Allied-occupied Germany

Upon defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the destruction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration). The four powers divided 'Germany as a whole' into four occupation zones for administrative purposes, under the United States, United Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union respectively; creating what became collectively known as Allied-occupied Germany (German: Alliierten-besetztes Deutschland). This division was ratified at the Potsdam Conference (17 July to 2 August 1945). The four zones were as agreed in February 1945 by the United States, United Kingdom and Soviet Union meeting at the Yalta Conference; setting aside an earlier division into three zones (excluding France) proposed by the London Protocol.

At Potsdam, the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union approved the detachment from 'Germany as a whole' of the German eastern territories east of the Oder–Neisse line; with the exact line of the boundary to be determined at a final German Peace Treaty. This treaty was expected to confirm the "shifting westward" of Poland's borders, as the United Kingdom and the United States committed themselves to support in any future peace treaty the permanent incorporation of former eastern German territories into Poland and the Soviet Union. From March 1945 to July 1945, these former eastern territories of Germany had been administered under Soviet military occupation authorities, but following the Potsdam Conference they were handed over to Soviet and Polish civilian administrations and ceased to constitute part of Allied-occupied Germany.

In the closing weeks of fighting in Europe, United States forces had pushed beyond the agreed boundaries for the future zones of occupation, in some places by as much as 320 km (200 miles). The so-called line of contact between Soviet and American forces at the end of hostilities, mostly lying eastward of the July 1945-established inner German border, was temporary. After two months in which they had held areas that had been assigned to the Soviet zone, U.S. forces withdrew in the first days of July 1945.[1] Some have concluded that this was a crucial move that persuaded the Soviet Union to allow American, British and French forces into their designated sectors in Berlin, which occurred at roughly the same time (July 1945), although the need for intelligence gathering (see Operation Paperclip) may also have been a factor.[2]

German Reich

Deutsches Reich
Flag of Germany#After World War II (1945–49)
The C-Pennant
Post-Nazi German occupation borders and territories from 1945 to 1949. British (green), French (blue), American (orange) and Soviet (red) occupation zones. Saar Protectorate (light blue) in the west under the control of France. Berlin is the quadripartite area shown within the red Soviet zone. Bremen consists of the two orange American exclaves in the British sector.
Post-Nazi German occupation borders and territories from 1945 to 1949.
British (green), French (blue), American (orange) and Soviet (red) occupation zones. Saar Protectorate (light blue) in the west under the control of France.
Berlin is the quadripartite area shown within the red Soviet zone. Bremen consists of the two orange American exclaves in the British sector.
StatusMilitary occupation
Common languages
Governors (1945) 
• British zone
F. Mar. Montgomery
• French zone
Gen. Lattre de Tassigny
• US zone
Gen. Eisenhower
Marshal G. K. Zhukov
Historical eraCold War
• Surrender
8 May 1945
5 July 1945
15 December 1947
23 May 1949
7 October 1949
12 September 1990
• 1945
• 1949
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Nazi Germany
West Germany
East Germany
Saar Protectorate
West Berlin
Today part of Germany
  1. Joined the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) on 1 January 1957.
  2. Reunited Germany by joining the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990.
  3. German reunification took place on 3 October 1990.
  4. The western Allied zones of Germany and the western sectors of Berlin.
  5. The Soviet zone of Germany and sector of Berlin.
Map of occupied Berlin

The four sectors of Allied occupied Berlin and exclaves.

Territories annexed by Germany (1938–1945)

All territories annexed by Germany before the war from Austria and Czechoslovakia were returned to these countries. The Memel Territory, annexed by Germany from Lithuania before the war, was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1945 and transferred to the Lithuanian SSR. All territories annexed by Germany during the war from Belgium, France, Luxembourg, Poland and Yugoslavia were returned to their respective countries.

Occupation zones

Germany occupation zones with border
Allied zones of occupation in post-war Germany, highlighting the Soviet zone (red), the inner German border (black line), and the zone from which American troops withdrew in July 1945 (purple). The provincial boundaries correspond largely to those of the pre-war states, before the creation of the present Länder (federal states).

American Zone of Occupation

The American zone in Southern Germany consisted of Bavaria with its traditional capital Munich and Hesse with a new capital in Wiesbaden, and of parts of Württemberg and Baden. Those formed Württemberg-Baden and are the northern portions of the present-day German state of Baden-Württemberg.

The ports of Bremen (on the lower Weser River) and Bremerhaven (at the Weser estuary of the North Sea) were also placed under American control because of the American request to have certain toeholds in Northern Germany.

At the end of October 1946, the American Zone had a population of:

  • Bavaria 8.7 mio
  • Hesse 3.97 mio
  • Württemberg-Baden 3.6 mio
  • Bremen 0.48 mio[3]

The headquarters of the American military government was the former IG Farben Building in Frankfurt am Main.

Media in Southern Germany and in Berlin

Following the complete closure of all Nazi German media, the launch and operation of completely new newspaper titles began by licensing carefully selected Germans as publishers. Licenses were granted to Germans not involved in Nazi propaganda to establish those newspaper, including Frankfurter Rundschau (August 1945), Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin; September 1945), and Süddeutsche Zeitung (Munich; October 1945). Radio stations were run by the military government, later Radio Frankfurt, Radio München (Munich) and Radio Stuttgart gave way for the Bayerischer Rundfunk, Hessischer Rundfunk and Süddeutscher Rundfunk. The RIAS in West-Berlin remained a radio station under American control.

British Zone of Occupation

The Canadian Army was tied down in surrounding the Netherlands until the Germans there surrendered on 5 May 1945—just two days before the final surrender of the Wehrmacht in Western Europe to U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower. After the liberation of the Netherlands and the conquest of Northern Germany by the British Army, the bulk of the Canadian Army returned home, leaving Northern Germany to be occupied by the British Army.

