Allied Joint Force Command Naples

Allied Joint Force Command (JFC) Naples (JFC Naples) is a NATO military command based in Lago Patria, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy—the base was formerly located in the Bagnoli quarter of Naples. It was activated on 15 March 2004, after what was effectively a redesignation of its predecessor command, Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH), originally formed in 1951.[1] AFSOUTH in NATO Military Command Structure terms was a "Major Subordinate Command".[2] Commander JFC Naples reports to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Casteau, Belgium.

Joint Force Command Naples
Afsouth-logo
Coat of arms
ActiveAFSOUTH 1951–2004
15 March 2004 – present
AllegianceNATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Part ofAllied Command Operations, Casteau, Belgium
HeadquartersGiugliano in Campania, Naples, Italy
EngagementsBosnian War
Kosovo War
Military intervention in Libya
Commanders
CommanderAdmiral James G. Foggo III, United States Navy
Deputy CommanderLieutenant-General J. C. G. Juneau, Canadian Army
Chief of StaffLieutenant-General Luciano Portolano, Italian Army
Locations of NATO's two strategic commands—Allied Command Transformation (ACT; yellow marks) and Allied Command Operations (ACO; red marks)—the latter of which has Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) as its headquarters. The subordinate centres of ACT and subordinate commands and joint force commands of ACO are also shown, minus the new Joint Force Command - Norfolk.

History

Cold War

Originally, Allied Forces Southern Europe was one of two major NATO commands in the Mediterranean area, the other being Allied Forces Mediterranean based on the island of Malta, responsible for naval activities in the region. While Admiral Robert B. Carney of the U.S. Navy was appointed as Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe (CinCAFSOUTH) on 19 June 1951,[3] AFMED was not activated until 1953. The delay was due to negotiations and compromises between the Americans and the British, who wished to retain one of their commanders over Britain's traditional sea lines of communication stretching through the Mediterranean to the Suez Canal and beyond. From 1951 to 2003, the Commander-in-Chief of Allied Forces Southern Europe was always a United States Navy admiral, based at Naples, who also held the US Navy position of Commander-in-Chief United States Naval Forces Europe and functioned as the Navy service component commander for United States European Command within the US-only chain of command. AFSOUTH headquarters was established at Nisida island, Naples.

The initial command arrangements for AFSOUTH consisted of the classic three land, sea, and air headquarters preferred by Eisenhower. Allied Land Forces Southern Europe (LANDSOUTH), Allied Naval Forces Southern Europe (NAVSOUTH), and Allied Air Forces Southern Europe (AIRSOUTH) were all established in Italy.[4] Greece and Turkey joined the alliance in early 1952.[5][6] On 8 September 1952, a new allied land command, Allied Land Forces South-Eastern Europe (LANDSOUTHEAST), was created with its headquarters in Izmir, Turkey, under the command of a U.S. officer, Lieutenant General Willard G. Wyman.[7] Under this command, with its headquarters in Izmir assisted by the subordinate Thessaloniki Advanced Command Post, were to be most of the Greek and Turkish armies in case of war.

The first AIRSOUTH commander became U.S. Major General David M. Schlatter, USAF. On 14 October 1953, the Sixth Allied Tactical Air Force was also established in Izmir, commanded by Major General R.E.L. Easton, USAF, and responsible to Allied Air Forces Southern Europe for the air defence of Greece and Turkey.[7] Three national air Commands were assigned to it: the Turkish 1st and 3rd Tactical Air Forces, and the Greek Air Force's Royal Hellenic 28th Tactical Air Force. In terms of actual forces this meant two Greek wings and four Turkish fighter-bomber groups of F-84 aircraft, plus some B-26A Mosquitoes.

