Alliance 90 (German: Bündnis 90) was an alliance of three non-communist political groups in East Germany. It was formed in February 1990 by the New Forum (Neues Forum), Democracy Now (Demokratie Jetzt) and the Initiative for Peace and Human Rights (Initiative Frieden und Menschenrechte). It received 2.9% of the vote in the 1990 Volkskammer elections. For the first all-German elections it formed a joint list with the East German Green Party. It was this coalition that merged with the West German Green Party in 1993 to form Alliance 90/The Greens.
On 7 February 1990, the Neue Forum (“New Forum”), the Initiative Frieden und Menschenrechte (“Peace and Human Rights Initiative”) and Demokratie Jetzt (“Democracy Now”) groups agreed upon the creation of the strategic partnership Bündnis 90 (“Alliance ’90”) for the German Volkskammer elections. On 18 March 1990, in the next and final free election of the former East Germany, the electoral alliance received 2.9% of the vote, thus securing 12 seats. By far the best result for Alliance ’90 was in constituency of Berlin with 6.3%. In the remaining constituencies results ranged from 1.6% in Neubrandenburg to 3.8% in Potsdam. Together with the eight electees from the “Green Party in the GDR”, they created the Fraktion Bündnis 90/Grüne (“Alliance ’90/Greens Party”).
In the East German Landtag election on 14 October 1990 the differently-comprised electoral alliances made their entry into every Landtag except Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, where the Neue Forum did not participate in the alliance. In Brandenburg, the three civic groups of the Bündnis 90 took office alone. In other states, the Greens also successfully took part in the electoral alliances. In Brandenburg from 1990 until 1994, Bündnis 90 formed part of a traffic light coalition with the Social Democrats and Free Democrats.
In the 12th Bundestag election on 2 December 1990, the first after the German reunification, 6.1% of voters in the Eastern electoral area (1.2% across Germany) cast their Zweitstimme (the vote for a party, as opposed to for a person) for the group Bündnis 90/Grüne – BürgerInnenbewegung (“Alliance ’90/Greens – Citizens' Movement”), that entered into the German Bundestag with eight East German electees: Klaus-Dieter Feige, Ingrid Köppe, Gerd Poppe, Christina Schenk, Werner Schulz, Wolfgang Ullmann, Konrad Weiß and Vera Wollenberger. Werner Schultz took over the function of Speaker of the Bundestag group, which he held for the entirety of the legislative period. Its West German partners, the Greens, fell short of election to the parliament.
On 21 September 1991, the party Bündnis 90 was founded, which brought together parts of the Neue Forum, Demokratie Jetzt and the Initiative Frieden und Menschenrechte. On 14 May 1993 came the agreement create the union of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen with the Greens which had been a cross-German party since the end of 1990.
One part of the Brandenburg state alliance advocated against a unification with the Greens, including Matthias Platzeck, Günter Nooke, Ute Platzeck, Peter Schüler, Manfred Kruczek and Gerd Gebhardt. However, they were unsuccessful in their case and founded the BürgerBündnis (“Citizens’ Alliance”), headed by Günter Nooke, Matthias Platzeck und Wolfgang Pohl.
The party Bündnis 90/Die Grünen in Saxony had already been established on 27 September 1991, one and a half years before the unification at federal level.
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (German: Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne; [ˈbʏntnɪs ˈnɔʏntsɪç diː ˈgʁyːnən, ˈgʁyːnə]), is a green political party in Germany that formed in 1993 from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany). The party focuses on ecological, economic, and social sustainability. Since January 2018 Annalena Baerbock and Robert Habeck have co-led the party. In the 2017 federal elections the Greens came sixth with 8.9% of the votes and 67 out of 709 seats in the Bundestag.Angelika Beer
Angelika Beer (born 24 May 1957 in Kiel) is a German politician.
2004 to 2009 she was a Member of the European Parliament for Alliance '90/The Greens, part of the European Greens. She was chair of the delegation for relations with Iran and a member on the delegation for relations with Afghanistan and the Delegation for relations with the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, the Foreign Affairs committee and the Subcommittee on Security and Defence.
In January, she was not reelected on a place on the European Parliamentary election list for Alliance '90/The Greens. She left the Green Party at the end of March 2009. As a reason for her exit, she criticised the Green Party's aspiration after power and the loss of its pacifistic orientation.
In November 2009 she became a member of Pirate Party Germany. In May 2012 she was elected as one of six Pirates to become a member of the state parliament of Schleswig-Holstein.
