Allie Reynolds

Allie Pierce Reynolds (February 10, 1917 – December 26, 1994) was an American Major League Baseball (MLB) pitcher. Reynolds pitched 13 years for the Cleveland Indians (1942–46) and New York Yankees (1947–54). A member of the Creek nation, Reynolds was nicknamed "Superchief".

Reynolds attended Capitol Hill High School and the Oklahoma Agricultural & Mechanical College (A&M), where he was a multi-sport athlete. Henry Iba, baseball coach of the Oklahoma A&M baseball team, discovered Reynolds while he was practicing his javelin throws. After excelling at baseball and American football at Oklahoma A&M, Reynolds turned to professional baseball.

During his MLB career, Reynolds had a 182–107 win–loss record, 3.30 earned run average, and 1,423 strikeouts. He was an All-Star and World Series champion for six seasons. In 1951, he won the Hickok Belt as the top American professional athlete of the year. He also has received consideration for induction into the National Baseball Hall of Fame, though he has not been elected.

Allie Reynolds
Allie Reynolds 1953
Reynolds, c. 1953
Pitcher
Born: February 10, 1917
Bethany, Oklahoma
Died: December 26, 1994 (aged 77)
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Batted: Right Threw: Right
MLB debut
September 17, 1942, for the Cleveland Indians
Last MLB appearance
September 25, 1954, for the New York Yankees
MLB statistics
Win–loss record182–107
Earned run average3.30
Strikeouts1,423
Teams
Career highlights and awards

Early years

Reynolds was born on February 10, 1917, in Bethany, Oklahoma.[1] His father was a preacher in the Church of the Nazarene.[1] His mother was a member of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation.[2] As a young child, he didn't play baseball, as his father did not approve of playing sports on Sundays.[1] Reynolds threatened to run away from home if his father wouldn't let him play football; his father relented.[1]

Reynolds attended Capitol Hill High School in Oklahoma City, where he starred in American football as a quarterback and running back, and at track and field, where he excelled at the javelin throw and 100-yard dash.[3] He played fast-pitch softball for his father's church team, which did not play on Sundays.[3] There, he also began dating Dale Earleane Jones, who was named Capitol Hill High School's most outstanding female athlete; she had previously dated Reynolds' younger brother. The couple married on July 7, 1935.[3]

Oklahoma Agricultural & Mechanical College (A&M) provided Reynolds a scholarship to attend and participate in track.[2] Reynolds also played on the football team. He majored in education and graduated with a lifetime certification to teach public school in Oklahoma.[3] Henry Iba, coach of the baseball team, first noticed Reynolds when he was practicing his javelin throws.[4] Iba asked Reynolds to throw batting practice while his pitchers recovered from sore arms.[5] Without taking any warmup pitches, he struck out the first four batters without any making contact.[1][6] Reynolds was the team's captain playing as an outfielderpitcher during his senior year in 1938, and led the team to victory in the state conference baseball championship.[7][7]

Reynolds was drafted by the New York Giants of the National Football League as a halfback .[7] Since Reynolds preferred baseball to football, and felt he could earn more money playing baseball, Reynolds opted not to sign.[7]

Minor leagues (1939–1942)

Iba was friends with a scout, Hugh Alexander, who worked for the Cleveland Indians. After Iba recommended Reynolds, the Indians signed Reynolds as an amateur free agent for a $1,000 signing bonus ($18,012 in current dollar terms).[8] He was assigned to the Springfield Indians of the Class-C Middle Atlantic League. In 1940, he pitched for the Cedar Rapids Raiders of the Class-B Illinois–Indiana–Iowa League. Reynolds played right field for the Raiders when he wasn't pitching, as roster sizes were reduced to seventeen as a result of the Great Depression.[8] The Indians wanted to convert Reynolds to catcher due to his athleticism, but Reynolds refused to change positions.[8]

Reynolds started the 1941 season with the Wilkes-Barre Barons of the Class-A Eastern League, but was demoted to Cedar Rapids after three appearances.[9] Becoming increasingly homesick and not wanting to spend his entire professional career in the minor leagues, Reynolds considered retiring after the 1942 season if he wasn't promoted to Major League Baseball (MLB).[10] In 1942, Reynolds went 18–7 with a 1.56 earned run average (ERA), eleven shutouts, twenty-one complete games, and 193 strikeouts in 231 innings pitched,[10] earning a promotion to the major leagues to finish the 1942 season.[11]

