Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve

The Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve (Spanish: Reserva Nacional Allpahuayo-Mishana) is a protected area in Peru located southwest of Iquitos in the Loreto Region, Maynas Province. The Nanay River flows through the northern part of the reserve.

It was created in 1999 and covers an area of 142,272 acres. It is managed by SERNANP (Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado) which is a branch of the Ministry of Environment (Peru).

Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve
Allpahuayo Mishana
LocationLoreto Region, Maynas Province, Peru
Coordinates3°55′41″S 73°33′22″W / 3.928°S 73.556°WCoordinates: 3°55′41″S 73°33′22″W / 3.928°S 73.556°W[1]
Area58,069.9 ha
EstablishedJanuary 16, 2004 (D.S. 002-2004-AG)

Biodiversity & Endemism

The Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve contains 500 varieties of trees per 2.5 acres, more than anywhere else on Earth, and nearly 100 unique plant species. There are over 1,900 flora species; 475 bird species; 143 species of reptiles; 71 species of amphibians; more than 90 species of parasitic wasps; and more butterfly species than any other site in the world.

More than 500 species of animals over 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in length were found in a three-quarter hectare area of the Reserve - a world record.[2]

The rainforest in the Reserve is composed of several soil types - ranging from rare white quartz sands to red clays - and each of these soil types supports a unique community of plants and animals.

White sand forests are a rarely found ecosystem characterized by isolated patches of extremely poor soil; for this reason, many species adapted to this environment are extremely restricted in range. The ecosystem type, due to its isolated nature and distinctive environmental conditions, has been described as a "laboratory of evolution"[3]. There are 21 species of bird found within the Reserve that are associated only with the white sand forests, and since the inception of white-sands ornithological expeditions in the 1990s, novel and unique species are continually being discovered.[4] The white-sands forest protected by the reserve serves as critical habitat for the Ancient Antwren, Mishana Tyrannulet, Allpahuayo Antbird, and the Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird; meanwhile, the critically endangered Iquitos Gnatcatcher is currently only known from within the boundaries of the reserve.

Three species of endangered primates are found within the reserve, and for two of them, the Yellow-handed Titi Monkey, and the Equatorial Saki Monkey, the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve is the only place in Peru where these monkeys and their habitat have been officially protected.


Located only 23 km (14 miles) from Iquitos, around the Nanay River and its black-water tributaries, the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve was previously only accessible by boat. However, with the construction of a new road between Iquitos and Nauta, it is now much more accessible putting it under a lot of pressure, from such practices as illegal invasion, hunting, agriculture and logging.

See also


  1. ^ "Allpahuayo Mishana".
  2. ^ "Allpahuayo Mishana National Reserve".
  3. ^ Fine, Paul V. A.; Baraloto, Christopher (2016). "Habitat Endemism in White-sand Forests: Insights into the Mechanisms of Lineage Diversification and Community Assembly of the Neotropical Flora". Biotropica. 48: 24–33. doi:10.1111/btp.12301.
  4. ^[0001:ANZTAT]2.0.CO;2/A-NEW-iZIMMERIUS-i-TYRANNULET-AVES--TYRANNIDAE-FROM-WHITE/10.1676/0043-5643(2001)113[0001:ANZTAT]2.0.CO;2.full

External links

Amazon River

The Amazon River (UK: , US: ; Spanish and Portuguese: Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and by some definitions it is the longest.The headwaters of the Apurímac River on Nevado Mismi had been considered for nearly a century as the Amazon's most distant source, until a 2014 study found it to be the headwaters of the Mantaro River on the Cordillera Rumi Cruz in Peru. The Mantaro and Apurímac join, and with other tributaries form the Ucayali River, which in turn meets the Marañón River upstream of Iquitos, Peru, to form what countries other than Brazil consider to be the main stem of the Amazon. Brazilians call this section the Solimões River above its confluence with the Rio Negro to form what Brazilians call the Amazon at the Meeting of Waters (Portuguese: Encontro das Águas) at Manaus, the largest city on the river.

