Alliance (Sweden)

The Alliance (Swedish: Alliansen), formerly the Alliance for Sweden (Allians för Sverige), was a centre-right liberal conservative political alliance in Sweden.

The Alliance consisted of the four centre-right political parties in the Riksdag. The Alliance was formed while in opposition, and later achieved a majority government in the 2006 general election and a minority government in the 2010 general election, governing Sweden from 2006 to 2014 with Fredrik Reinfeldt of the Moderate Party serving as Prime Minister of Sweden until 2014. The Alliance was co-chaired by every component party's individual leaders.

After defeat in 2014, the Moderate Party's parliamentary group leader Anna Kinberg Batra announced to the Riksdag that the political alliance "would operate in opposition".

On 11 January 2019, during the 2018-19 Swedish government formation, the Centre and Liberals agreed to tolerate a social democratic government - allowing Stefan Löfven to continue serving as Prime Minister.[1] Both Ulf Kristersson and Ebba Busch Thor denounced the agreement, with Busch Thor calling the Alliance "a closed chapter".[2]

The Alliance

Alliansen
ModerateUlf Kristersson
CentreAnnie Lööf
Christian DemocratsEbba Busch Thor
LiberalsJan Björklund
Founded31 August 2004
Dissolved11 January 2019
Political positionCentre-right
Colors     Orange      Blue
Parliament
143 / 349
Website
www.alliansen.se

Members of the Alliance

Kommundagarna 2018 (41924664142)
Four leaders together

The Alliance consisted of the four centre-right (Swedish: borgerlig, lit. "bourgeois") parties in the Riksdag (Sweden's parliament). The members were:

History of the Alliance

Swedish politics had been dominated by the Social Democratic Party for over 70 years. They had been in government for all but nine years since 1932 (summer of 1936, 1976–1982, 1991–1994). The opposition parties decided that this was partly because they did not present a clear and viable alternative government. At a 2004 meeting held in the Centre Party leader Maud Olofsson's home in the village of Högfors, the four centre-right leaders at the time; Göran Hägglund (KD), Lars Leijonborg (L), Maud Olofsson (C) and Fredrik Reinfeldt (M) decided to form the political cooperation that would become The Alliance. The meeting ended on 31 August 2004 with the presentation of a joint declaration outlining the principles under which the four parties intended to fight the election.[3] A year later a similar meeting was held at Christian Democrat leader Göran Hägglund's home in Bankeryd, resulting in the affirmation of the alliance and another declaration.[4]

Aims and policies of the Alliance

Allians för Sverige
Alliance for Sweden's press conference in Sundsvall during the bus tour of 6–7 March 2006. From left to right: Reinfeldt, Olofsson, Hägglund and Leijonborg.
Alliansen 2010
The Alliance the day before the 2010 election. From left to right: Hägglund, Björklund, Olofsson and Reinfeldt

The centre-right Alliance for Sweden aimed to win a majority of seats in the 2006 Riksdag elections and to form a coalition government.

In order to do this, the member parties decided to issue common policy statements and to draft a joint election manifesto. Each individual party still had its own manifesto and policies, but these would build up from common proposals in the Alliance's joint proposals. The Alliance had policy working groups for six areas: economic policy, education policy, foreign policy, the welfare state, employment and business policy, and policing. These were not set according to party size, but with one senior politician (often an MP) and one staff per party, and following the idea that "everybody contributes and everybody gains".[5]

An example of this policy cooperation was the budget proposal that the Alliance parties put forward on 2 October 2005. The core proposal was a tax cut of 49 billion Swedish kronor, which is 1.9% of GDP and 3.3% of the total income of the public sector in 2005.[6] Each individual party also proposed its own policies in addition. For example, the Liberals waned to spend 1bn kronor extra on tertiary education and the Christian Democrats want to have more benefits and tax deductions for families.