Later in 1953, the various national naval forces within Allied Forces Mediterranean were organised into six Sub-Principal Subordinate Commands (Sub-PSCs), each commanded by an Admiral (including one French (MEDOC), one Greek, one Turkish, one Italian and two British). In time of war, CINCAFMED would be responsible for securing the Sea lines of communications throughout the Mediterranean Sea.[5]

Some of AFSOUTH's first exercises took place in 1952. Operation Ancient Wall was a series of military maneuvers involving ground small unit tactical training, land-based tactical air support, and carrier-based air support under the overall command of Admiral Carney.[8] Exercise Grand Slam was a combined naval exercise held in the Mediterranean Sea between 25 February to 16 March 1952. The exercise included allied warships escorting three convoys of supply ships which were subjected to repeated simulated air and submarine attacks, as well as anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations and naval gunfire shore bombardment.[9] Operation Longstep was a ten-day naval exercise held in the Mediterranean Sea held during November 1952. It involved over 170 warships and 700 aircraft, and it featured a large-scale amphibious assault along the western coast of Turkey.[10]

1953 AFSOUTH exercises included:

  • "Italic Weld" — a combined air-naval-ground exercise in northern Italy involving the United States, Italy, Turkey, and Greece[11]
  • "Weldfast" — a combined amphibious landing exercise in the Mediterranean Sea involving British, Greek, Italian, Turkish, and U.S. naval forces[11]

In 1957, Operation Deep Water simulated the defence of the Dardanelles from a Soviet attack. The exercise included an 8,000 strong amphibious landing.

The drawdown of the British Mediterranean Fleet, the military difficulties of the politically-decided command structure, and the withdrawal of the French from the military command structure forced a rearrangement of the command arrangements in the southern region. Allied Forces Mediterranean was disbanded on 5 June 1967, and all forces in the south and the Mediterranean assigned to AFSOUTH.[1]

AFSOUTH continued to conduct exercises in the 1960s and 1970s, among which was exercise 'Dawn Patrol,' a five-nation naval and air exercise conducted throughout the Mediterranean in 1974.[12] The U.S. contribution to the exercise was based on the USS America carrier battle group. During the 1960s Exercise Deep Furrow appears to have been held annually. Deep Furrow, will be conducted from 20–29 September 1973 in the southern region of Allied Command Europe. Forces from Greece, Turkey and other countries in AF South Command will participate in Exercise Deep Furrow 73, which is scheduled annually by CINCSOUTH. Land forces will hold maneuvers in Greek and Turkish Thrace and naval Force will exercise in the Eastern Mediterranean, including the Aegean Sea; naval activities will include amphibious and carrier operations. As part of the exercise, ground units will be airlifted from their home stations in the United Kingdom and the United States to northwestern Turkey, where Turkish National Forces will execute plans for receiving them. Turkish National Forces will also conduct operations with Hellenic Armed Forces and NATO air units providing fighter-bomber and reconnaissance support throughout the area of operations. Highlights of the exercise in Turkish Thrace will be a multi-national amphibious landing on 25 September 1973 and a multinational airborne operation on 26 September 1973.

From 1967 the overall shape of AFSOUTH did not significantly change until the command was renamed in 2004. There were five principal subordinate commands (PSCs).[13] The number rose to six when Greece was taking part in the military structure; Greece withdrew from the NATO military structure after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, and after some behind the scenes negotiating by NATO officials, returned in October 1980. Two land commands, Allied Land Forces Southern Europe and Allied Land Forces Southeastern Europe, were tasked to defend Italy and Turkey respectively. Each was directly responsible to Commander-in-Chief, AFSOUTH, and supported by a tactical air force, Fifth Allied Tactical Air Force in Italy and Sixth Allied Tactical Air Force in Turkey. The two allied tactical air forces were under an overall air command, Allied Air Forces Southern Europe, headquartered at Naples in Italy under a United States Air Force officer, ComAirSouth, responsible himself to CinCAFSOUTH.[14] ComAirSouth held the U.S. national appointment of Commander Sixteenth Air Force for a long period.

