Allianoi

Allianoi (Greek: Αλλιανοί), is an ancient spa settlement, with remains dating predominantly from the Roman Empire period (2nd century AD) located near the city of Bergama (ancient Pergamon) in Turkey's İzmir Province. The site is at a distance of 18 kilometers to the northeast of Bergama, on the road to the neighboring town of İvrindi. Allianoi is directly inside the reservoir of the Yortanlı Dam, built by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works. After ongoing discussion in Turkey with regards to preserving Allianoi's ruins, the site was covered with sand and the dam was activated, resulting in Allianoi's complete inundation and destruction in February 2011.

One particularity of Allianoi is it being a very recent historical discovery. It was mentioned only once in the 2nd century by the orator and medicinal writer Aelius Aristides in his "Hieroi Logoi" (Sacred Tales) (III.1), one of the key sources for the knowledge on the science of healing as it was understood at that time. No other writer of antiquity nor any epigraphic finding known had referred to Allianoi.

Allianoi
Allianoi1.JPEG
The remains of Allianoi
Allianoi is located in Turkey
Allianoi
Shown within Turkey
LocationIzmir Province, Turkey
RegionMysia
Coordinates39°14′05″N 27°18′20″E / 39.23472°N 27.30556°ECoordinates: 39°14′05″N 27°18′20″E / 39.23472°N 27.30556°E
History
PeriodsRoman Imperial to Byzantine
CulturesRoman, Byzantine
Site notes
ConditionSubmerged
Allianoi 3
A nymph statue from Allianoi, which became a symbol for protestors against the submergence of Allianoi under the waters of the Yortanlı Dam.

Prehistoric times

During the excavations conducted in the forest to the west of Allianoi, a vessel of the type known as Yortan (dating from the Early Bronze Age II) was found. On the hills of Çakmaktepe (Flint Hill) nearby, a high quantity of flintstones were found during surveys. Additionally, two stone axes were unearthed from an earth fill. These findings suggest some form of prehistoric settlement at or near Allianoi.

Hellenistic period

Because of the presence of hot springs, it is thought that there must have been a thermal bath complex already in the Hellenistic period, but probably at a smaller scale than the later Roman site. No architectural material was found in Allianoi belonging to this period apart from a few archaeological and numismatic clues.

Roman period

During the Roman Imperial Period and especially as of the 2nd century AD, consistent with the emergence of a multitude of urban centers in Anatolia and also with the construction of the famous Asklepion of nearby Pergamon, the number of public works built in Allianoi also increased. Many of the edifices encountered at the site today date from this period. Besides the thermal baths, the bridges, the streets, the insulae, the Connection Building, propylon and the nympheum were all planned and built during this period.

Byzantine period

Allianoi was still densely populated during the Byzantine period. Nevertheless, as was the case with neighboring Pergamon, the socio-economic fabric of the urban settlement had frayed. Some architectural elements of the Roman Period were re-used by the Byzantine settlers. Utilizing the paved streets of the stoas and streets of the Roman period, succeeding Byzantine populations constructed simpler dwellings. The most important buildings of Allianoi, namely the thermal baths and the nympheum, remained in use for a long time, with some minor alterations. A large church reminiscent of a basilica was built in the east, while chapels were constructed in and around the settlement. Metal, ceramic and glass workshops were all traceable to this period.

Ottoman period

The site was known as Paşa Ilıcası (The Thermal Baths of the Pasha) in the Ottoman Period. While noted in the historical documentation of the vilayet (province) of Aydın, it does not seem to have been used on an extensive scale. The only traces of this period are a few shards of coins. In the beginning of the 20th century, the sub-governor of the region did start an effort to put the spa complex back to use and the big pool section has been partially refurbished. Also, all along the Ottoman period and up to 1979, the Roman Bridge situated to the west of the settlement was used to connect the towns of Bergama and İvrindi.

Present day

The bath complex was partially cleaned of accumulated silt in the beginning of the 20th century. Despite continuous flooding, the hot springs section was in use in the 1950s. In 1992, the Roman Bridge that was also still in use was reconstructed with some distortions, disregarding the interests of conservationists. Also, in 1992, some rather shabby reconstruction work had been done in Allianoi itself, as a modern building was constructed over the historical remains. The complex was put out of use after heavy flooding in February 1998. Some of the site has been used as farmland. These recent elements were removed in 2003 by the excavation team and the major parts of the Bath Complex beneath them started to come to light.