At an average discharge of about 209,000 cubic metres per second (7,400,000 cu ft/s; 209,000,000 L/s; 55,000,000 USgal/s)—approximately 6,591 cubic kilometres per annum (1,581 cu mi/a), greater than the next seven largest independent rivers combined—the Amazon represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean. The Amazon basin is the largest drainage basin in the world, with an area of approximately 7,050,000 square kilometres (2,720,000 sq mi). The portion of the river's drainage basin in Brazil alone is larger than any other river's basin. The Amazon enters Brazil with only one-fifth of the flow it finally discharges into the Atlantic Ocean, yet already has a greater flow at this point than the discharge of any other river.

Department of Loreto

Loreto (Spanish pronunciation: [loˈɾeto]) is Peru's northernmost department. Covering almost one-third of Peru's territory, Loreto is by far the nation's largest department; it is also one of the most sparsely populated regions due to its remote location in the Amazon Rainforest. Its capital is Iquitos.

Dipteryx charapilla

Dipteryx charapilla is a little-known species of legume in the family Fabaceae, a large to mid-sized tree growing along rivers in the rainforests of Brazil and Peru.

Dipteryx micrantha

Dipteryx micrantha is a tropical legume, a giant tree in the Faboideae subfamily of the bean family Fabaceae. It is a dominant emergent tree in parts of the rainforests of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. In the international timber market, this species is traded under the name cumaru. It furnishes a dense, hard, beautiful reddish timber which has become a popular import in the 2010s for use in parquet. The ornamental bunches of lilac pink flowers high in the canopy eventually develop into to a mass of large fruit pods, which are an important food for many native animals during the dry season. The fruit contains a single oily seed which is edible, although these seeds are not exploited as a commercial product.


Iquitos ( (listen); Spanish pronunciation: [iˈkitos]), also known as City of Iquitos, is the capital city of Peru's Maynas Province and Loreto Region. The largest metropolis in the Peruvian Amazon, east of the Andes, it is the ninth most populous city of Peru.

It is known as the "capital of the Peruvian Amazon". The city is located in the Great Plains of the Amazon Basin, fed by the Amazon, Nanay, and Itaya rivers. Overall, it constitutes the Iquitos metropolitan area, a conurbation of 471,993 inhabitants consisting of four districts: Iquitos, Punchana, Belén, and San Juan Bautista. It is the largest city in the world that cannot be reached by road – it is accessible only by river and air.The area was long inhabited by indigenous peoples. The founding date of the European city is uncertain. Spanish historical documents state that it was set up around 1757 as a Spanish Jesuit reduction by the banks of the Nanay River. The Jesuits gathered local Napeano (Yameo) and Iquito natives to live here, and they named it San Pablo de Napeanos.

In the late 19th century, the city became the center of export of rubber production from the Amazon Basin and was the headquarters of the Peruvian Amazon Company (PAC). The rubber boom attracted thousands of European traders and workers, some of whom amassed wealth with the high-volume production, processing and trade in rubber. The city's economy was highly dependent on the PAC, controlled in the nation by Peruvian businessman Julio César Arana.

The operations of PAC's forces in the Basin, who kept indigenous workers in near slavery conditions through use of force and harsh treatment, was investigated by Roger Casement, the British consul-general in Peru. He had investigated labor conditions for natives in the Congo Free State when it was under King Leopold's control, reporting on the abuse of thousands of workers. His 1913 exposure of abuses of Peruvian workers caused a reaction against the company among the several British members of its board and many stockholders. The company struggled financially and lost backing in the UK. In addition, rubber seedlings had been smuggled out of the country and cultivated on plantations in Southeast Asia. As the plants matured, the competition undercut prices of the Peruvian product. With the decline of the rubber industry, many workers and merchants left Iquitos.

As one of the leading cities, along with Manaus, in the huge Amazon rubber boom (1880–1914), Iquitos was influenced by the numerous Europeans who flocked to it. Architecture and cultural institutions established during this period expressed their own traditions. An opera house and Jewish cemetery were among the institutions established.

Later in the 20th century, the city and region diversified its economy. The region exported timber, fish and their products, oil, minerals, and agricultural crops. It also derives considerable revenue from tourism and related crafts, as well as bakery, and carbonated drinks and beer. By 1999, the city had consolidated its four municipalities.