On 14 June 2006 Alliance for Sweden agreed on a common energy policy which would apply over the next parliamentary term (2006–2010), and included a promise not to shut down any more nuclear reactors during that period (Barsebäck 2 was shut down in 2005). The proposal was that no more reactors were to be built, that the nuclear phase-out law would be repealed and that all forms of energy research would be legal and able to receive state grants (research on nuclear power is currently forbidden in Sweden). An Alliance government would also grant any applications to increase the output of the existing plants, provided that it would be safe to do so.[7] This has been hailed as a historic step, as disagreement over nuclear power has long plagued the centre-right in Sweden: the Centre Party opposes nuclear power, the Moderates and Christian Democrats support its continuing operation while the Liberals want to build more reactors. Some doubts were raised about the long-term survival of this compromise, as neither the Centre Party nor the Liberals have changed their fundamental positions on nuclear power.

On 5 July 2006, during the politics week at Almedalen on Gotland, the Alliance parties announced a plan to abolish property tax. Their agreement promised to freeze taxable values at the current level (so that the revaluation that was being carried out would not apply), and to reduce the rate of tax on apartments from 0.5% to 0.4% of their taxable value.[8] A ceiling of 5000 kronor would also be imposed on the taxation of the value of a house's plot. The parties also agreed on the abolition of the tax and its replacement with a municipal charge independent of the value of the property; this reform was planned to be carried out in 2008. Property tax is estimated to bring in 28.1 billion kronor in 2006, rising to 30.2bn in 2007 and 32.2bn in 2008 (as taxable values rise). The first stage of the Alliance's plan (freezing property values, capping the tax on land value and reducing the rate for apartments) is estimated to cost around 4-5 billion kronor. The financing of this was to be revealed in the Alliance's manifesto in August 2006.

Alliance for Sweden released its election manifesto,[9] entitled More people at work - more to share (Swedish: Fler i arbete - mer att dela på), on 23 August 2006.

The result of the election was clear enough on election night for Moderate Party leader Fredrik Reinfeldt to declare himself the victor and for Göran Persson to announce his resignation as Prime Minister and as leader of the Social Democratic Party. The four centre-right parties of Alliance for Sweden formed a government with Fredrik Reinfeldt as Prime Minister, which was presented to the Riksdag on 6 October.

The Alliance government (2006-2014)

Minister for Finance Anders Borg presented the government's first budget[10] on 16 October 2006. The budget contains many of the proposals that were prominent in the Alliance's election campaign: both the job deduction in the income tax, which will also be larger for old people to encourage them to remain in the labour market, and the "fresh start jobs" with reduced payroll tax for companies employing people who have been unemployed for more than a year will come into effect from 1 January 2007. Tax reductions for companies hiring young people and for domestic services are to come into effect on 1 July. The tax reductions announced in the budget total 42 billion Swedish kronor,[11] of which the income tax deduction is 38.7 billion. Other changes include the ending of employers' co-financing of sickness benefit after the second week, reduction of unemployment benefits and considerably raised fees to unemployment funds, resulting in a substantial decline in union density and density of unemployment funds.[12][13] Unemployment benefit would remain 80% of previous pay for 200 days then drop to 70%. Benefit would be payable for a maximum of 300 days, or 450 if the recipient has children.

List of Alliance party leaders

Year Moderate Party Centre Party Liberals Christian Democrats
2004 Fredrik Reinfeldt
Leader 2003–2015
Prime Minister 2006–2014
Maud Olofsson
Leader 2001–2011
Deputy Prime Minister 2006–2010
Minister for Enterprise 2006–2011
Lars Leijonborg
Leader 1997–2007
Minister for Education 2006–2007
Göran Hägglund
Leader 2004–2015
Minister for Health and Social Affairs 2006–2014
2005
2006
2007 Jan Björklund
Leader 7 September 2007 – present
Minister for School 2006–2007
Minister for Education 2007–2014
Deputy Prime Minister 2010–2014
2008
2009
2010
2011 Annie Lööf
Leader 23 September 2011 – present
Minister for Enterprise and Regional Affairs 2011–2014
2012
2013
2014
2015
Anna Kinberg Batra
Leader 10 January 2015 – 1 October 2017
Ebba Busch Thor
Leader 25 April 2015 – present
2016
2017
Ulf Kristersson
Leader 1 October 2017 – present
2018

Electoral history

Kommundagarna 2018 (41968939921)
Four leaders in February 2018.
Kommundagarna 2018 (41924670372)
Four leaders in February 2018.