Due to political considerations, command of the naval forces in the region was split. Allied Naval Forces Southern Europe, at Naples, operated most of the NATO allies' naval forces in the Mediterranean under an Italian admiral. But due to the U.S. desire to retain control of their nuclear-armed naval forces,[15] the United States Sixth Fleet reported directly to CinCAFSOUTH, supported by a separate headquarters named Naval Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe (STRIKFORSOUTH).

The sixth command was an Allied command responsible for the land defence of Greece, named Allied Land Forces South-Central Europe or LANDSOUTHCENT. However it is not certain that it actually was ever operational, with the 1998/99 NATO Handbook listing it as 'yet to be activated.' Below these PSCs were smaller headquarters such as Maritime Air Forces, Mediterranean, at Sigonella, Sicily, responsible for coordination of the aerial anti-submarine effort, Submarine Forces, South,[16] and the Naval On-Call Force Mediterranean, a multinational escort squadron activated at intervals.

Structure in 1989

NATO AFSOUTH 1989
Command Structure of AFSOUTH in 1989 (click to enlarge)

At the end of the Cold War consisted of the following commands:

Post Cold War

From 1992 AFSOUTH was heavily involved in NATO operations in the Balkans, initially with NATO seaborne enforcement of a UN arms embargo, Operation 'Maritime Monitor,' which began in July 1992. This operation was fused with a similar Western European Union effort and thus became Operation Sharp Guard from July 1993. AFSOUTH also directed activities such as Operation Deny Flight from AIRSOUTH headquarters in Italy. Commander-in-Chief AFSOUTH directed the NATO peacekeeping missions in Bosnia & Hercegovina, IFOR and SFOR, from December 1995. While technically in charge of KFOR from mid-1999, General Sir Mike Jackson's autobiography, Soldier, indicates General Wesley Clark at SHAPE in Belgium directly supervised many of KFOR's activities, without going through AFSOUTH, at least during the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps' tour as HQ KFOR in 1999.

Beginning 10 July 1951, Headquarters Allied Land Forces Southern Europe was responsible for the defence of the Italian North-Eastern sector, in cooperation with other NATO nations. During the intervening 40 years, the HQ produced plans and studies to counter a potential invasion by the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. After 53 years in the city of Verona, what had become Joint Command South (JCS) closed its doors on 15 June 2004.[17] Also closing was Joint Headquarters Southwest in Madrid and Joint Headquarters Southeast/Joint Command Southeast in Izmir.

Joint Force Command Naples

The reorganisation of AFSOUTH as JFC Naples in 2004 was a part of NATO’s transformation, initiated by the Prague summit of 2002, aimed at adapting the allied military structure to the operational challenges of coalition warfare, to face the emerging threats in the new millennium. The new NATO Command Structure is leaner, and focused on conducting a much wider range of missions.

NHQ Sarajevo remains operational, and also NATO Headquarters Tirana, an outgrowth of the former Kosovo Force (KFOR) Communications Zone West originally established in 1999. Communication Zone West was retitled NHQ Tirana on 17 June 2002,[18] and it now performs a Defence Reform and Security Sector Reform advisory role, aiming to support the Albanian Armed Forces, now a member of NATO.

In 2013 a further command structure reorganisation began to take effect. Allied Maritime Command Naples,[19] Allied Air Command İzmir[20] and Allied Force Command Madrid were all deactivated.[21]

From 2013 Allied Command Operations started directing the Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum and Allied Joint Force Command Naples, and three component commands, Allied Air Command at Ramstein, Germany, Allied Land Command at Izmir, Turkey, and Allied Maritime Command at Northwood, UK.[22]

NATO and Romanian Ministry of Defense representatives activated the Headquarters Multinational Division Southeast (HQ MND-SE) headquarters in Bucharest, Romania, on December 1, 2015.[23][24] The new HQ was activated as part of the Readiness Action Plan agreed at the 2014 Wales Summit. JFC Naples will serve as the operational control of MND-SE. The division HQ will be prepared to execute command and control over the NATO Force Integration Units in Romania and Bulgaria for a range of missions, which includes Article V operations based on NATO advance planning, when authorized by the North Atlantic Council and directed by the Supreme Allied Commander Europe.