MLB career

Cleveland Indians (1942–1946)

Reynolds appeared in his first MLB game on September 17, 1942, making two relief appearances for the Indians that season. With ace Bob Feller serving in the military during World War II, the Indians hoped that Reynolds would star for the Indians. Reynolds took a pre-enlistment physical,[12] but due to his family and football injuries, he did not enlist in the military and wasn't eligible to be drafted.[13]

He began the 1943 season in the Indians' bullpen, making his first start on June 20.[11] Indians player-manager Lou Boudreau used Reynolds as a reliever in between starts due to his resiliency.[11] Reynolds led the American League (AL) in strikeouts in 1943 with 151 and hits allowed per nine innings pitched with 6.34; however, he was third in walks allowed with 109.[14] Reynolds led the AL in walks with 130 in 1945.[15]

During his five years with the Indians he was primarily used as a starting pitcher, although he did display the versatility that would become his hallmark. He pitched in 139 games for the Indians, starting 100 and finishing 27. Early evidence of his versatility is demonstrated by his 41 complete games, 9 shutouts and 8 saves.[16]

New York Yankees (1947–1954)

On October 11, 1946, Reynolds was traded to the New York Yankees for second baseman Joe Gordon.[17] A possible trade was speculated throughout the 1946 season. The Yankees had a wealth of infield talent, but needed pitching help. The Indians were managed by player-manager Lou Boudreau who played shortstop, but they needed help at second base.[18] Cleveland wanted Gordon and offered the Yankees any pitcher on their staff, with the exception of Bob Feller. Yankee executive Larry MacPhail discussed the potential trade with Yankees star Joe DiMaggio. Though MacPhail initially wanted Red Embree, DiMaggio replied: "Take Reynolds. I'm a fastball hitter, but he can buzz his hard one by me any time he has a mind to."[2][19]

He promptly became the Yankees' best pitcher, recording the highest winning percentage in the AL in his first season as a Yankee. In 1949, joined by Vic Raschi and Eddie Lopat, he was a star of a Yankee team that won the first of five consecutive league championships, a feat that had never been achieved before.[2] He played many important roles for those teams. In his first six years with the Yankees he averaged over 232 innings, 17.5 wins, and 14 complete games. As a swingman, he averaged 26 games started and 9 games finished per season.[16]

In 1950, Reynolds won 16 games, even though he pitched with bone chips in his elbow for the entire season. His remarkable 1951 season began under very difficult conditions. Floating chips in his elbow prevented him from throwing a single pitch in spring training. He was resigned to having surgery which would have cost him at least half of the season. Dr. George Bennett of Johns Hopkins University recommended against surgery. Reynolds appeared in his first game one week after the season started.[20]

On July 12 and September 28, 1951, Reynolds threw no-hitters. He was the first American League pitcher to throw two no-hitters in a season and only the second player to do so in baseball history, after Johnny Vander Meer threw consecutive no-hitters in 1938.[21][22] This is still the MLB record for most no-hitters in a single season, a record that Reynolds and Vander Meer share with Virgil Trucks (1952), Nolan Ryan (1973), Roy Halladay (2010), and Max Scherzer (2015).[22]

His first no-hitter, on July 12, 1951, was a 1–0 defeat of his former team, the Indians. Gene Woodling's solo home run was the only run scored during the game. Reynolds retired the last 17 Indians he faced. Only four Indians reached base; he walked three and Bobby Ávila reached on an error by Phil Rizzuto. It was his third shutout of Cleveland that season. Bob Feller also threw a strong game and didn't allow a hit until the sixth inning, when Mickey Mantle doubled. Feller threw a complete game and allowed only four hits. Feller had thrown a no-hitter eleven days earlier.[23]

His second no-hitter, on September 28, 1951, was an 8–0 defeat of the Boston Red Sox which allowed the Yankees to clinch at least a tie of the American League pennant. The Yankees clinched the pennant in the second half of the September 28 double-header. Reynolds struck out nine hitters. He walked four, but "not one Boston batter seemed close to getting a hit." With two outs in the ninth inning, Ted Williams hit a pop fly to Yankees catcher Yogi Berra. Berra dropped the ball and prolonged the at bat against the dangerous Williams. Reynolds remained calm, telling Berra, "Don't worry Yogi, we'll get him again." Reynolds was correct and Williams once again popped up, but Berra caught this one.[24] In the spring of 1953, Stengel made Reynolds predominantly a reliever, although he notched 15 starts and 5 complete games, because of Reynolds' ability to pitch without much rest and to use his blazing fastball late in the Yankees' afternoon games when the shadows crept over the mound.[25] However, Reynolds injured his back in July when the team bus was on the way to the train station after a game in Philadelphia—robbing Reynolds of his control. During the '53 World Series—his final one—Reynolds started the opener at home and struggled because of his back injury, but recovered to appear in two more as a reliever—winning the sixth and final game of the Series.[26]