In July 1945, the British Army withdrew from Mecklenburg's capital Schwerin which they had taken over from the Americans a few weeks before, as it had previously been agreed to be occupied by the Soviet Army. The Control Commission for Germany (British Element) (CCG/BE) ceded more slices of its area of occupation to the Soviet Union – specifically the Amt Neuhaus of Hanover and some exclaves and fringes of Brunswick, for example the County of Blankenburg, and exchanged some villages between British Holstein and Soviet Mecklenburg under the Barber-Lyashchenko Agreement.

Within the British Zone of Occupation, the CCG/BE re-established the German state of Hamburg, but with borders that had been drawn by Nazi Germany in 1937. The British also created the new German states of:

Also in 1947, the American Zone of Occupation being inland had no port facilities – thus the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and Bremerhaven became exclaves within the British Zone.

The British headquarters were originally based in Bad Oeynhausen from 1946, but in 1954 it was moved to Mönchengladbach where it was known as JHQ Rheindahlen.

Flag of the Control Commission for Germany

Flag used by ships registered in the British zone.

Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2007-0403-501, Berlin, britischer Panzerwagen,am Brandenburger Tor

British armoured car, at the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, 1950

Road sign delimiting British zone of occupation in Berlin 1984

Road sign delimiting the British sector of occupation in Berlin, 1984

Belgian, Polish and Norwegian Zones

Army units from other nations were stationed within the British occupation zone. The Belgians were allocated a territory which was garrisoned by their troops.[4] The zone formed a 200 kilometres (120 mi) strip from the Belgian-German border at the south of the British zone, and included the important cities of Cologne and Aachen. The Belgian army of occupation in Germany (known as the Belgian Forces in Germany from 1951) became autonomous in 1946 under the command, initially, of Jean-Baptiste Piron.[5]

Belgian soldiers would remain in Germany until 31 December 2005.[6]

Polish units mainly from 1st Armoured Division also had a place in the occupation; they were stationed in the northern area of the district of Emsland as well as in the areas of Oldenburg and Leer. This region bordered the Netherlands and covered an area of 6,500 km². The zone had a large camp constructed largely for displaced persons and was administered by the Polish government in exile. The administrative centre of the Polish occupation zone was the city of Haren. The city was nicknamed named Maczków after Stanisław Maczek during this time.

In 1946, the Norwegian Brigade Group in Germany had 4,000 soldiers in Hanover.

Another special feature of the British zone was the Enclave of Bonn. It was created in July 1949 and was not under British or any other allied control. Instead it was under the control of the Allied High Commission.

French Zone of Occupation

Despite its being one of the Allied Powers, the French Republic was at first not granted an occupation zone in Germany. Later, however, the British and American governments recognised the role of France during the war, and agreed to cede some western parts of their zones of occupation to the French Army.[7] In April and May 1945, the French 1st Army had captured Karlsruhe and Stuttgart, and conquered a territory extending to Hitler's Eagle's Nest and the westernmost part of Austria. In July, the French relinquished Stuttgart to the Americans, and in exchange were given control over cities west of the Rhine such as Mainz and Koblenz.[8] All this resulted in two barely contiguous areas of Germany along the French border which met at just a single point along the River Rhine. Three German states (Land) were established: Rheinland Pfalz in the North and West and on the other hand Württemberg-Hohenzollern and South Baden, who later formed Baden-Württemberg together with Württemberg-Baden of the American Zone.

The French Zone of Occupation included the Saargebiet, which was disentangled from it on 16 February 1946. By 18 December 1946 customs controls were established between the Saar area and allied occupied Germany. The French zone ceded further areas adjacent to the Saar (in mid-1946, early 1947, and early 1949).

Included in the French zone was the town of Büsingen am Hochrhein, a German exclave separated from the rest of the country by a narrow strip of neutral Swiss territory. The Swiss government agreed to allow limited numbers of French troops to pass through its territory in order to maintain law and order in Büsingen.

Fotothek df pk 0000178 036

French forces in front of the Brandenburg Gate, Berlin 1946


Forces Françaises à Berlin (French Forces in Berlin) insignia after 1949

At the end of October 1946, the French Zone had a population of:

  • Rheinland Pfalz 2.7 mio
  • Baden (South Baden) 1.2 mio
  • Württemberg-Hohenzollern 1.05 mio[3]

Luxembourg zone

From November 1945, Luxembourg was allocated a zone within the French sector.[9] The Luxembourg 2nd Infantry Battalion was garrisoned in Bitburg and the 1st Battalion was sent to Saarburg.[9] The final Luxembourg forces in Germany, in Bitburg, left in 1955.[9]

Soviet zone of occupation

Soviet Occupied Germany
Pink: portions of Germany east of the Oder–Neisse line attached to Poland (except for northerly East Prussia and the adjoining Memel Territory, not shown here, which were joined directly to the Soviet Union.) Red: the Soviet Occupation zone of Germany.
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-14059-0018, Berlin, Oberbefehlshaber der vier Verbündeten
The Supreme Commanders of the Four Powers on 5 June 1945 in Berlin: Bernard Montgomery, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Georgy Zhukov, and Jean de Lattre de Tassigny

The Soviet occupation zone incorporated Thuringia, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The Soviet Military Administration in Germany was headquartered in Berlin-Karlshorst.


While located wholly within the Soviet zone, because of its symbolic importance as the nation's capital and seat of the former Nazi government, the city of Berlin was jointly occupied by the Allied powers and subdivided into four sectors. All four occupying powers were entitled to privileges throughout Berlin that were not extended to the rest of Germany – this included the Soviet sector of Berlin which was legally separate from the rest of the Soviet zone.