Angelika Beer is married since 2003 with Bundeswehr Colonel lieutenant Peter Matthiesen.Bürgerschaft of Bremen
The Bremische Bürgerschaft (Parliament of Bremen) is the legislative branch of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen in Germany. The state parliament elects the members of the Senate (executive), exercises oversight of the executive, and passes legislation. It currently consists of 83 members from eight parties. The current majority is a coalition of the Social Democratic Party and the Alliance '90/The Greens, supporting Mayor and Senate president Carsten Sieling. The 68 delegates of the city of Bremen also form the Stadtbürgerschaft (the local parliament of the city), while Bremerhaven has its own local parliament.Cem Özdemir
Cem Özdemir (German: [ˌdʒɛm ˈʔœzdɛmiːɐ̯], Turkish: [dʒæm ˈˈzdemiɾ]; born 21 December 1965) is a German politician of the German political party Alliance '90/The Greens.
Between 2008 and 2018, Özdemir served as co-chair of the Green Party, together with Claudia Roth and later Simone Peter. He has been a Member of the German Bundestag since 2013 and he was a Member of the German Bundestag between 1994 and 2002 and of the European Parliament between 2004 and 2009. He was standing as one of the top two Greens candidates for the 2017 German federal election. Since 2018, he has been serving as Chairman of the Committee on Transport.Claudia Roth
Claudia Benedikta Roth (born 15 May 1955 in Ulm) is a German Green Party politician. She was one of the two party chairs from 2004 to 2013 and currently serves as one of the vice presidents of the Bundestag.Europe Ecology
Europe Ecology (French: Europe Écologie) was a green electoral coalition of political parties in France created for the 2009 European elections composed of The Greens and other ecologists and regionalists. For the European Parliament election in 2014, this electoral alliance was renewed.
The coalition was launched on 20 October 2008 with the support of the European Green Party and Daniel Cohn-Bendit, a Franco-German MEP previously representing the Alliance '90/The Greens of Germany, but who ran in France in 2009. Since its creation, the coalition received the support of Cécile Duflot, José Bové and Dominique Voynet amongst others.
After winning a record 16.28% of the vote in the 2009 European elections, the coalition maintained itself to participate in the 2010 regional elections. In November 2010, the alliance was transformed into a political party under the name Europe Ecology – The Greens (EELV).Hans-Josef Fell
Hans-Josef Fell (born 7 January 1952 in Hammelburg, German) was a member of the German Parliamentary Group Alliance 90/ the Greens from 1998 to 2013. He served as spokesman on energy for the Alliance 90/The Greens parliamentary group, a member of the Environmental Protection Committee, substitute member of the Committee on Economics and Technology and substitute member of the Defence Committee. Together with Hermann Scheer, he authored the 2000 draft of the Renewable Energy Sources Act, establishing the foundation for the technology developments in photovoltaic, biogas, wind power and geothermal energy in Germany. Fell is founder and president of the Energy Watch Group and an internationally renowned energy and climate change advisor, author and speaker.Herbert Rusche
Herbert Ludwig Rusche (born 6 May 1952 in Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler, Rhineland-Palatinate) is a German politician and LGBT activist.Rusche was born in Bad Neuenahr. In his childhood, he lived in three different cities. After his schooling, he lived in Kaiserslautern, Heidelberg, Berlin, Hamburg, Offenbach am Main and Frankfurt am Main. Rusche left the Protestant Church in 1970 and became a Buddhist in 1977. In 1977 he also opened the first health food store in Offenbach with a friend. In the 1990s he was self-employed with a telecommunication business. He encountered severe health issues and retired permanently disabled in 2004.Initiative for Peace and Human Rights
The Initiative for Peace and Human Rights (German: Initiative für Frieden und Menschenrechte) was the oldest opposition group in East Germany. It was founded at the beginning of 1986 and was independent of the churches and state. In February 1990 it merged with New Forum and Democracy Now to form Alliance 90.
People involved in the Initiative for Peace and Human Rights included Bärbel Bohley, Ulrike Poppe, Martin Böttger and Ibrahim Böhme.Joachim Gauck
Joachim Wilhelm Gauck (German: [joˈʔaxiːm ɡaʊ̯k]; born 24 January 1940) is a German politician and civil rights activist who served as President of Germany from 2012 to 2017. A former Lutheran pastor, he came to prominence as an anti-communist civil rights activist in East Germany.During the Peaceful Revolution in 1989, he was a co-founder of the New Forum opposition movement in East Germany, which contributed to the downfall of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) and later with two other movements formed the electoral list Alliance 90. In 1990 he was a member of the only freely elected East German People's Chamber in the Alliance 90/The Greens faction. Following German reunification, he was elected as a member of the Bundestag by the People's Chamber in 1990 but resigned after a single day chosen by the Bundestag to be the first Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records, serving from 1990 to 2000. He earned recognition in this position as a "Stasi hunter" and "tireless pro-democracy advocate", exposing the crimes of the communist secret police.He was nominated as the candidate of the SPD and the Greens for President of Germany in the 2010 election, but lost in the third draw to Christian Wulff, the candidate of the government coalition. His candidacy was met by significant approval of the population and the media; Der Spiegel described him as "the better President" and the Bild called him "the president of hearts." Later, after Christian Wulff stepped down, Gauck was elected as President with 991 of 1228 votes in the Federal Convention in the 2012 election, as a nonpartisan consensus candidate of the CDU, the CSU, the FDP, the SPD and the Greens.