Reynolds led the AL in shutouts in 1951 with seven.[27] In 1952, he had his greatest single season performance. He won twenty games for the only time in his career (against eight losses). He led the American League in earned run average (2.06), strikeouts (160), and shutouts (6).[28] He also saved six games.[29]

He also played in the MLB All-Star Games of 1949, 50, 52, 53, and 54 (no official ALL-Star selection or game was held in 1945). With the Yankees, Reynolds reached the World Series in 1947, 49, 50, 51, 52, and 53. Reynolds had a 7–2 record with a 2.79 ERA over 77 innings in the World Series. He made six relief appearances in the World Series, recording a win or save in each of them, including the clinching games of the 1950, 1952 and 1953 series.[2] He also batted .308 in 26 at-bats in his World Series appearances.[30]

Reynolds won the Hickok Belt as the top professional athlete of the year in 1951. He also was voted the Player Of Year in 1951 by the New York chapter of the Baseball Writers' Association of America,[20] and finished third in voting for the AL Most Valuable Player Award, behind Berra and Ned Garver of the St. Louis Browns.[31] In 1952, he was the MVP runner-up to Bobby Shantz of the Philadelphia Athletics.[32]

Reynolds suffered a back injury when the Yankees' charter bus crashed into an overpass in Philadelphia during the 1953 season. He retired after the following season as a result of the injury.[2]

Nickname

David Dupree explained a common view of how he was given the nickname, Superchief, "he was part Creek Indian and always in command on the pitching mound."[5] At this time it was very common for baseball players with Native American heritage to be called 'Chief.' Jeffrey Powers-Beck explains that in the early half of the 20th century, "it appeared virtually impossible for a baseball player of admitted native origin to be known popularly as anything but "Chief."[33]

Former teammate and American League President Bobby Brown noted his heritage and a popular railroad influenced the baseball media to use the nickname, "But for some of you too young to remember, the Santa Fe Railroad at that time had a crack train (called the Superchief) that ran from California to Chicago, and it was known for its elegance, its power and its speed. "We always felt the name applied to Allie for the same reasons."[34]

Brown notes that Reynolds was not comfortable with the nickname because of the importance of the 'chief' title. He also explained that his teammates called him Chief. "When we talked with him, we called him Allie... But when he wasn't in the room, he was referred to as the Chief, because we felt he was the one at the top, the real leader."[34]

Honors

The Yankees dedicated a plaque in Reynolds' honor, to hang in Monument Park at Yankee Stadium on August 26, 1989.[35] Reynolds was inducted into the Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame in 1986.[36] Oklahoma State renamed their baseball stadium after Reynolds.[37]

In 1993, Reynolds received the Jim Thorpe Lifetime Achievement Award from the Jim Thorpe Association.[38] The association established the "Allie P. Reynolds Award" in 1998. It is presented annually to the Oklahoma "high school senior who best reflects the spirit of Allie Reynolds by maintaining the highest standards in scholarship, leadership, civic contributions and character."[39]

Baseball Hall of Fame candidacy

When Reynolds was eligible for election to the National Baseball Hall of Fame by the Baseball Writers' Association of America, his highest vote percentage was 33.6% in the 1968 balloting, short of the 75 percent required for election.[21] That year, he finished ahead of future Hall of Famers Arky Vaughan, Pee Wee Reese, Phil Rizzuto, George Kell, Hal Newhouser, Bob Lemon, and Bobby Doerr.

Reynolds was named as one of the ten former players that began their careers before 1943 to be considered by the Hall of Fame's Veterans Committee for induction into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 2009.[40] He received eight votes, one shy of the nine votes required for election.[21] Reynolds was on the new Golden Era Committee ballot in 2011 for 2012, (replaced the Veterans Committee)[21] receiving fewer than three votes (12 votes are required for election to the Hall of Fame).[41] The Committee meets and votes every three years on ten candidates selected from the 1947 to 1972 era. He was not a candidate in 2014 (none were elected by the committee).