Other German territory

In 1945 Germany east of the Oder–Neisse line (Farther Pomerania, the New March, Silesia and southern East Prussia) was assigned to Poland by the Potsdam Conference to be "temporarily administered" pending the Final Peace Treaty on Germany; eventually (under the September 1990 2+4 Peace Treaty) the northern portion of East Prussia became the Kaliningrad Oblast within the Soviet Union. A small area west of the Oder, near Szczecin, also fell to Poland. Most German citizens residing in these areas were subsequently expropriated and expelled. Returning refugees, who had fled from war hostilities, were denied return.

The Saargebiet, an important area of Germany because of its large deposits of coal, was turned into the Saar protectorate. The Saar was disengaged from the French zone on 16 February 1946. In the speech Restatement of Policy on Germany on 6 September 1946 the U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes stated the U.S.' motive in detaching the Saar from Germany as "The United States does not feel that it can deny to France, which has been invaded three times by Germany in 70 years, its claim to the Saar territory."

By 18 December 1946 customs controls were established between the Saar and Allied occupied Germany. Most German citizens residing in the Saar area were allowed to stay and keep their property. Returning refugees, who had fled from war hostilities, were allowed to return; in particular, refugees who had fled the Nazi dictatorship were invited and welcomed to return to the Saar.

The protectorate was a state nominally independent of Germany and France, but with its economy integrated into that of France. The Saar territory was enlarged at the expense of the French zone in mid-1946, early 1947 (when 61 municipalities were returned to the French zone), and early 1949. On 15 November 1947 the French currency became legal tender in the Saar Protectorate, followed by the full integration of the Saar into the French economy (customs union as of 23 March 1948). In July the Saar population was stripped of its German citizenship and became of Sarrois nationality.

Governance and the emergence of two German states

The original Allied plan to govern Germany as a single unit through the Allied Control Council broke down in 1946–1947 due to growing tensions between the Allies, with Britain and the US wishing cooperation, France obstructing any collaboration in order to unwind Germany into many independent states, and the Soviet Union unilaterally implementing from early on elements of a Marxist political-economic system (enforced redistribution of land, nationalisation of businesses). Another dispute was the absorption of post-war expellees. While the UK, the US and the Soviet Union had agreed to accept, house and feed about six million expelled German citizens from former eastern Germany and four million expelled and denaturalised Czechoslovaks, Poles, Hungarians and Yugoslavs of German ethnicity in their zones, France generally had not agreed to the expulsions approved by the Potsdam agreement (a decision made without input from France). Therefore, France strictly refused to absorb war refugees who were denied return to their homes in seized eastern German territories or destitute post-war expellees who had been expropriated there, into the French zone, let alone into the separated Saar protectorate.[10] However, the native population, returning after Nazi-imposed removals (e.g., political and Jewish refugees) and war-related relocations (e.g., evacuation from air raids), were allowed to return home in the areas under French control. The other Allies complained that they had to shoulder the burden to feed, house and clothe the expellees who had to leave their belongings behind.

In practice, each of the four occupying powers wielded government authority in their respective zones and carried out different policies toward the population and local and state governments there. A uniform administration of the western zones evolved, known first as the Bizone (the American and British zones merged as of 1 January 1947) and later the Trizone (after inclusion of the French zone). The complete breakdown of east-west allied cooperation and joint administration in Germany became clear with the Soviet imposition of the Berlin Blockade that was enforced from June 1948 to May 1949. The three western zones were merged to form the Federal Republic of Germany in May 1949, and the Soviets followed suit in October 1949 with the establishment of the German Democratic Republic (GDR).

In the west, the occupation continued until 5 May 1955, when the General Treaty (German: Deutschlandvertrag) entered into force. However, upon the creation of the Federal Republic in May 1949, the military governors were replaced by civilian high commissioners, whose powers lay somewhere between those of a governor and those of an ambassador. When the Deutschlandvertrag became law, the occupation ended, the western occupation zones ceased to exist, and the high commissioners were replaced by normal ambassadors. West Germany was also allowed to build a military, and the Bundeswehr, or Federal Defense Force, was established on 12 November 1955.

A similar situation occurred in East Germany. The GDR was founded on 7 October 1949. On 10 October the Soviet Military Administration in Germany was replaced by the Soviet Control Commission, although limited sovereignty was not granted to the GDR government until 11 November 1949. After the death of Joseph Stalin in March 1953, the Soviet Control Commission was replaced with the office of the Soviet High Commissioner on 28 May 1953. This office was abolished (and replaced by an ambassador) and (general) sovereignty was granted to the GDR, when the Soviet Union concluded a state treaty (Staatsvertrag) with the GDR on 20 September 1955. On 1 March 1956, the GDR established a military, the National People's Army (NVA).

Despite the grants of general sovereignty to both German states in 1955, full and unrestricted sovereignty under international law was not enjoyed by any German government until after the reunification of Germany in October 1990. Though West Germany was effectively independent, the western Allies maintained limited legal jurisdiction over 'Germany as a whole' in respect of West Germany and Berlin. At the same time, East Germany progressed from being a satellite state of the Soviet Union to increasing independence of action; while still deferring in matters of security to Soviet authority. The provisions of the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, also known as the "Two-plus-Four Treaty," granting full sovereign powers to Germany did not become law until 15 March 1991, after all of the participating nations had ratified the treaty. As envisaged by the Treaty, the last Occupation troops departed from Germany when the Russian presence was terminated in 1994.

A 1956 plebiscite ended the French administration of the Saar protectorate, and it joined the Federal Republic as Saarland on 1 January 1957, being its 10th state.

The city of Berlin was not part of either state and continued to be under Allied occupation until the reunification of Germany in October 1990. For administrative purposes, the three western sectors of Berlin were merged into the entity of West Berlin. The Soviet sector became known as East Berlin and while not recognised by the Western powers as a part of East Germany, the GDR declared it its capital (Hauptstadt der DDR).