Role

Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples, is responsible for conducting the full range of military operations throughout the NATO Area of Responsibility (AOR) and beyond in order to deter aggression and to contribute to the effective defence of NATO territory and forces, safeguard freedom of the seas and economic lifelines and to preserve or restore the security of NATO nations.[25]

References

  1. ^ a b Franco Veltri, AFSOUTH 1951–2004: Over Fifty Years Working for Peace and Stability Archived 2007-10-13 at the Wayback Machine, AFSOUTH, April 2004
  2. ^ Allied Command Structures in the New NATO, DIANE Publishing edition, 18.
  3. ^ "JFC Naples Fact sheet". Archived from the original on 2011-09-27.
  4. ^ Pedlow, Evolution of NATO's Command Structure 1951-2009.
  5. ^ a b "Chapter 7 - The Military Structure". NATO the first five years 1949-1954. NATO. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  6. ^ Dr. Gregory W. Pedlow (2009). "The Evolution of NATO's Command Structure, 1951-2009" (PDF). Allied Command Operation (ACO). NATO. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
  7. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-03-06. Retrieved 2015-03-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "The NATO Exercises, Part 1" Flight (September 26, 1952) p. 402-404
  9. ^ "U. S. Navymen Work on NATO Team" (PDF). All Hands. BUPERS - U.S. Navy. September 1952. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-11-15. Retrieved 2010-03-02.
  10. ^ "A Big Step Forward: Operation Longstep" (PDF). All Hands. Washington, DC: BUPERS. pp. 20–21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2004-11-20. Retrieved 2011-06-21.
  11. ^ a b "Chapter 9". NATO the first five years 1949-1954. NATO. Archived from the original on 10 November 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  12. ^ Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, America III Archived August 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, accessed July 2011
  13. ^ NATO Handbook, 50th Anniversary Edition, NATO Office of Information and Press, November 1999, p.252, and IISS Military Balance, 1975-76, p.16-17
  14. ^ Operation Deny Flight was directed by Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) in Naples, under the command of the Commander-in-Chief of Allied Forces Southern Europe. Smith and Boorda, however, delegated day to day authority to Allied Air Forces Southern Europe (AIRSOUTH) commanded by Lieutenant General Joseph W. Ashy (until 1994) and then Lt. Gen Michael Ryan. While AIRSOUTH maintained day to day command, "mission tasking and operational control" were delegated to the commander of the NATO Fifth Allied Tactical Air Force (5ATAF).
  15. ^ Sean Maloney thesis, Securing Command of the Sea, University of New Brunswick, 1992
  16. ^ "Commander Submarine Group 8". Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-06-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ NHQT Factsheets Archived 2009-04-12 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Deactivation ceremony of Allied Maritime Command Naples". Headquarters Allied Joint Force Command Naples. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
  20. ^ "NATO deactivates Allied Air Command Izmir". NATO. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2014.
  21. ^ "NATO's Allied Force Command Madrid deactivated". 13 June 2013. Archived from the original on 15 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  22. ^ "Structure". NATO. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  23. ^ "NATO activates new Multinational Division Southeast headquarters in Bucharest".
  24. ^ "NATO activates new Multinational Division Southeast headquarters in Bucharest". NATO. NATO. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  25. ^ "Allied Joint Force Command Naples Factsheet". Joint Force Command Naples. Archived from the original on 5 June 2008. Retrieved 30 May 2008.

Further reading

  • Dionysios Chourchoulis, The Southern Flank of NATO, 1951–1959: Military Strategy or Political Stabilization (Google eBook), Lexington Books, 18/12/2014
  • John O. Iatrides, 'Failed Rampart: NATO's Balkan Front,' in Mary Ann Heiss (Editor), S Victor Papacosma (Editor), NATO and the Warsaw Pact: Intrabloc Conflicts, Kent State University Press, 2008

External links

1st Infantry Division (Romania)

The 1st Infantry Division Dacica was one of the major units of the Romanian Land Forces, with its headquarters located in Bucharest. It was the heraldic successor of the Romanian First Army. On 31 August 2015, 1st Infantry Division headquarters disbanded, to become, three months later, the Headquarters Multinational Division Southeast of NATO's Allied Joint Force Command Naples.