In 1991, the Alliance was called the Centre-Right Parties. They formed a centre-right minority coalition government in 1991 with the support of the right-wing populist party New Democracy. After the coalition was defeated in the 1994 election, the Centre-Right Parties coalition was dissolved but the centre-right opposition parties continued to work together. In 2004, the four parties which formed the Centre-Right Parties in 1991, the Moderate Party, Centre Party, Liberal People's Party and Christian Democrats wanted to collaborate again, so they founded The Alliance as a new coalition of the centre-right parties.

Parliament (Riksdag)

Election # of
overall seats won
+/- Government
1991
170 / 349
in coalition
1994
148 / 349
in opposition
1998
159 / 349
in opposition
2002
158 / 349
in opposition
2006
178 / 349
Increase 20 in coalition
2010
173 / 349
Decrease 5 in coalition
2014
141 / 349
Decrease 32 in opposition
2018
143 / 349
Increase 2 TBD

See also

References

  1. ^ "Swedish parties strike deal to end political deadlock". www.thelocal.se. 2019-01-11. Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  2. ^ Kudo, Per; Svensson, Frida. "Busch Thor: Alliansen är ett avslutat kapitel | SvD". SvD.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2019-01-12.
  3. ^ "Allians för Sverige" (PDF) (in Swedish). Allians för Sverige. 31 August 2004. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  4. ^ "Program för arbete" (PDF) (in Swedish). Allians för Sverige. 31 August 2005. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  5. ^ "Ännu fler ministrar". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  6. ^ "En tunn agenda för reformer". Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). 4 October 2005. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  7. ^ Ewing, Adam (14 June 2006). "Alliance agrees to keep nuclear". The Local. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  8. ^ Ewing, Adam (4 July 2006). "Alliance to abolish property tax". The Local. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  9. ^ "Fler i arbete – mer att dela på" (PDF) (in Swedish). Allians för Sverige. 23 August 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 11, 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  10. ^ "Autumn Budget Bill: Putting Sweden to work - a good deal for all". Ministry of Finance. 16 October 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  11. ^ O'Mahony, Paul (16 October 2006). "Swedish tax slashed by 42 billion kronor". The Local. Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2010.
  12. ^ Anders Kjellberg (2011) "The Decline in Swedish Union Density since 2007" Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies (NJWLS) Vol. 1. No 1 (August 2011), pp. 67-93
  13. ^ Anders Kjellberg and Christian Lyhne Ibsen (2016) "Attacks on union organizing: Reversible and irreversible changes to the Ghent-systems in Sweden and Denmark" in Trine Pernille Larsen and Anna Ilsøe (eds.)(2016) Den Danske Model set udefra (The Danish Model Inside Out) - komparative perspektiver på dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering, Copenhagen: Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag (pp.279-302)

External links

Alliance for European Integration

The Alliance for European Integration (Romanian: Alianța pentru Integrare Europeană) was the centre-right anti-communist ruling coalition in Moldova from the July 2009 election until it lost a no confidence vote on February 13, 2013. It was succeeded by the anti-communist Pro-European Coalition.

Democratic Alliance (Sweden)

Democratic Alliance (Swedish: Demokratisk Allians) was a Swedish anti-Socialist organisation. It was known for its support of the United States in the Vietnam War, the support for NATO and strong criticism of Olof Palme then Prime Minister of Sweden. The organization spoke out strongly against the Afrikaner-ruled South Africa under apartheid and the military dictatorships in Chile, Argentina and Greece.The heritage of DA has been passed on by Contra, a foundation which publishes a magazine by the same name. It takes libertarian and conservative positions and claims credit for introducing the ideas of Milton Friedman in Sweden.

Leading members of DA have been Carl G Holm, founder of the magazine Contra, and Tommy Hansson, currently editor of Contra.

Flags of the Republic of Macedonia

This is a list of flags which have been, or are still today, used on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia or by ethnic Macedonians.

History of Denmark

The history of Denmark as a unified kingdom began in the 8th century, but historic documents describe the geographic area and the people living there— the Danes —as early as 500 AD. These early documents include the writings of Jordanes and Procopius. With the Christianization of the Danes c. 960 AD, it is clear that there existed a kingship speaking. Queen Margrethe II can trace her lineage back to the Viking kings Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth from this time, thus making the Monarchy of Denmark the oldest in Europe. The area now known as Denmark has a rich prehistory, having been populated by several prehistoric cultures and people for about 12,000 years, since the end of the last ice age.