Rob Neyer, in evaluating Reynolds' candidacy, believes Reynolds was "probably as good" as Jesse Haines, Lefty Gomez and Waite Hoyt, who have all been inducted into the Hall of Fame. However, he added that "they're all marginals."[21] Adapting Bill James' sabermetric statistic known as win shares, Dr. Michael Hoban, a professor emeritus of mathematics at City University of New York, found that Reynolds falls short of his threshold for induction, and scored lower than Haines and Gomez.[21]

Post-playing career

Reynolds became a successful oil businessman after his playing career.[2] He began investing in oil wells during his playing career.[42]

Despite retiring, Reynolds was allowed to remain a member of the Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA). He served as the AL player representative in the negotiations with owners to create the MLBPA pension plan.[2][43] He later sued administrators of the pension plan in federal court for "whittling away" the rights of retired players.[44]

In 1969, Reynolds was named the President of the American Association, a Class AAA baseball league. The Association had been dormant for the previous six years.[45] Reynolds served as president until 1971, when he resigned to spend more time with his family and due to competing business interests.[46] He was also the President of the National Hall of Fame for Famous American Indians in Anadarko, Oklahoma, from 1978 until his death.[2]

Reynolds was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame in 1991.[47]

Reynolds died in Oklahoma City due to complications of lymphoma and diabetes.[2] He was survived by a son, a daughter, eight grandchildren and ten great-grandchildren.[2]

See also

References

Bibliography
  • Gittleman, Sol (2009). Reynolds, Raschi, and Lopat: New York's Big Three and the Great Yankee Dynasty of 1949–1953. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-3936-2. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
Inline citations
  1. ^ a b c d e Gittleman, p. 20
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Smith, Claire (December 28, 1994). "Allie Reynolds, Star Pitcher For Yankees, Is Dead at 79". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  3. ^ a b c d Gittleman, p. 21
  4. ^ Gittleman, p. 19
  5. ^ a b DuPree, David (December 28, 1994). "Former Yankees pitcher 'Chief' Reynolds dies". USA Today. Retrieved December 4, 2011. (subscription required)
  6. ^ "Oklahoma State Hall of Honor". Oklahoma State Cowboys. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on December 16, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  7. ^ a b c d Gittleman, p. 24
  8. ^ a b c Gittleman, p. 25
  9. ^ Gittleman, p. 26
  10. ^ a b Gittleman, p. 27
  11. ^ a b c Gittleman, p. 28
  12. ^ "Three Tribe Stars To Get Exams". Pittsburgh Press. May 7, 1944. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  13. ^ Gittleman, pp. 26–27
  14. ^ "1943 American League Pitching Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  15. ^ "1945 American League Pitching Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  16. ^ a b "Allie Reynolds". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  17. ^ "NY Yankees 1947 Transactions". Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  18. ^ "Gordon of Yanks Traded to Indians; Star Second Baseman Goes to Cleveland for Reynolds, Right-Handed Pitcher". The New York Times. October 12, 1946. p. 24. Retrieved December 4, 2011. (subscription required)
  19. ^ Gittleman, p. 30
  20. ^ a b "Allie Reynolds Voted Player Of Year By New York Chapter Of Baseball Writers". Hartford Courant. Associated Press. December 30, 1951. p. D3. Retrieved December 5, 2011. (subscription required)
  21. ^ a b c d e f Sandomir, Richard (November 19, 2011). "Re-evaluating a Gruff, Tough Yankee". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  22. ^ a b "No Hitter Records". Baseball-Almanac.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  23. ^ "Yankees Triumph, 1–0, On Reynolds's No-Hitter". The Baltimore Sun. July 13, 1951. p. 17. Retrieved December 5, 2011. (subscription required)
  24. ^ Drebinger, John (September 29, 1951). "Yanks Clinch Flag, Aided by Reynolds' No-Hitter". The New York Times. p. 25. Retrieved December 5, 2011. (subscription required)
  25. ^ "Allie Reynolds Is Impressive; May Open Series". The Portsmouth Times. September 23, 1953. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  26. ^ Effrat, Louis (October 1, 1953). "Reynolds Reinjures Back and May Be Sidelined for Remainder of Contests; Return of Pitcher Appears Doubtful: Reynolds Says He Injured His Back in Third and Fifth – Stengel Praises Martin". The New York Times. p. 37. Retrieved December 22, 2011. (subscription required)
  27. ^ "1951 American League Pitching Leaders". Baseball Reference. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  28. ^ "1952 American League Pitching Leaders". Baseball Reference. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  29. ^ Brattain, John (January 13, 2005). "The Whole Was Greater Than The Sum Of Its Parts". The Hardball Times. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
  30. ^ "Allie Reynolds Postseason Batting Gamelogs". Baseball Reference. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
  31. ^ "1951 Awards Voting". Baseball Reference. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  32. ^ "1952 Awards Voting". Baseball Reference. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  33. ^ Powers-Beck, Jeffrey (Fall 2001). ""Chief": The American indian integration of baseball, 1897–1945". American Indian Quarterly: 508–538.
  34. ^ a b Bentley, Mac (December 31, 1994). "Last Respects Paid to Reynolds". Daily Oklahoman. Retrieved December 4, 2011. (subscription required)
  35. ^ "Yankees Honor Allie Reynolds With Plaque". Deseret News. August 27, 1989. p. 36. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  36. ^ "Allie Reynolds". Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame. The Jim Thorpe Association and Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  37. ^ "Allie P. Reynolds Stadium — Oklahoma State Official Athletic Site". Okstate.com. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  38. ^ "Lifetime Achievement Award". The Jim Thorpe Association and Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on April 28, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
  39. ^ "Allie P. Reynolds Award". The Jim Thorpe Association and Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on November 30, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  40. ^ "Reynolds, Gordon, Stephens on Hall ballot". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Associated Press. August 26, 2008. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  41. ^ Schmehl, James (December 5, 2011). "West Michigan native, former MLB pitcher Jim Kaat falls short of Hall of Fame". MLive. Retrieved April 20, 2012.
  42. ^ "Allie Reynolds Pitches For Oil". The Pittsburgh Press. November 9, 1952. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  43. ^ "Frick, Kiner Wage Sharp Verbal War". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. December 8, 1953. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  44. ^ "Reynolds Suit Hits New Pension Plan". The New York Times. December 16, 1966. Retrieved December 4, 2011. (subscription required)
  45. ^ "Allie Reynolds President of 'Association.'". Toledo Blade. Associated Press. January 27, 1969. p. 18. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  46. ^ "Career over as Reynolds resigns". Windsor Star. November 9, 1971. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
  47. ^ "Oklahoma Hall of Fame". Retrieved November 16, 2012.