Occupation policy

Buchenwald Samuelson 62779
American propaganda poster, using images of concentration camp victims to warn against "fraternization"

At the end of the war, General Eisenhower issued a non-fraternization policy to troops under his command in occupied Germany. This policy was relaxed in stages. By June 1945 the prohibition on speaking with German children was made less strict. In July it became possible to speak to German adults in certain circumstances. In September the policy was completely dropped in Austria and Germany.

Nevertheless, due to the large numbers of Disarmed Enemy Forces being held in Rheinwiesenlagers throughout western Germany, the Americans and the British – not the Soviets – used armed units of Feldgendarmerie to maintain control and discipline in the camps. In June 1946, these German military police units became the last Wehrmacht troops to surrender their arms to the western powers.

By December 1945 over 100,000 German civilians were interned as security threats and for possible trial and sentencing as members of criminal organisations.

The food situation in occupied Germany was initially very dire. By the spring of 1946 the official ration in the American zone was no more than 1,275 calories (5,330 kJ) per day, with some areas probably receiving as little as 700 calories (2,900 kJ) per day. In the British zone the food situation was dire, as found during a visit by the British (and Jewish) publisher Victor Gollancz in October and November 1946. In Düsseldorf the normal 28-day allocation should have been 1,548 calories (6,480 kJ) including 10 kilograms (22 lb) of bread, but as there was limited grain the bread ration was only 8.5 kilograms (19 lb). However, as there was only sufficient bread for about 50% of this "called up" ration, the total deficiency was about 50%, not 15% as stated in a ministerial reply in the British Parliament on 11 December. So only about 770 calories (3,200 kJ) would have been supplied, and he said the German winter ration would be 1,000 calories (4,200 kJ) as the recent increase was "largely mythical". His book includes photos taken on the visit and critical letters and newspaper articles by him published in several British newspapers; The Times, the Daily Herald, the Manchester Guardian, etc.[11]

Some occupation soldiers took advantage of the desperate food situation by exploiting their ample supply of food and cigarettes (the currency of the black market) to get to the local German girls as what became known as frau bait (The New York Times, 25 June 1945). Some soldiers still felt the girls were the enemy, but used them for sex nevertheless.[12]

The often destitute mothers of the resulting children usually received no child support. In the earliest stages of the occupation, U.S. soldiers were not allowed to pay maintenance for a child they admitted having fathered, since to do so was considered "aiding the enemy". Marriages between white U.S. soldiers and Austrian women were not permitted until January 1946, and with German women until December 1946.[12]

The children of African-American soldiers, commonly called Negermischlinge[13] ("Negro half-breeds"), comprising about three percent of the total number of children fathered by GIs, were particularly disadvantaged because of their inability to conceal the foreign identity of their father. For many white U.S. soldiers of this era, miscegenation even with an "enemy" white population was regarded as an intolerable outrage. African-American soldiers were therefore reluctant to admit to fathering such children since this would invite reprisals and even accusations of rape, a crime which was much more aggressively prosecuted by military authorities against African-Americans compared with Caucasian soldiers, much more likely to result in a conviction by court-martial (in part because a German woman was both less likely to acknowledge consensual sexual relations with an African-American and more likely to be believed if she alleged rape against an African-American) and which carried a potential death sentence. Even in the rare cases where an African-American soldier was willing to take responsibility for fathering a child, until 1948 the U.S. Army prohibited interracial marriages.[13] The mothers of the children would often face particularly harsh ostracism.[14]

Between 1950 and 1955 the Allied High Commission for Germany prohibited "proceedings to establish paternity or liability for maintenance of children."[13] Even after the lifting of the ban West German courts had little power over American soldiers.

In general, the British authorities were less strict than the Americans about fraternisation, whereas the French and Soviet authorities were more strict.

While Allied servicemen were ordered to obey local laws while in Germany, soldiers could not be prosecuted by German courts for crimes committed against German citizens except as authorised by the occupation authorities. Invariably, when a soldier was accused of criminal behaviour the occupation authorities preferred to handle the matter within the military justice system. This sometimes led to harsher punishments than would have been available under German law – in particular, U.S. servicemen could be executed if court-martialed and convicted of rape.[14] See United States v. Private First Class John A. Bennett, 7 C.M.A. 97, 21 C.M.R. 223 (1956).


The last Allied war advances into Germany and Allied occupation plans were affected by rumors of Nazi plans for insurgency (the Nazi Werwolf plan), and successful Nazi deception about plans to withdraw forces to Alpenfestung redoubt. This base was to be used to conduct guerrilla warfare, but the rumours turned out to be false. It has been estimated that no Allied deaths can be reliably attributed to any Nazi insurgency.[15]

Expulsion policy

The Potsdam conference, where the victorious Allies drew up plans for the future of Germany, noted in article XIII of the Potsdam Agreement on 1 August 1945 that "the transfer to Germany of German populations (...) in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary will have to be undertaken"; "wild expulsion" was already going on.

Hungary, which had been allied with Germany and whose population was opposed to an expulsion of the German minority, tried to resist the transfer. Hungary had to yield to the pressure exerted mainly by the Soviet Union and by the Allied Control Council.[16] Millions of people were expelled from former eastern territories of Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and elsewhere to the occupation zones of the UK, US, and USSR, which agreed in the Potsdam Agreement to absorb the post-war expellees into their zones. Many remained in refugee camps for a long time. Some Germans remained in the Soviet Union and were used for forced labour for a period of years.