Allied Command Operations

Allied Command Operations (ACO) is one of the two strategic commands of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the other being Allied Command Transformation (ACT). The headquarters and commander of ACO is Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) and Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), respectively.

Under ACO, there are three joint force operational headquarters and several single service commands:

Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum (JFCBS), Netherlands

Allied Joint Force Command Naples (JFCNP), Italy

Joint Force Command Norfolk (JFC-NF), United StatesSingle-service commands:

Allied Air Command (AIRCOM) at Ramstein, Germany

Allied Land Command (LANDCOM) at Izmir, Turkey

Allied Maritime Command (MARCOM) at Northwood, United KingdomOther commands:

Naval Striking and Support Forces NATO (aka. Strike Force NATO, STRIKFORNATO) at Oeiras, Portugal

NATO Communication and Information Systems Command (NCISG) at Mons, Belgium

Allied Maritime Command Naples

Allied Maritime Command (MC) Naples (MC Naples) was a subordinate command of Allied Joint Force Command Naples. MC Naples operated from the island of Nisida in the Gulf of Pozzuoli and its commander reported directly to the Commander Allied Joint Force Command Naples (Com JFC Naples). The command was deactivated in March 2013.

Bruce W. Clingan

Bruce Waid Clingan (born April 4, 1955) is a retired United States Navy admiral who last served as Commander of U.S. Naval Forces Europe, U.S. Naval Forces, Africa and Allied Joint Force Command Naples from February 24, 2012 to July 22, 2014. He previously served as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Operations, Plans and Strategy and Commander, United States Sixth Fleet, as well as Commander, Joint Command Lisbon from August 2008 to November 2009. He retired from the Navy in the fall of 2014 after over 37 years of service.

Charles Bouchard

Lieutenant General Joseph Jacques Charles "Charlie" Bouchard is a retired Royal Canadian Air Force general. He has served as Commander of 1 Canadian Air Division / Canadian NORAD Region, the Deputy Commander of North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and Deputy Commander of Allied Joint Force Command Naples. On 25 March 2011, Bouchard was named Commander of the NATO military mission in Libya.

Henry G. Ulrich III

Henry George "Harry" Ulrich III was a four-star admiral in the United States Navy who served as the Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe and Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples from May 23, 2005 to November 30, 2007. He retired from the Navy shortly afterwards.

As Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples, he had operational responsibility for NATO missions in the Balkans, Iraq and the Mediterranean. As Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe he is responsible for providing overall command, operational control, and coordination of U.S. Naval forces in the European Command area of responsibility.

James G. Foggo III

James "Jamie" Gordon Foggo III (born September 2, 1959) is a United States Navy admiral who currently serves as commander of U.S. Naval Forces Europe while concurrently serving as the commander of U.S. Naval Forces Africa and commander of Allied Joint Force Command Naples. He previously served as the director of Navy Staff. Prior to that, he served as the commander of U.S. Sixth Fleet. He assumed his current assignment on October 20, 2017.

List of United States Navy four-star admirals

This is a complete list of four-star admirals in the United States Navy. The rank of admiral (or full admiral, or four-star admiral) is the highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Navy. It ranks above vice admiral (three-star admiral) and below fleet admiral (five-star admiral).

There have been 267 four-star admirals in the history of the U.S. Navy. Of these, 225 achieved that rank while on active duty, 40 were promoted upon retirement in recognition of combat citations, and one was promoted posthumously. Admirals entered the Navy via several paths: 234 were commissioned via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), 18 via Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC), 8 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), 2 via warrant, 2 via Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS), one via direct commission (direct), one via the Naval Aviation Cadet (NAVCAD) program, and one via the U.S. Merchant Marine.