External links

Achievements
Preceded by
Bob Feller
Allie Reynolds
No-hitter pitcher
July 12, 1951
September 28, 1951
Succeeded by
Allie Reynolds
Virgil Trucks
1949 World Series

The 1949 World Series featured the New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers, with the Yankees winning in five games for their second defeat of the Dodgers in three years, and the twelfth championship in team history. This victory would start a record run of five consecutive World Series championships by the Yankees, and was also the first of 14 AL pennants in 16 years (1949–1964 except for 1954 and 1959) for the Yankees.

Both teams finished the regular season with exactly the same records and winning their respective leagues by exactly one game.

1950 New York Yankees season

The 1950 New York Yankees season was the 48th season for the team in New York and its 50th overall as a franchise. The team finished with a record of 98–56, winning their 17th pennant, finishing 3 games ahead of the Detroit Tigers. In the World Series, they defeated the Philadelphia Phillies in 4 games. New York was managed by Casey Stengel. The Yankees played at Yankee Stadium.

1950 World Series

The 1950 World Series was the 47th World Series between the American and National Leagues for the championship of Major League Baseball. The Philadelphia Phillies as 1950 champions of the National League and the New York Yankees, as 1950 American League champions, competed to win a best-of-seven game series.

The Series began on Wednesday, October 4, and concluded Saturday, October 7. The Phillies had home field advantage for the Series, meaning no games would be played at the Yankees' home ballpark, Yankee Stadium, until game 3. The Yankees won their 13th championship in their 41-year history, taking the Series in a four-game sweep. The final game in the Series resulted in the New York Yankees winning, 5–2 over Philadelphia. It was the only game in the Series decided by more than one run. The 1950 World Series title would be the second of a record five straight titles for the New York Yankees (1949–1953). The two teams would not again meet in the Series for 59 years.