France was not invited to the Potsdam Conference. As a result, it chose to adopt some decisions of the Potsdam Agreements and to dismiss others. France maintained the position that it did not approve post-war expulsions and that therefore it was not responsible to accommodate and nourish the destitute expellees in its zone. While the few war-related refugees who had reached the area to become the French zone before July 1945 were taken care of, the French military government for Germany refused to absorb post-war expellees deported from the East into its zone. In December 1946, the French military government for Germany absorbed into its zone German refugees from Denmark, where 250,000 Germans had found a refuge from the Soviets by sea vessels between February and May 1945.[10] These clearly were war-related refugees from the eastern parts of Germany however, and not post-war expellees.

Military governors and commissioners

American Zone

Military governors

High commissioner In Office
General Dwight D. Eisenhower 8 May 1945 – 10 November 1945
General George S. Patton (acting) 11 November 1945 – 25 November 1945
General Joseph T. McNarney 26 November 1945 – 5 January 1947
General Lucius D. Clay 6 January 1947 – 14 May 1949
Lt. General Clarence R. Huebner (acting) 15 May 1949 – 21 September 1949

High commissioners

High commissioner In Office
John J. McCloy 21 September 1949 – 1 August 1952
Walter J. Donnelly 1 August 1952 – 11 December 1952
Samuel Reber (acting) 11 December 1952 – 10 February 1953
James Bryant Conant 10 February 1953 – 5 May 1955

British Zone

Military governors

High commissioner In Office
Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein 22 May 1945 – 30 April 1946
Air Chief Marshal Sir William Sholto Douglas (later Lord Douglas) 1 May 1946 – 31 October 1947
General Sir Brian Hubert Robertson (later Lord Robertson) 1 November 1947 – 21 September 1949

High commissioners

High commissioner In Office
General Sir Brian Hubert Robertson 21 September 1949 – 24 June 1950
Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick 24 June 1950 – 29 September 1953
Sir Frederick Hoyer Millar (later Lord Inchyra) 29 September 1953 – 5 May 1955

French Zone

Military commander

High commissioner In Office
Army General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny 8 May 1945 – July 1945

Military governor

High commissioner In Office
Army General Marie-Pierre Kœnig July 1945 – 21 September 1949

High commissioner

High commissioner In Office
André François-Poncet 21 September 1949 – 5 May 1955

Soviet Zone

Military commander

High commissioner In Office
Marshal Georgy Zhukov 8 May 1945 – 9 June 1945

Military governors

High commissioner In Office
Marshal Georgy Zhukov 9 June 1945 – 10 April 1946
Marshal Vasily Sokolovsky 10 April 1946 – 29 March 1949
Army General Vasily Chuikov 29 March 1949 – 10 October 1949

Chairman of the Soviet Control Commission

High commissioner In Office
Army General Vasily Chuikov 10 October 1949 – 28 May 1953

High commissioners

High commissioner In Office
Vladimir Semyonov 28 May 1953 – 16 July 1954
Georgy Pushkin 16 July 1954 – 20 September 1955

See also


  1. ^ What Is to Be Done? Time, 9 July 1945
  2. ^ Knowles, Chris (29 January 2014). "Germany 1945–1949: a case study in post-conflict reconstruction". History & Policy. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden
  4. ^ Brüll, Christoph (2011). "Entre ressentiment et ré-éducation, L'Armée belge d'Occupation et les Allemands, 1945–1952" (PDF). Cahiers d'Histoire du Temps Présent. 23: 55–6.
  5. ^ Brüll, Christoph (2011). "Entre ressentiment et ré-éducation, L'Armée belge d'Occupation et les Allemands, 1945–1952" (PDF). Cahiers d'Histoire du Temps Présent. 23: 55–94.
  6. ^ Brüll, Christoph (2011). "Entre ressentiment et ré-éducation, L'Armée belge d'Occupation et les Allemands, 1945–1952" (PDF). Cahiers d'Histoire du Temps Présent. 23: 55.
  7. ^ Reinisch, Jessica (2013). The Perils of Peace. OUP. p. 261.
  8. ^ de Gaulle, Charles (1959). Mémoires de guerre : Le Salut 1944-1946. Plon. pp. 170, 207.
  9. ^ a b c "L'Armée luxembourgeoise après la libération (1944–1967)". Armé Archived from the original on 30 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  10. ^ a b Cf. the report of the Central State Archive of Rhineland-Palatinate on the first expellees arriving in that state in 1950 from other German states in the former British or American zone: "Beyond that [the fact, that until France took control of her zone west only few eastern war refugees had made it into her zone] already since summer 1945 France refused to absorb expellee transports in her zone. France, who had not participated in the Potsdam Conference, where the expulsions of eastern Germans had been decided, and who therefore did not feel responsible for the ramifications, feared an unbearable burden for its zone anyway strongly smarting from the consequences of the war." N.N., "Vor 50 Jahren: Der 15. April 1950. Vertriebene finden eine neue Heimat in Rheinland-Pfalz" Archived 31 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine, on: Rheinland-Pfalz Landesarchivverwaltung, retrieved on 4 March 2013.
  11. ^ Gollancz, Victor (1947). In Darkest Germany. Victor Gollancz, London. pp. 116, 125–6.
  12. ^ a b Biddiscombe, P. (2001). "Dangerous Liaisons: The Anti-Fraternization Movement in the U.S. Occupation Zones of Germany and Austria, 1945–1948". Journal of Social History. 34 (3): 611–647. doi:10.1353/jsh.2001.0002.
  13. ^ a b c Children of the Enemy by Mary Wiltenburg and Marc Widmann, Der Spiegel, 2 January 2007
  14. ^ a b Hitchcock, William I. (2008). The Bitter Road to Freedom. New York: Free Press.
  15. ^ Benjamin, Daniel (29 August 2003). "Condi's Phony History". Slate magazine. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  16. ^ The Expulsion of the ‘German’ Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees, European University Institute, Florence, Department of history and civilization