Denmark's history has particularly been influenced by its geographical location between the North and Baltic seas, a strategically and economically important placement between Sweden and Germany, at the center of mutual struggles for control of the Baltic Sea (dominium maris baltici). Denmark was long in disputes with Sweden over control of Skånelandene and with Germany over control of Schleswig (a Danish fief) and Holstein (a German fief).

Eventually, Denmark lost these conflicts and ended up ceding first Skåneland to Sweden and later Schleswig-Holstein to the German Empire. After the eventual cession of Norway in 1814, Denmark retained control of the old Norwegian colonies of the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Iceland. During the 20th century, Iceland gained independence, Greenland and the Faroese became integral parts of the Kingdom of Denmark and North Schleswig reunited with Denmark in 1920 after a referendum. During World War II, Denmark was occupied by Nazi Germany, but was eventually liberated by British forces of the Allies in 1945, after which it joined the United Nations. In the aftermath of World War II, and with the emergence of the subsequent Cold War, Denmark was quick to join the military alliance of NATO as a founding member in 1949.

Index of World War II articles (N)

N Force

N. G. L. Hammond

N. H. Gibbs

Nabatingue Toko

Nabetari

Nacht und Nebel

Nachtigall Battalion

Nada Dimić

Nadar (photographer)

Nadia Boulanger

Nagai Naoyuki

Nagant M1895

Nagara-class cruiser

Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum

Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims

Nagasaki Peace Park

Nagasaki, Nagasaki

Nagato-class battleship

Nahverteidigungswaffe

Nairana-class escort carrier

Nakajima B5N

Nakajima B6N

Nakajima G10N

Nakajima G8N

Nakajima J1N

Nakajima J9Y

Nakajima Ki-115

Nakajima Ki-116

Nakajima Ki-201

Nakajima Ki-27

Nakajima Ki-43

Nakajima Ki-44

Nakajima Ki-84

Nakam

Nakamura Incident

Nakamuta Kuranosuke

Nambu pistol

Namdeo Jadav

Name of Paris and its inhabitants

Names of the Holocaust

Namsos Campaign

Nanchang CJ-6

Nanchang J-12

Nanchang Q-5

Nanchang Uprising

Nancy Cunard

Nancy Greene

Nancy Harkness Love

Nancy Kulp

Nancy Salmon

Nancy Wake

Nand Singh

Naniwa-class cruiser

Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall

Nanjing Military Region

Nanking (2007 film)

Nanking Massacre

Nanking Safety Zone

Nanma-Linqu Campaign

Nanne Zwiep

Nansenhjelpen

Nanterre – Université (Paris RER)

Nantes Atlantique Airport

Nantes Cathedral

Nantes

Naoki Hoshino

Naomasa Sakonju

Naomi Rozenberg

Naples Municipal Airport

Napoleon I of France

Napoleon II of France

Napoleon III of France

Napoleon Zervas

Narcisse-Achille de Salvandy

Nariakira Arisaka

Narvik-class destroyer

Narvik Shield

Nashiba Tokioki

Nashorn

Nasjonal Samling

Nassim Akrour

Natalia Karp

Natalia Paley

Natalya Myeklin

Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet

Nathan Abshire

Nathan Bedford Forrest III

Nathan Green Gordon

Nathan Gregory Silvermaster

Nathaniel Clifton

Nathaniel Fiennes, 21st Baron Saye and Sele

Nation (Paris Métro and RER)

National Alliance (Sweden)

National Alliance (United States)

National and Social Liberation

National Anthem of Manchukuo

National Armed Forces

National Committee for a Free Germany

National D-Day Memorial

National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust

National Defense (Poland)

National Defense Research Committee

National European Social Movement

National Front (Australia)

National Front (French Resistance)

National Front (Switzerland)

National Government 1935–1940

National HRO

National Japanese American Memorial To Patriotism During World War II

National Labour Party (UK, 1957)

National Leadership Computing Facility

National Legionary State

National Liberation Front (Greece)

National Liberation War of Macedonia

National Military Council

National Military Organization

National Mobilization Law

National Movement (Luxembourg)

National Movement of Switzerland

National Party (UK, 1976)

National Party of Europe

National Political Institutes of Education

National Popular Rally

National redoubt

National Renaissance Party (United States)