Yortanlı Dam

The Turkish State Hydraulic Works devised a plan in 1994 to dam the Ilya River with Yortanlı Dam, creating a reservoir in order to increase agricultural productivity in the region.[1] The Allianoi bath complex lies within the proposed reservoir area, meaning it would be covered in water should the dam project go through. Protests from ICOMOS, UNESCO, Europa Nostra,[2] and the EU have done little but to delay the inevitability of the project.[3] As of December 31, 2010, Yortanli Dam started filling water and Allianoi is already under 61 million meter cubic water.[4]

Publications

  • YARAŞ A. (2004) "Allianoi", TÜRSAB Magazine, August 2004,
  • MÜLLER, H., "Allianoi. Zur Identifizierung eines antiken Kurbades im Hinterland von Pergamon ", IstMitt 54, 2004; 215-225.
  • YARAŞ 1999 A. Yaraş, "Bergama'da İkinci Antik Sağlık Merkezi : Allianoi", Yapı Aylık Kültür, Sanat ve Mimarlık Dergisi, 217 / Aralık, s. 35-38.
  • YARAŞ 1999 A. Yaraş "1998 Yortanlı Barajı Kurtarma Kazısı", Bergama Belleten 9, s. 44-50.
  • YARAŞ 2001 A. Yaraş, "Su İçinde Gelen Sağlık, Su İçinde Yok Olan Kültür! ; Allianoi", Toplumsal Tarih, Sayı 85, Ocak, s. 26-29.
  • YARAŞ 2001 A. Yaraş, "Tanrıçanın Hüznü Allianoi", Atlas 97,Nisan, s.48-66.
  • YARAŞ 2000 A. Yaraş, "Yortanlı (Bergama) Baraj Havzası’ndaki Tarihsel Miras", Zeugma Yalnız Değil Türkiye'de Barajlar ve Kültürel Miras, Aralık, s. 109-115.
  • YARAŞ 2001 A. Yaraş, "1998-1999 Bergama Yortanlı Barajı Kurtarma Kazısı" 11. Müze Çalışmaları ve Kurtarma Kazıları Sempozyumu (24-26 Nisan 2000 Denizli), Ankara, s.105-118.
  • YARAŞ 2001 A. Yaraş, "2000 Yılı Allianoi Kurtarma Kazısı", XXIII. Kazı Araştırma ve Arkeometri Sempozyum Sonuçları, Ankara, (25-30 Mayıs 2001 Ankara), I. Cilt, s.463-478.
  • YARAŞ 2002 A. Yaraş, "Allianoi " Arkeoatlas sayı 1, s.148-149.
  • YARAŞ 2002 A. Yaraş, "İzmir’de Yeni Bir Ören Yeri ; Allianoi", İzmir Kent Kültürü Dergisi, Şubat, sayı 5, s.165-170.
  • YARAŞ 2003 A.Yaraş "Allianoi Geç Antik Çağ Seramik Fırınları", 3. Uluslararası Eskişehir Pişmiş Toprak Sempozyumu, (16-30 Haziran 2003 Eskişehir), s. 404-410.
  • YARAŞ 2003 A. Yaraş, "2002 Yılı Allianoi Kurtarma Kazısı", XXIV. Kazı Araştırma ve Arkeometri Sempozyum Sonuçları,(27-30 Mayıs 2001 Ankara), s. 373-384.Ankara.
  • YARAŞ 2004 A.Yaraş, "Allianoi 2003 Kazıları", XXV Uluslararası Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı, (26-31 Mayıs 2002 Ankara), Baskıda.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Europa Nostra – Save Allianoi Archived 2011-01-22 at WebCite, http://www.europanostra.org/allianoi
  2. ^ Today's Zaman, your gateway to Turkish daily news Archived January 22, 2011, at WebCite
  3. ^ ICOMOS Heritage at Risk 2006/2007: Allianoi Archived January 22, 2011, at WebCite
  4. ^ http://haber.gazetevatan.com/allianoi-sulara-gomuldu/360554/1/Manset

External links

  • "Official site for Allianoi excavation and on the ongoing campaign for rescuing the site" (in Turkish).
  • Allan Cove (2005-06-23). "Ancient Thermal City to Be Flooded in Turkey". Southeast European Times. Archived from the original on 2011-06-14.
  • Foss, C., S. Mitchell, G. Reger, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies, J. Becker. "Places: 550793 (Allianoi)". Pleiades. Retrieved March 1, 2012.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
Ariassus

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Bergama

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Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

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Cotenna

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Cyaneae

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Docimium

Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.

Drizipara

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Europa Nostra

Europa Nostra (Latin for "Our Europe") is a pan-European Federation for Cultural Heritage, representing citizens’ organisations that work on safeguarding Europe's cultural and natural heritage. It is the voice of this movement to relevant international bodies, in particular the European Union, the Council of Europe and UNESCO. It has consultative status with UNESCO and is recognised as an NGO partner.

Hisarlik

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It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Lyrbe

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Phellus

Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).

Rhodiapolis

Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Tyana

Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Yortanlı Dam

Yortanlı Dam is a dam in Izmir Province, Turkey. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works. In 2010, it was announced that the dam will flood an ancient city of Allianoi.

Üstün Bilgen-Reinart

Üstün Bilgen-Reinart (born 1947 in Ankara, Turkey) is a Turkish-Canadian writer, journalist and broadcaster, author of three notable books, the first two on the social and environmental dislocations associated with development in Canada and western Turkey, respectively on the ordeals experienced by the relocated Aboriginal peoples of Canada, the Sayisi Dene First Nation in Tadoule Lake, Manitoba, and then by Bergama villagers of Turkey's Aegean Region campaigning against gold mining in their land. Her latest book, the autobiographical "Porcelain Moon and Pomegranates: A Woman's Trek through Turkey" was published 2008.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

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