Further reading

  • Bark, Dennis L., and David R. Gress. A History of West Germany Vol 1: From Shadow to Substance, 1945–1963 (1992)
  • Bessel, Richard. Germany 1945: from war to peace (Simon and Schuster, 2012)
  • Erlichman, Camilo, and Knowles, Christopher (eds.). Transforming Occupation in the Western Zones of Germany: Politics, Everyday Life and Social Interactions, 1945-55 (Bloomsbury, 2018). ISBN 978-1-350-04923-9
  • Golay, John Ford. The Founding of the Federal Republic of Germany (University of Chicago Press, 1958)
  • Jarausch, Konrad H.After Hitler: Recivilizing Germans, 1945–1995 (2008)
  • Junker, Detlef, ed. The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War (2 vol 2004), 150 short essays by scholars covering 1945–1990 excerpt and text search vol 1; excerpt and text search vol 2
  • Knowles, Christopher. "The British Occupation of Germany, 1945–49: A Case Study in Post-Conflict Reconstruction." The RUSI Journal (2013) 158#6 pp: 84-91.
  • Knowles, Christopher. Winning the Peace: the British in Occupied Germany, 1945-1948. (PhD Dissertation King's College London, 2014).

online, later published as Winning the Peace: The British in Occupied Germany, 1945-1948, 2017, Bloomsbury Academic

  • Main, Steven J. "The Soviet Occupation of Germany. Hunger, Mass Violence and the Struggle for Peace, 1945–1947." Europe-Asia Studies (2014) 66#8 pp: 1380–1382. doi:10.1080/09668136.2014.941704
  • Phillips, David. Educating the Germans: People and Policy in the British Zone of Germany, 1945-1949 (2018) 392 pp. online review
  • Schwarz, Hans-Peter. Konrad Adenauer: A German Politician and Statesman in a Period of War, Revolution and Reconstruction (2 vol 1995) full text vol 1
  • Taylor, Frederick. Exorcising Hitler: the occupation and denazification of Germany (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011)
  • Weber, Jurgen. Germany, 1945–1990 (Central European University Press, 2004) online edition

Primary sources and historiography

  • Beate Ruhm Von Oppen, ed. Documents on Germany under Occupation, 1945–1954 (Oxford University Press, 1955) online
  • Clay, Lucius D. The papers of General Lucius D. Clay: Germany, 1945–1949 (2 vol. 1974)
  • Miller, Paul D. "A bibliographic essay on the Allied occupation and reconstruction of West Germany, 1945–1955." Small Wars & Insurgencies (2013) 24#4 pp: 751–759. doi:10.1080/09592318.2013.857935

External links

1948 German football championship

The 1948 German football championship, the 38th edition of the competition, was the culmination of the 1947–48 football season in Allied-occupied Germany. 1. FC Nürnberg were crowned champions for the seventh time after one-leg knock-out tournament. It was the first time the championship had been played since 1944. It was Nürnberg's tenth appearance in the final. For the losing finalists 1. FC Kaiserslautern, it was the first appearance in the final since the establishment of a national championship in 1903.Eight teams were to take part in the final stage which was played in a one-leg knock-out tournament, the vice-champions and champions of the British, American and French occupation zones, the champion of the Soviet occupation zone and the Berlin champion. In the end, SG Planitz were not allowed to travel to Stuttgart to play their quarter final against eventual champions Nürnberg.

The 1948 championship is unique as it is the only one of the German championships where no trophy was awarded. The pre-Second World War trophy, the Viktoria had disappeared during the final stages of the war and would not resurface until after the German reunification, while the new trophy, the Meisterschale, would only be ready for the following season.

1949 in Germany

Events in the year 1949 in the Allied-occupied Germany, then in West Germany and East Germany.


The AM-Mark ("Allied-Military Currency") was the currency issued in Allied-occupied Germany by AMGOT after the commencement of Operation Wild Dog in 1944.

Berlin Express

Berlin Express is a 1948 American drama film directed by Jacques Tourneur and starring Robert Ryan, Merle Oberon and Paul Lukas.

Thrown together by chance, a group of people search a city for a kidnapped peace activist. Set in Allied-occupied Germany, it was shot on location in post-World War II Frankfurt-am-Main (with exterior and interior shots of the IG Farben Building and its paternoster elevators) and Berlin. During the opening credits, a full-screen notice reads, "Actual scenes in Frankfurt and Berlin were photographed by authorisation of the United States Army of Occupation, the British Army of Occupation, the Soviet Army of Occupation."

Danilo Kalafatović

Danilo Kalafatović (Serbian Cyrillic: Данило Калафатовић; 27 October 1875–1946) was a military officer who served in the armies of the Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia during the first half of the 20th century. During the Second World War, he was briefly Chief of the General Staff and Supreme Commander of Yugoslavia.

At the end of World War I, Kalafatović became head of the operational section of the Serbian general staff.During the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia, on 13 April 1941 General Kalafatović was named Chief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army by King Peter II, succeeding General Dušan Simović. Following the defeat of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Kalafatović designated Foreign Minister Aleksandar Cincar-Marković and General Radivoje Janković to sign the unconditional surrender of the country to the Axis powers. He died in 1945 in Moosburg, Allied-occupied Germany.

Deutsche Rechtspartei

The German Right Party (German: Deutsche Rechtspartei, DRP) was a far-right political party that emerged in the British zone of Allied-occupied Germany after the Second World War.

Also known as the Deutsche Konservative Partei - Deutsche Rechtspartei (the party used both names, varying the name used between different Länder, but had no direct links to the pre-World War I German Conservative Party), the initially national conservative party was formed in June 1946 by a merger of three smaller groups - the Deutsche Konservative Partei, the Deutsche Aufbaupartei of the Völkisch politician Reinhold Wulle and the Deutsche Bauern- und Landvolk Partei. Its manifesto was in large parts authored by Hans Zehrer.