National Renewal Party

National Republican Greek League

National Revolutionary Army

National Security Corps

National Social Movement (Bulgaria)

National Socialism Association (Taiwan)

National Socialism: Vanguard of the Future

National Socialist Action Party

National Socialist Bloc

National Socialist Dutch Workers Party

National Socialist Factory Cell Organization

National Socialist Flyers Corps

National Socialist Freedom Movement

National Socialist Front

National Socialist German Students' League

National Socialist Industrial Workers' Union

National Socialist Japanese Workers and Welfare Party

National Socialist League

National Socialist Motor Corps

National Socialist Movement (UK, 1962)

National Socialist Movement (United Kingdom)

National Socialist Movement (United States)

National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands

National Socialist Movement of Chile

National Socialist Movement of Denmark

National Socialist Movement of Norway

National Socialist Party of America

National Socialist Party of New Zealand

National Socialist Program

National Socialist Turkish Movement

National Socialist Vanguard

National Socialist White People's Party (Harold Covington)

National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden)

National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark

National Spiritual Mobilization Movement

National States' Rights Party

National symbols of Mengjiang

National Union (Switzerland)

National Union of Greece

National Vanguard (American organization)

National War Memorial (New Zealand)

National World War II Memorial

National World War II Museum

National Youth

Nationale (Paris Métro)

Nationalist Party (Iceland)

Native Americans and World War II

Native oppositors against Japanese regime(WW2)

Natividad González Parás

Natzweiler-Struthof

Nauman Scott

Naval Air Establishment Chiang Hung

Naval Artillery War Badge

Naval Battle of Guadalcanal

Naval Battle of Vella Lavella

Naval Intelligence Handbooks

Naval Outlying Field San Nicolas Island

Naval ranks of the Japanese Empire during World War II

Naval Support Facility Kamiseya

Naval War College (Japan)

Naval weaponry of the People's Liberation Army Navy

Navigo pass

Navy of the Independent State of Croatia

Nawitz

Naxos radar detector

Nazi-Soviet population transfers

Nazi

Nazi Abad

Nazi Agent

Nazi Anti-Flag Desecration Law

Nazi archaeology

Nazi architecture

Nazi belt buckle pistol

Nazi book burnings

Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses

Nazi chic

Nazi chocolate bar bomb

Nazi concentration camp badges

Nazi concentration camps in Norway

Nazi concentration camps

Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles

Nazi eugenics

Nazi exploitation

Nazi Germany

Nazi Ghost Train

Nazi gold

Nazi human experimentation

Nazi hunter

Nazi Lowriders

Nazi memorabilia

Nazi occultism

Nazi party paramilitary ranks

Nazi party rally grounds

Nazi Party

Nazi plunder

Nazi Pop Twins

Nazi propaganda

Nazi Punks Fuck Off (Napalm Death)

Nazi Punks Fuck Off!

Nazi songs

Nazi symbolism

Nazi university

Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group

Nazi Writer's Union

Nazis in fiction

Nazism and cinema

Nazism in the United States

Neagu Djuvara

Neal Anderson Scott

Neal Edward Smith

Nebelwerfer

Nebeští jezdci

Nebojša Zlatarić

Nebraska World War II Army Airfields

Necdet Kent

Necessary Evil (aircraft)

Nederlandsche SS

Needles Airport

Neel E. Kearby

Neger

Negro Colleges in War Time

Nehemiah Persoff

Nehru Brigade

Neil Cameron, Baron Cameron of Balhousie

Neil McLean (politician)

Neil Ritchie

Neil Rutherford

Neldon Theo French

Nellie Jane DeWitt

Nelson-class battleship

Nelson Rae

Nemesis at Potsdam

Nemmersdorf massacre

Neo-Nazi music

Nepal during World War II

Neptuna

Nesse Godin

Nestor Chylak

Nestor Makhno

Net laying ship

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero

Netherlands American Cemetery

Netherlands East Indies campaign

Netherlands in World War II

Netherlands Indian roepiah

Netrabahadur Thapa

Neubaufahrzeug

Neuengamme concentration camp

Neuropa

Nevada-class battleship

Never on These Shores

Never So Few

Never Surrender (novel)