The architecture and historical treasures reflect the colonial and early 20th-century European period, attracting an increased tourist trade in the 21st century. In addition it is a center of ecological tourism. It has become a major cosmopolitan city with strong roots in the Amazon, featuring a complex history and cuisine, Amazonian landscapes, nightlife, and a growing cultural movement.

In 2012, 250,000 visitors were recorded. Many have been attracted since the Amazon rainforest was ranked as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the World. Iquitos inaugurated international flights to the main hub of Panama City in 2012, with shared destinations with Miami and Cancún. Its international airport is expected to become one of six international air centers of Peru. The city was ranked as sixth on the list of "10 leading cities in 2011" of the Lonely Planet guidebook.

The Historic Center of Iquitos has several structures that have been designated as part of the Cultural Heritage of the Nation: the Cathedral of Iquitos, the Iron House, the Old Hotel Palace, Cohen House, and more than 70 other buildings. Other landmarks are the Plaza de Armas; Jiron Prospero, an avenue that is the site of several shopping and historical areas; and the lively neighborhood of Belén, often dubbed the "Amazon Venice" for its many waterways. The city is also home to the Amazon Library, one of the two most important in Latin America.

The city can be reached only by airplane or boat, with the exception of a road to Nauta, a small town roughly 100 km (62 mi) south (which is not connected to the country's main road network). Ocean vessels of 3,000 to 9,000 tons and 5.5 metres (18 ft) draft can reach Iquitos via the Amazon River from the Atlantic Ocean, 3,600 kilometres (2,200 miles) away. Most people travel within the city via bus, motorcycle, or the ubiquitous auto rickshaw (mototaxi, motocarro or motocar). This is a modified motorcycle with a cabin behind supported by two wheels, seating up to three persons. Transportation to nearby towns often requires a river trip via pequepeque, a slow public motorized boat, or public speedboats.

Iquitos gnatcatcher

The Iquitos gnatcatcher (Polioptila clementsi) is a gnatcatcher described as new to science in 2005. It is currently only known from the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve, west of Iquitos, Peru. The species is a member of the Polioptila guianensis complex. The specific name was chosen to honour the American ornithologist James F. Clements.

Maynas Province, Peru

Maynas is one of the eight provinces in the Loreto Region in northeastern Peru. Its capital, Iquitos, is also Loreto's regional capital and the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon Rainforest.

Nanay River

The Nanay River is a river in northern Peru. It is a tributary of the Amazon River, merging into this river at the city of Iquitos. The lower part of the Nanay flows to the north and west of the city, while the Itaya River flows to the south and east. Other nearby settlements on the Nanay River include the villages of Santo Tomás, Padre Cocha, and Santa Clara. During periods when the river is low, the many beaches along the Nanay are popular destinations. The Nanay belongs entirely to the lowlands, and is very crooked, has a slow current and divides into many canos and strings of lagoons which flood the flat, low areas of country on either side. It is simply the drainage ditch of districts which are extensively overflowed in the rainy season. Captain Archibald Butt USN, ascended it 195 mi (314 km), to near its source. A part of the Nanay River flows through the Allpahuayo-Mishana National Reserve.

The Nanay is a blackwater river and it has a high fish species richness, including several that are well-known from the aquarium industry. Some of these, notably green discus, are the result of accidental introductions that happened in the 1970s.

Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve

Pacaya–Samiria National Reserve, is a protected area located in the region of Loreto, Peru and spans an area of 20,800 km2 (8,000 sq mi). It protects an area of low hills and seasonally flooded forest in the Amazon rainforest.

Peruvian Amazonia

Peruvian Amazonia (Spanish: Amazonía del Perú) is the area of the Amazon rainforest included within the country of Peru, from east of the Andes to the borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil and Bolivia. This region comprises 60% of the country and is marked by a large degree of biodiversity. Peru has the second-largest portion of the Amazon rainforest after the Brazilian Amazon.

National Parks
National Sanctuaries
Historic Sanctuaries
National Reserves
Wildlife Refuges
Landscape Reserves
Communal Reserves
National Forests
Protection Forests
Game Reserves
Reserved Zones
Regional Conservation Areas
Private Conservation Areas


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