Originally intended as a continuation of the German National People's Party, it soon attracted a number of former Nazis and its programme changed towards a more neo-Nazi stance, while many centrist members left to join the German Party (DP). In the 1949 federal elections to the first Bundestag, the party won five seats, among the deputies was Fritz Rössler (alias Dr. Franz Richter), who soon became notorious for his radical positions.

Despite this success, the DRP was weakened that same year when the Socialist Reich Party (Sozialistische Reichspartei, SRP) was formed and a number of members who supported Otto Ernst Remer and Gerhard Krüger left to join the more openly neo-Nazi party. Indeed, the group lost two of its deputies - Rössler and Fritz Dorls - to this more extreme party upon its foundation. They did however gain one deputy when the Wirtschaftliche Aufbau-Vereinigung, a group of disparate figures who supported the demagogic Munich lawyer Alfred Loritz, disintegrated in the early 1950s. Within the Bundestag, the DRP began to work closely with a number of minor groups on the far-right, such as the National Democrats (a minor group that should not be confused with the later National Democratic Party of Germany). Between 1950 and 1951, the remaining DRP MPs who supported Fritz Rössler sought to merge with these groups in order to form a larger grouping, which resulted in the creation of the Deutsche Reichspartei. Rössler had to vacate his party offices for his contacts with SRP chairmen, he joined the Socialist Reich Party in September 1950.

Although effectively defunct, a report on the party was produced by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany in the context of the SRP ban in 1952. The report claimed that the party had actively tried to organize members of earlier right wing groups, although no action was taken as the party had ceased to exist. A few members who had not joined the Deutsche Reichspartei continued as "National Rightists" (Nationale Rechte) and finally aligned themselves with the Free Democratic Party in 1954.

Dragomir Jovanović

Dragomir "Dragi" Jovanović (27 July 1902 – 17 July 1946) was a Serbian politician and Axis collaborator who served as the mayor of Belgrade from 1941 to 1944, during World War II. He was captured by communist forces on December 11, 1945 in Munich in Allied occupied Germany following the war and tried alongside other Serbian collaborationist leaders in 1946. He was found guilty of collaborating with Reinhard Heydrich and Heinrich Himmler and other German officials and executed in Belgrade.

Erich Wasicky

Erich Wasicky (born May 27, 1911 in Vienna – died May 28, 1947 at Landsberg Prison, Landsberg am Lech, Allied-occupied Germany) was a pharmacist at the Mauthausen concentration camp in charge of gassing victims.

Wasicky was a physician. He joined the NSDAP and was a member of the SS. Between 1941 and 1944, he worked as a pharmacist at Mauthausen concentration camp. It was his duty to select victims to die in the gas chamber. The exact number of his victims is not known, but more than 3,100 died in neighboring Hartheim concentration camp, which fell under Wasicky's jurisdiction. After the Nazis started using the poison Zyklon B, Wasicky was put in charge of establishing this process in both Mauthausen and Hartheim.

After the end of World War II, Wasicky was charged with murder by a U.S. military tribunal. On May 13, 1946, he was found guilty. On May 28, 1947, he was hanged in Landsberg Prison.

Flag of Costa Rica

The national flag of Costa Rica is based on a design created in 1848. It is also used as the official ensign, and includes the coat of arms of Costa Rica. The civil ensign, commonly used as an unofficial national flag, omits the coat of arms.

The flag was officially adopted on 27 November 1906, including a slight modification to the placement and design of the entrenched coat of arms. The flag was updated to reflect concurrent modifications to the national coat of arms in 1964 and 1998.The flag of Thailand is similar to the Costa Rican flag, except there is no emblem, and the blue and red stripes are reversed. It is also similar to the historic flag of allied-occupied Germany, and North Korea, but the latter has thinner white stripes.

Flag of Germany

The flag of Germany or German flag (German: Flagge Deutschlands) is a tricolour consisting of three equal horizontal bands displaying the national colours of Germany: black, red, and gold (German: Schwarz-Rot-Gold). The flag was first adopted as the national flag of modern Germany in 1919, during the Weimar Republic, until 1933.

Since the mid-19th century, Germany has two competing traditions of national colours, black-red-gold and black-white-red. Black-red-gold were the colours of the 1848 Revolutions, the Weimar Republic of 1919-1933 and the Federal Republic (since 1949). They were also adopted by the German Democratic Republic (1949-1990), albeit, since 1959, with an additional ('socialist') coat of arms.

The colours black-white-red appeared for the first time only in 1867, in the constitution of the North German Confederation. This nation state for Prussia and other north and central German states was expanded to the south German states in 1870/1871, under the name German Empire. It kept these colours until the revolution of 1918/1919. Thereafter, black-white-red became a symbol of the political right, especially the radical right. The national socialists in 1933 re-established these colours along with the party's own swastika flag. After World War II, black-white-red was still used by some conservative groups or by groups of the far right - as it is not forbidden, unlike proper national socialist symbols.

Black-red-gold is the official flag of the Federal Republic of Germany. As an official symbol of the constitutional order, it is protected against defamation. According to §90 of the German penal code, the consequences are a fine or imprisonment up to five years.

Friedrich Nürnberg

Friedrich Nürnberg (8 August 1909 – 10 November 1984) was a German chess master.

He took 12th at Bad Oeynhausen 1941 (the 8th German Chess Championship won by Paul Felix Schmidt and Klaus Junge), won ahead of Georg Klaus at Regensburg 1942 (the South German championship), shared 7th at Bad Oeynhausen 1942 (the 9th GER-ch, Ludwig Rellstab), took 14th at Augsburg 1946 (Wolfgang Unzicker won), took 5th at Riedenburg 1947 (Ludwig Rödl won), tied for 6-10th at Weidenau 1947 (the 1st Allied-occupied Germany-ch, Georg Kieninger won), tied for 9-10th at Essen 1948 (the 2nd Western zone-ch, Unzicker won), tied for 28-32nd at Bad Pyrmont 1949 (the 3rd Western zone-ch, Efim Bogoljubow won), took 8th at Augsburg 1951 (Bogoljubow won).

