pope Pius XII himself witnessed the miracle of the Sun from the Vatican gardens. The early and enduring interest in the miracle and related prophesies has had a significant impact on the devotional practices of many Catholics.There has been much analysis of the event from critical sociological and scientific perspectives. According to critics, the eyewitness testimony was actually a collection of inconsistent and contradictory accounts. Proposed alternative explanations include witnesses being deceived by their senses due to prolonged staring at the Sun and then seeing something unusual as expected.Portuguese literature
Portuguese literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the Portuguese language, particularly by citizens of Portugal; it may also refer to literature written by people living in Portugal, Brazil, Angola and Mozambique, as well as other Portuguese-speaking countries. An early example of Portuguese literature is the tradition of a medieval Galician-Portuguese poetry, originally developed in Galicia and northern Portugal. The literature of Portugal is distinguished by a wealth and variety of lyric poetry, which has characterized it from the beginning of its language, after the Roman occupation; by its wealth of historical writing documenting Portugal’s rulers, conquests, and expansion; by the then considered Golden Age of the Renaissance period of which it forms part the moral and allegorical Renaissance drama of Gil Vicente, Bernardim Ribeiro, Sá de Miranda and especially the great 16th-century national epic of Luís de Camões, author of national and epic poem Os Lusíadas (The Lusiads).
The seventeenth century was marked by the introduction of the Baroque in Portugal and is generally regarded as the century of literary decadence, despite the existence of writers like Father António Vieira, Padre Manuel Bernardes and Francisco Rodrigues Lobo.
The writers of the eighteenth century tried to counteract a certain decadence of the baroque stage by making an effort to recover the level of quality attained during the Golden Age, through the creation of academies and literary Arcadias - it was the time of Neoclassicism. In the nineteenth century, the neoclassical ideals were abandoned, where Almeida Garrett introduced Romanticism, followed by Alexandre Herculano and Camilo Castelo Branco.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, Realism (of naturalistic features) developed in novel-writing, whose exponents included Eça de Queiroz and Ramalho Ortigão. Literary trends during the twentieth century are represented mainly by Fernando Pessoa, considered as one of the greatest national poets together with Camões, and, in later years, by the development of prose fiction, thanks to authors such as António Lobo Antunes and José Saramago, winner of the Nobel prize for Literature.Siege of Porto
The Siege of Porto is considered the period between July 1832 and August 1833 in which the troops of Dom Pedro remained besieged by the forces of Dom Miguel I of Portugal.The resistance of the city of Porto and the troops of Dom Pedro made the victory of the liberal cause in the Kingdom of Portugal possible. Those that fought in the Siege of Porto on the Liberal side include Almeida Garrett, Alexandre Herculano and Joaquim António de Aguiar.Teatro da Cornucópia
Teatro da Cornucópia is a theatre company in Portugal founded in 1973 by Jorge Silva Melo and Luís Miguel Cintra with the staging of the play The Misanthrope by Molière. The theatre is located at the Teatro do Bairro Alto, Rua Tenente Raul Cascais, Lisbon.
It has presented works by: Sophocles, Plauto, Seneca, Lope de Vega, Calderón de la Barca, Shakespeare, Corneille, Marivaux, Beaumarchais, Hölderlin, Schiller, Strindberg, Ibsen, Chekhov, Gorki, Ostróvski, Pirandello, Brecht, Catherine Dasté, Franz Xaver Kroetz, Michel Deutsch, Odon von Horváth, Georg Büchner, Karl Valentin, Dario Fo, Jean Paul Wenzel, Claudine Fiévet, Heiner Müller, Botho Strauss, William Wycherley, Edward Bond, Lorca, Igor Stravinsky, William Walton, Hans Werner Henze, Samuel Beckett, Joe Orton, Georg Buchner, Peter Handke, Georges Courteline, Genet, Jean-Claude Biette, Gertrude Stein, Lars Norén, Ferenc Molnár, Stig Dagerman, Heinrich von Kleist, Pasolini, R.W. Fassbinder, Christian Dietrich Grabbe, Jakob Lenz, Gil Vicente, Luís de Camões, Francisco de Holanda, António José da Silva, Almeida Garrett, Raul Brandão, Fiama H.P. Brandão, Eduarda Dionísio, Sophia M.B. Andresen, Manuel de Figueiredo, José Meireles and Ruy Belo.
The theatre closed on December 17, 2016.