This was also the last all-white World Series as neither club had integrated in 1950. It was also the last World Series where television coverage was pooled between the four major networks of the day: that season, the Mutual Broadcasting System, who had long been the radio home for the World Series, purchased the TV rights despite not (and indeed, never) having a television network. They would eventually sell on the rights to NBC, beginning a long relationship with the sport.

1951 New York Yankees season

The 1951 New York Yankees season was the 49th season for the team in New York, and its 51st season overall. The team finished with a record of 98–56, winning their 18th pennant, finishing five games ahead of the Cleveland Indians. New York was managed by Casey Stengel. The Yankees played at Yankee Stadium. In the World Series, they defeated the New York Giants in 6 games.

This year was noted for a "changing of the guard" for the Yankees, as it was Joe DiMaggio's final season and Mickey Mantle's first. The 1951 season also marked the first year of Bob Sheppard's long tenure as Yankee Stadium's public address announcer.

1951 World Series

The 1951 World Series matched the two-time defending champion New York Yankees against the New York Giants, who had won the National League pennant in a thrilling three-game playoff with the Brooklyn Dodgers on the legendary home run by Bobby Thomson (the Shot Heard 'Round the World).

In the Series, the Yankees showed some power of their own, including Gil McDougald's grand slam home run in Game 5, at the Polo Grounds. The Yankees won the Series in six games, for their third straight title and 14th overall. This would be the last World Series for Joe DiMaggio, who retired afterward, and the first for rookies Willie Mays and Mickey Mantle.

This was the last Subway Series the Giants played in. Both teams would meet again eleven years later after the Giants relocated to San Francisco. They have not played a World Series against each other since. This was the first World Series announced by Bob Sheppard, who was in his first year as Yankee Stadium's public address announcer. It was also the first World Series to be televised nationwide, as coaxial cable had recently linked both coasts.

1952 Brooklyn Dodgers season

The 1952 Brooklyn Dodgers rebounded from the heartbreaking ending of 1951 to win the National League pennant by four games over the New York Giants. However, they dropped the World Series in seven games to the New York Yankees. Led by Gil Hodges, Jackie Robinson, and Duke Snider, the high-powered Brooklyn offense scored the most runs in the majors.

1952 Major League Baseball season

The 1952 Major League Baseball season was contested from April 15 to October 7, 1952. The Braves were playing their final season in Boston, before the team relocated to Milwaukee the following year, thus, ending fifty seasons without any MLB team relocating.

1952 World Series

The 1952 World Series featured the 3-time defending champions New York Yankees beating the Brooklyn Dodgers in seven games. The Yankees won their 4th consecutive title, tying the mark they set in 1936–1939 under manager Joe McCarthy, and Casey Stengel became the second manager in Major League history with 4 consecutive World Series championships. This was the Yankees' 15th World Series championship win, and the 3rd time they defeated the Dodgers in 6 years.

In Game 7, the Yankees' second baseman Billy Martin made a great catch, preserving the Yankees' two-run lead. Also, the home run hit by Mickey Mantle during the 8th inning of Game 6 was significant because it was the first of his record 18 career World Series home runs.

The NBC telecasts of Games 6 and 7 are believed to be the oldest surviving television broadcasts of the World Series, as they were preserved via kinescope by sponsor Gillette.

1953 World Series

The 1953 World Series matched the 4-time defending champions New York Yankees against the Brooklyn Dodgers in a rematch of the 1952 Series, and the 4th such matchup between the two teams in the past seven seasons. The Yankees won in 6 games for their 5th consecutive title—a mark which has not been equalled—and their 16th overall. Billy Martin recorded his 12th hit of the Series scoring Hank Bauer in Game 6.

1974 Baseball Hall of Fame balloting

Elections to the Baseball Hall of Fame for 1974 followed the system in place since 1971.

The Baseball Writers' Association of America (BBWAA) voted by mail to select from recent major league players and

elected two, Whitey Ford and Mickey Mantle.

The Veterans Committee met in closed sessions to consider executives, managers, umpires, and earlier major league players.

It selected three people: Jim Bottomley, Jocko Conlan, and Sam Thompson.

The Negro Leagues Committee also met in person and selected Cool Papa Bell.

Allie P. Reynolds Stadium

Allie P. Reynolds Stadium is a baseball stadium in Stillwater, Oklahoma. It is the home field of the Oklahoma State University Cowboys college baseball teams. It is named after former OSU and New York Yankees baseball great, Allie Reynolds.