Germany (disambiguation)

Germany (officially the Federal Republic of Germany) is a European country.

Germany may also refer to:

Other political entities:

Germany (European Parliament constituency), the European Parliament constituency

Kingdom of Germany (medieval)

Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (1512–1806)

German Confederation (1815–1866)

North German Confederation (1866–1871)

German Empire (1871–1918)

Weimar Republic (1919–1933)

Nazi Germany (1933–1945)

Altreich (pre-1938 Nazi Germany)

Allied-occupied Germany (1945–1949)

East Germany, informal name of the German Democratic Republic (1949–1990)

West Germany, informal name of the Federal Republic of Germany until unification in 1990People:

Germany Schaefer (1876–1919), a Major League Baseball player

Germany Schulz (1883–1951), an All-American football player for the University of Michigan

Germany Smith (1863–1927), a Major League Baseball player

Jim Germany (born 1953), a Canadian Football League player

Reggie Germany (born 1978), a National Football League player

Willie Germany (born 1948), a National Football League playerOther:

Germany, Indiana, a community in the United States

Germany, Texas, a community in the United States

Germany Township, Adams County, Pennsylvania, a township in the United States

Germany Valley, West Virginia

Germany (horse) (1991–2013), a thoroughbred racehorse

Henri de Turenne (writer)

Henri de Turenne (19 November 1921 – 23 August 2016) is a French journalist and screenwriter. He was born in Tours. The son of Armand de Turenne, a World War I flying ace, he was raised in Germany and French Algeria, both countries becoming central creative themes in his adult work.

After the Second World War, de Turenne worked as a journalist for Agence France-Presse, Le Figaro, France Soir, and ORTF, reporting from Allied-occupied Germany, covering the Korean War and the Algerian War, and, in 1952, winning the Prix Albert Londres. Since the mid-1960s, he worked primarily in television, notably on the French Grandes Batailles series for Pathé, making over a hundred documentaries. He won an Emmy in 1982 for a documentary on the Vietnam War. His fictional works include Les Alsaciens ou les deux Mathilde (1996), made for Arte, for which he shared a 7 d'Or with Michel Deutsch.

List of prisoner-of-war camps in Allied-occupied Germany

Following is the list of 19 prisoner-of-war camps set up in Allied-occupied Germany at the end of World War II to hold the Nazi German prisoners of war captured across Northwestern Europe by the Allies of World War II. Officially named Prisoner of War Temporary Enclosures (PWTE), they held between one and two million Nazi German military personnel from April until September 1945.

Prisoners held in the Allied camps were designated Disarmed Enemy Forces, not the Prisoners of War. This specific designation was introduced in March 1943 by SHAEF commander in chief Dwight D. Eisenhower in order to conform with the logistics of the Geneva Convention.

Samuel A. Snieg

Samuel A. Snieg was chief rabbi in the American Zone of the Allied-occupied Germany, a survivor of the Dachau concentration camp, and an organizer of the printing of the Survivors' Talmud.


Saxony-Anhalt (German: Sachsen-Anhalt, pronounced [ˌzaksn̩ ˈʔanhalt], official: Land Sachsen-Anhalt) is a state of Germany.

Saxony-Anhalt covers an area of 20,447.7 square kilometres (7,894.9 sq mi)

and has a population of 2.23 million, 108.69 inhabitants per km2, making it the 8th-largest state in Germany by area and the 10th-largest by population. Its capital is Magdeburg and its largest city is Halle (Saale). Saxony-Anhalt is surrounded by the states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia.

The state of Saxony-Anhalt originated in July 1945 after World War II, when the Soviet army administration in Allied-occupied Germany formed it from the former Prussian Province of Saxony and the Free State of Anhalt. Saxony-Anhalt became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Halle and Magdeburg, with the city of Torgau joining the district of Leipzig. Saxony-Anhalt was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, excluding Torgau, and became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states.

Somewhere in Berlin

Somewhere in Berlin (German: Irgendwo in Berlin) is a film produced in the Soviet occupation zone of Allied-occupied Germany, the area that later became East Germany. It was released in 1946, and was the third DEFA film. It sold 4,179,651 tickets. It was part of the group of rubble films made in the aftermath of the Second World War.

State of Hanover

The State of Hanover (German: Land Hannover) was a short-lived state within the British zone of Allied-occupied Germany. It existed for 92 days in the course of the dissolution of the Free State of Prussia after World War II until the foundation of Lower Saxony in 1946. The state saw itself in the tradition of the former Kingdom of Hanover, annexed by Prussia in 1866, reflected in the Saxon Steed state emblem. After Lower Saxony was founded by merging Hanover with several smaller states, it would continue to use the Hanover emblems.

Venues of the 1948 Winter Olympics

For the 1948 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz, Switzerland, a total of eight sports venues were used. The five venues used for the 1928 Winter Olympics were reused for these games. Three new venues were added for alpine skiing which had been added to the Winter Olympics program twelve years earlier in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (Allied-occupied Germany during the 1948 Games). As of 2015, the bob run continues to be used for bobsleigh and the Cresta Run for skeleton while alpine skiing remains popular in St. Moritz.

Merchant flag of Germany (1946–1949).svg Subdivisions of Allied-administered Germany (1945–1949/1956/1990)
American Zone United States
British Zone United Kingdom
French Zone France
Soviet Zone Soviet Union
Berlin (1949–1990)
Saarland (1947–1956)

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.