A son of a survivor of a Soviet Gulag, Gauck's political life was formed by his own family's experiences with totalitarianism. Gauck was a founding signatory of the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, together with Václav Havel and other statesmen, and of the Declaration on Crimes of Communism. He has called for increased awareness of communist crimes in Europe, and for the necessity of delegitimizing the communist era. As President he was a proponent of "an enlightened anti-communism" and he has underlined the illegitimacy of communist rule in East Germany. He is the author and co-author of several books, including The Black Book of Communism. His 2012 book Freedom: A Plea calls for the defense of freedom and human rights around the globe. He has been described by Chancellor Angela Merkel as a "true teacher of democracy" and a "tireless advocate of freedom, democracy, and justice." The Wall Street Journal has described him as "the last of a breed: the leaders of protest movements behind the Iron Curtain who went on to lead their countries after 1989." He has received numerous honours, including the 1997 Hannah Arendt Prize.Joschka Fischer
Joseph Martin "Joschka" Fischer (born 12 April 1948) is a German politician of the Alliance '90/The Greens. He served as Foreign Minister and as Vice Chancellor of Germany in the cabinet of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005. Fischer has been a leading figure in the West German Greens since the 1970s, and according to opinion polls, he was the most popular politician in Germany for most of the government's duration. Following the September 2005 election, in which the Schröder government was defeated, he left office on 22 November 2005. In September 2010 he supported the creation of the Spinelli Group, a europarliamentarian initiative founded with a view to reinvigorate the strive for federalisation of the European Union.Landtag of Baden-Württemberg
The Landtag of Baden-Württemberg is the state diet of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg. It convenes in Stuttgart and currently consists of 143 members of five political parties. The majority before the 2016 election was a coalition of the Alliance '90/The Greens (Die Grünen) and the Social Democratic Party (SPD), supporting the cabinet of Green Minister-President Winfried Kretschmann. The current majority coalition is of the Alliance '90/The Greens (Die Grünen) and the CDU.List of members of the European Parliament for Germany, 1999–2004
This is a list of the 99 members of the European Parliament for Germany in the 1999 to 2004 session.List of members of the European Parliament for Germany, 2004–09
This is a list of the 99 members of the European Parliament for Germany in the 2004 to 2009 session.List of members of the European Parliament for Germany, 2009–14
This is a list of the 99 members of the European Parliament for Germany in the 2009 to 2014 session.List of political parties in Germany
This is a list of political parties in Germany.
The Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany, the Bundestag, has a plural multi-party system, with two major parties, the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), with its sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) in the same parliamentary group, also known as CDU/CSU or the Union.
Germany also has a number of minor parties, in recent history most importantly the Free Democratic Party (FDP), Alliance 90/The Greens, The Left, and more recently the Alternative for Germany (AfD), founded in 2013. The federal government of Germany often consisted of a coalition of a major and a minor party, specifically CDU/CSU and FDP or SPD and FDP, and from 1998 to 2005 SPD and Greens. From 1966 to 1969, from 2005 to 2009 and again since 2013, the federal government consisted of a coalition of the two major parties, called Grand Coalition.
Coalitions in the Bundestag and state legislators are often described by party colors. Party colors are red for the Social Democratic Party, green for Alliance 90/The Greens, yellow for the Free Democratic Party, purple (officially red, which is customarily used for the SPD) for the Left, light blue for the AfD, and black and blue for the CDU and CSU respectively.Rebecca Harms
Rebecca Harms (born 7 December 1956) is a German politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Germany. She is a member of the Alliance '90/The Greens, part of the European Green Party. From 2010 till 2016 she has been the president of The Greens–European Free Alliance group in the European Parliament. Since beginning of 2017, she is the chairwoman of the delegation to the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, which deals with relations with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.Red–green alliance
In politics, a red–green alliance or red–green coalition is an alliance of "red" (often social-democratic or democratic socialist) parties with "green" (often green and/or occasionally agrarian) parties. The alliance is often based on common left political views, especially a shared distrust of corporate or capitalist institutions. While the "red" social-democratic parties tend to focus on the effects of capitalism on the working class, the "green" environmentalist parties tend to focus on the environmental effects of capitalism.
The term was coined by conservative Prime Minister of Sweden Carl Bildt in a debate against the Social Democrat opposition leader Ingvar Carlsson 1994.Tessa Ganserer
Tessa Ganserer (previously Markus Ganserer; born 16 May 1977) is a German politician. She is a member of Alliance 90/The Greens political party and serves as a member of the Landtag of Bavaria. Ganserer came out as a transgender woman in 2018, becoming the first openly transgender person in a German state or federal parliament.