Indianapolis Indians

The Indianapolis Indians are a professional Minor League Baseball team based in Indianapolis, Indiana. The team plays in the International League. The Triple-A affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates, the Indians play at Victory Field in downtown Indianapolis. The team's mascot is Rowdie the Bear.

Founded in 1902, the Indianapolis Indians are the second-oldest minor league franchise in American professional baseball (after the Rochester Red Wings). The 1902 and 1948 Indians were recognized as being among the 100 greatest minor league teams of all time.

List of New York Yankees no-hitters

The New York Yankees are a Major League Baseball franchise based in the New York City borough of The Bronx. Also known in their early years as the "Baltimore Orioles" (1901–02) and the "New York Highlanders" (1903–12), the Yankees have had ten pitchers throw eleven no-hitters in franchise history. A no-hitter is officially recognized by Major League Baseball only "...when a pitcher (or pitchers) allows no hits during the entire course of a game, which consists of at least nine innings. In a no-hit game, a batter may reach base via a walk, an error, a hit by pitch, a passed ball or wild pitch on strike three, or catcher's interference". No-hitters of less than nine complete innings were previously recognized by the league as official; however, several rule alterations in 1991 changed the rule to its current form. A no-hitter is rare enough that the San Diego Padres have never had a pitcher accomplish the feat. Three perfect games, a special subcategory of no-hitter, have been pitched in Yankees history. As defined by Major League Baseball, "in a perfect game, no batter reaches any base during the course of the game." This feat was achieved by Don Larsen in 1956, David Wells in 1998, and David Cone in 1999. Wells later claimed he was a "little hung-over" while throwing his perfect game.Ironically, given the Yankees' celebrated history, none of the eleven pitchers who tossed no-hitters for the franchise is in the Baseball Hall of Fame.

George Mogridge threw the first no-hitter in Yankees history, beating their rival Boston Red Sox 2–1, their only no-hitter in which the opposition scored. Their most recent no-hitter was David Cone's perfect game in 1999, the seventh Yankees no-hitter thrown by a right-handed pitcher and their third perfect game. The Yankees' first perfect game was also thrown by a right-handed pitcher, Don Larsen, and came in Game 5 of the 1956 World Series. Larsen's perfect game was the only no-hitter in MLB postseason play until Roy Halladay of the Philadelphia Phillies pitched a no-hitter in Game 1 of the 2010 National League Division Series. Coincidentally, Cone's perfect game came on "Yogi Berra Day" at Yankee Stadium. Berra had caught Larsen's perfect game and both he and Larsen were in the stands for the game. Of the eleven no-hitters pitched by Yankees players, three each have been won by the scores 4–0 and 2–0, more common than any other result. The largest margin of victory in a Yankees no-hitter was 13 runs, in a 13–0 win by Monte Pearson.

Andy Hawkins lost a game on July 1, 1990 to the Chicago White Sox while on the road by the score of 4–0 without allowing a hit. Because the White Sox were winning entering the ninth inning at home, they did not bat, and thus Hawkins pitched only 8 innings, but the game was considered a no-hitter at the time. However, following rules changes in 1991, the game is no longer counted as a no-hitter. Additionally, Tom L. Hughes held the Cleveland Indians without a hit through the first nine innings of a game on August 6, 1910 but the game went into extra innings and he lost the no-hitter in the tenth inning and ultimately lost the game 5–0.The longest interval between Yankees no-hitters was between the game pitched by Larsen on October 8, 1956 and Dave Righetti's no hitter on July 4, 1983, encompassing 26 years, 8 months, and 26 days. The shortest gap between such games fell between Allie Reynolds' two no-hitters in 1951, a gap of just 2 months and 16 days from July 12 till September 28. Reynolds is the only Yankees pitcher to throw multiple no-hitters in his career, and one of only six pitchers in Major League history to throw multiple no-hitters in a season along with Max Scherzer in 2015, Roy Halladay in 2010, Nolan Ryan in 1973, Virgil Trucks in 1952, and Johnny Vander Meer in 1938. The Red Sox and the Cleveland Indians have been no-hit by the Yankees more than any other franchise, each doing so three times. Notably, Reynolds' two no-hit victims in 1951 were the Red Sox and the Indians.