Luciano Portolano

Major General Luciano Portolano is the Chief of Staff of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples.

Mark E. Ferguson III

Mark E. Ferguson III (born October 30, 1956) is a retired United States Navy admiral who last served as Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe, and concurrently served as Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Africa and Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples. Admiral Ferguson previously served as the 37th Vice Chief of Naval Operations from August 22, 2011 to July 1, 2014. Prior to that, he served as the 55th Chief of Naval Personnel (CNP) and concurrently served as the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Manpower, Personnel, Training & Education). He also served as chief of legislative affairs and assistant commander for distribution, Navy Personnel Command. He retired from active duty on July 1, 2016.

Mark P. Fitzgerald

Mark P. Fitzgerald (born 1951) is a retired United States Navy admiral. He is the former Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe – Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Africa and Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples. He previously served as Director, Navy Staff from December 2006 to November 2007 and Commander, U.S. 2nd Fleet from 2004 until December 2006. He assumed the duties of Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe and Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples on November 30, 2007 and assumed the additional duties as Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Africa on March 26, 2009.

He was born in Winchester, Massachusetts, and graduated from Northeastern University, where he was a member of the Army ROTC program, in June 1973. He was designated a Naval Aviator in October 1975.

Admiral Fitzgerald flew the A-7E Corsair II with now retired Rear Admiral Bert Johnston during sea assignments in VA-195 (1976–79), Carrier Air Wing 17 (1982–84), and VA-105 (1985–88) embarked in Kitty Hawk, America, and Forrestal. He commanded the VA-46 "Clansmen" (1990–1991) in John F. Kennedy, deploying with four days notice for Operation Desert Shield. He led the first Navy strike on Baghdad during the opening hour of Operation Desert Storm.

During his career, Admiral Fitzgerald was assigned as Deputy Commander, Joint Air Force Component Commander for Provide Promise Yugoslav Operations and Assistant Commander for Deny Flight NATO operations (1993). He assumed command of Carrier Air Wing 14 (1994–95) while deployed to the Persian Gulf in Carl Vinson supporting Operation Southern Watch. Admiral Fitzgerald's shore tours include VA-174 Landing Signal Officer (1979–82), Naval Maritime Intelligence Center, SPEAR (1991–92), and Executive Assistant to the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (1996–98). He holds a master's degree in Aeronautical Systems Engineering from the University of West Florida (1975) and attended the Naval War College, Newport, R.I. (1983–84).

Selected for flag rank in September 1998, Admiral Fitzgerald's first flag assignment was Deputy Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Central Command and commanded Joint Task Force Determined Response in Aden, Yemen (2000) in response to the terrorist attack on the guided-missile destroyer USS Cole. Assuming command of Carrier Group Eight (2001), he led the Theodore Roosevelt Battle Group during Operation Enduring Freedom (2001–2002). He served as Director, Air Warfare and then as Director, Naval Warfare (2003–2004). He then assumed the position of Commander, U.S. Second Fleet/Commander, Striking Fleet Atlantic in October 2004.

Admiral Fitzgerald was relieved as commander of USNAVEUR, USNAVAF & JFC Naples by Admiral Samuel J. Locklear on October 6, 2010.

Michael Mullen

Michael Glenn Mullen, AO, MSC (born October 4, 1946) is a retired United States Navy admiral, who served as the 17th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from October 1, 2007, to September 30, 2011.

Mullen previously served as the Navy's 28th Chief of Naval Operations from July 22, 2005, to September 29, 2007. He was only the third officer in the Navy's history to be appointed to four different four-star assignments; the other appointments being the Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe and Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples from October 2004 to May 2005, and as the 32nd Vice Chief of Naval Operations from August 2003 to August 2004. As Chairman, Mullen was the highest-ranking officer in the United States Armed Forces. He retired from the Navy after over 42 years of service. Since 2012, Mullen has been a visiting professor at Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.