The umpire is also an integral part of any no-hitter. The task of the umpire in a baseball game is to make any decision "which involves judgment, such as, but not limited to, whether a batted ball is fair or foul, whether a pitch is a strike or a ball, or whether a runner is safe or out... [the umpire's judgment on such matters] is final." Part of the duties of the umpire making calls at home plate includes defining the strike zone, which "is defined as that area over homeplate (sic) the upper limit of which is a horizontal line at the midpoint between the top of the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants, and the lower level is a line at the hollow beneath the kneecap." These calls define every baseball game and are therefore integral to the completion of any no-hitter. No umpire has called multiple Yankee no-hitters. Bill Dinneen, the umpire who called Sad Sam Jones' 1923 no-hitter, is the only person in MLB history to both pitch (for the Red Sox in 1905) and umpire (five total, including Jones') a no-hitter. The plate umpire for Larsen's perfect game, Babe Pinelli, apocryphally "retired" after that game, but that is mere legend; in reality, since Larsen's perfecto was only Game 5 of the seven-game Series, Pinelli didn't officially retire until two days later, concluding his distinguished umpiring career at second base during Game 7, not at home plate during Game 5.

Russ Meyer (baseball)

Russell Charles Meyer (October 25, 1923 – November 16, 1997) was an American professional baseball player. A right-handed pitcher known for his hot temper, his nickname was "Mad Monk". His professional career lasted for 16 seasons, including 319 games pitched over all or part of 13 years in Major League Baseball for the Chicago Cubs (1946–48; 1956), Philadelphia Phillies (1949–52), Brooklyn Dodgers (1953–55), Cincinnati Redlegs (1956), Boston Red Sox (1957) and Kansas City Athletics (1959). The native of Peru, Illinois, was listed as 6 feet 1 inch (1.85 m) tall and 175 pounds (79 kg).

Initially signed by the Chicago White Sox as an amateur free agent in 1942, Meyer spent 1943 performing United States Army service during World War II. While pitching for his camp team, Meyer was stricken with appendicitis, then contracted peritonitis; he was given a medical discharge and released by the White Sox organization. He signed with the crosstown Cubs, spent three seasons in the Class A1 (now Double-A) Southern Association, and made his major league debut with the Cubs on September 13, 1946.

Among his ten full big-league seasons, two stand out. In 1949, as a Phillie, he won 17 of 25 decisions and posted a strong 3.08 earned run average, as Philadelphia finished in the National League's first division for only the second time since World War I. Then, in his maiden campaign for the Dodgers in 1953, he went 15–5, for a sparkling .750 winning percentage. However, his ERA was a poor 4.56 and he surrendered 25 home runs in 191​1⁄3 innings pitched—testimony to the Dodgers' potent offense and the intimate dimensions of Ebbets Field, where Meyer's earned run average was 5.28. That season, Brooklyn won 105 games and its second consecutive National League pennant.

Overall, Meyer posted a career MLB win–loss record of 94–73 (.563) with an ERA of 3.99 in his 319-game career, which included 219 starting pitcher assignments. He allowed 1,606 hits and 543 bases on balls in 1,531​1⁄3 innings pitched, striking out 672. He registered 65 complete games and 13 shutouts, and five saves. He worked in three World Series (1950, 1953 and 1955), all against the New York Yankees. In four relief appearances, he went 0–1 (3.09), allowing four earned runs in 11​2⁄3 innings of work. He was a member of Brooklyn's 1955 World Championship squad.

Several years after his active career ended, he became a minor league pitching coach in the Yankees' organization, and served one season (1992) on the MLB staff of Yankees' manager Buck Showalter. He died in 1997 at age 74.

Meyer was the first of three pitchers in major league history to have at least 23 consecutive road starts without a loss: Allie Reynolds has the record with 25, spanning the 1948 and 1949 seasons, a feat Kansas City Royals pitcher Chris Young nearly matched. Meyer had 24 consecutive road starts without a loss during the 1953 and 1954 seasons.

Vic Raschi

Victor John Angelo Raschi (March 28, 1919 – October 14, 1988) was a Major League Baseball pitcher. He was one of the top pitchers for the New York Yankees in the late 1940s and early 1950s, forming (with Allie Reynolds and Eddie Lopat) the "Big Three" of the Yankees' pitching staff. He was nicknamed "The Springfield Rifle".

Later in his career, as a pitcher with the St. Louis Cardinals, he was responsible for allowing Hank Aaron's first career home run.

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