Michelle Howard

Michelle Janine Howard (born April 30, 1960) is a retired United States Navy officer who last served as the commander of U.S. Naval Forces Europe while she concurrently served as the commander of U.S. Naval Forces Africa and commander of Allied Joint Force Command Naples. She previously served as the 38th Vice Chief of Naval Operations. She assumed her last assignment on June 7, 2016.Howard has achieved many historical firsts throughout her naval career. She was the first African-American woman to command a U.S. Navy ship, the USS Rushmore, and the first to achieve two- and three-star rank. In 2006, she was selected for the rank of rear admiral (lower half), making her the first admiral selected from the U.S. Naval Academy class of 1982 and the first female graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy selected for flag rank. On July 1, 2014, Howard became the first woman to become a U.S. Navy four-star admiral. As Vice Chief of Naval Operations, which she began that same day, she was the first African-American and the first woman to hold that post. Howard also became the first female four-star admiral to command operational forces, when she assumed command of U.S. Naval Forces Europe and U.S. Naval Forces Africa. Howard retired on 1 December 2017 after nearly 36 years of service in the United States Navy.

Naples American High School

Naples American High School is a high school within the Department of Defense Education Activity system. It is located in Campania, Italy.

Rinaldo Veri

Rinaldo Veri (born 22 April 1952) is an Italian naval officer. He was promoted to the rank of Ammiraglio di squadra (equivalent to Vice admiral) on July 1, 2010 and assumed command of the naval forces of NATO Allied Joint Force Command Naples on 10 March 2011. As of 23 March 2011, he is commanding NATO naval operation Operation Unified Protector to enforce the arms embargo against Libya in support of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1970 and 1973.

Samuel J. Locklear

Samuel Jones "Sam" Locklear III, (born October 28, 1954) is a retired United States Navy admiral who last served as the commander of the U.S. Pacific Command from March 9, 2012, to May 27, 2015. Prior to that, he served as Commander, U.S. Naval Forces Europe - U.S. Naval Forces Africa and NATO's Commander, Allied Joint Force Command Naples. Prior to that, he served as Director, Navy Staff from July 2009 to October 2010. He retired from the Navy on July 1, 2015, after 39 years of service.

Standing NATO Maritime Group 2

Standing NATO Maritime Group 2 (SNMG2) is a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) standing maritime immediate reaction force. Prior to 1 January 2005 it was known as Standing Naval Force Mediterranean (STANAVFORMED or more colloquially as SNFM).

SNMG2 is a multinational, integrated maritime force – made up of vessels from various nations that are part of NATO, training and operating together as a single team – that is permanently available to NATO to perform a wide range of tasks, from participating in exercises to crisis response and operational missions. Usually the force is employed in the Mediterranean Sea but, as required, will be available anywhere NATO requires it to deploy.

SNMG2 carries out a continuous programme of operational training and conducts port visits to know and get known in many ports in and out of the Mediterranean, in NATO and non-NATO nations. These include ports in nations that are part of the Partnership for Peace, Mediterranean Dialogue and the Istanbul Cooperation Initiative programmes.

Composition of the force varies as naval units are provided by NATO contributing nations on a rotational basis while command of the force rotates among them. Nations normally contributing to the group include Canada, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom and United States. Other NATO nations have also occasionally contributed.

The composition of SNMG2 varies depending on the current contributions of nations, but generally consists of 4–8 frigate or destroyer type ships and one oiler or support ship. Command of the force rotates in one year intervals among participating countries. The commander of SNMG2 until 2013 reported to the Commander of Allied Maritime Command Naples, one of the two component commands of Allied Joint Force Command Naples.

Vice Chief of Naval Operations

The Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO) is the second highest-ranking commissioned United States Navy officer in the Department of the Navy and functions as the principal deputy of the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO); and by statute, the VCNO is appointed as a four-star admiral.The current VCNO is Admiral William F. Moran.

Winged lion

The winged lion is a mythological creature that resembles a lion with bird-like wings.

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