Never was so much owed by so many to so few

Nevile Henderson

Neville Brand

Neville Chamberlain

Neville Duke

Neville Jeffress

Neville McNamara

Nevsky Pyatachok

New 1st Army

New 6th Army

New Britain campaign

New Castle Airport

New European Order

New Fourth Army Incident

New Fourth Army

New Guinea campaign

New Guinea Volunteer Rifles

New Mexico-class battleship

New Order (Neo-Nazi group)

New Order (political system)

New Triumph Party

New York-class battleship

New Zealand Expeditionary Force

New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior

Newfoundland Escort Force

Newington Armory

Newport Municipal Airport (Arkansas)

Newt Loken

Newton Henry Mason

Newton Steers

Next Objective (B-29)

Nguyen-Thien Dao

Ni Liv

NI Tank

Niall Macpherson, 1st Baron Drumalbyn

Nicholas Colasanto

Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen

Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke

Nicholas Metropolis

Nicholas Minue

Nicholas Oresko

Nicholas Winton

Nichols Field

Nichts als die Wahrheit

Nick Alkemade

Nick Barone

Nick Cardy

Nick Fury

Nick Griffin

Nick Mallett

Nick Virgilio

Nick Winter

Nicky Barr

Nicolaos Matussis

Nicolaas Bloembergen

Nicolae Carandino

Nicolae Ceauşescu

Nicolae Cristea (communist)

Nicolae Malaxa

Nicolae Neagoe

Nicolae Petrescu-Comnen

Nicolae Rădescu

Nicolae Tătăranu

Nicolae Titulescu

Nicolae Vasilescu-Karpen

Nicolangelo Carnimeo

Nicolas Anelka

Nicolas Ardouin

Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux

Nicolas Catinat

Nicolas Chamfort

Nicolas Chorier

Nicolas Chuquet

Nicolas Cousin

Nicolas de Gunzburg

Nicolas Fabiano

Nicolas Fouquet

Nicolas Gillet

Nicolas Goussé

Nicolas Hayer

Nicolas Ouédec

Nicolas Ravot d'Ombreval

Nicolas Sarkozy

Nicolas Savinaud

Nicolas Schlegelmilch

Nicolaus von Below

Nicole Marthe Le Douarin

Nicole Milinaire

Nie Rongzhen

Niederhagen concentration camp

Niels Bohr

Niels Larsen

Nielson Field

Nieuwlande

Nigel Bridge, Baron Bridge of Harwich

Nigel Gray Leakey

Nigel Maynard

Nigel Patrick

Nigel Poett

Nigel Stock (actor)

Night (book)

Night and Fog (1955 film)

Night of the Aurochs

Night of the Long Knives

Night Over Water

Night Train to Munich

Night Witches

Nihat Erim

Nihon Go Gakko (Tacoma)

Niihau Incident

Niitaka-class cruiser

Nikola Ljubičić

Nikolaas Tinbergen

Nikolai Fyodorovich Vatutin

Nikolai Gastello

Nikolai Ivanovich Kuznetsov

Nikolai Khokhlov

Nikolai Skoblin

Nikolai Sologubov

Nikolaus Gross

Nikolaus von Falkenhorst

Nikolay Pukhov

Nikolay Puzanov

Nikos Aliagas

Nikos Beloyannis

Nikos Ploumpidis

Niland brothers

Nilde Iotti

Nile Kinnick

Nils Backlund

Nils Engdahl

Nina Alexeyevna Lobkovskaya

Nina Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg

Nine-O-Nine

Nineteenth Air Force

Nineteenth Army (Japan)

Ning Hai-class cruiser

Ningen-sengen

Ninth Air Force

Ninth Fort

Ninth United States Army

Nipsey Russell

Nire Kagenori

Nishizō Tsukahara

Niskie

Nisko Plan

Nissen hut

Nizkor Project

NKL-26

NKVD prisoner massacres

No-No Boy

No 77 grenade

No. 1 Fighter Sector RAAF

No. 1 Squadron RAF

No. 1 Wireless Unit RAAF

No. 10 Group RAF

No. 10 Squadron RAF

No. 100 Squadron RAF

No. 101 Squadron RAF

No. 102 Squadron RAF

No. 104 Squadron RAF

No. 105 Squadron RAF

No. 106 Squadron RAF

No. 11 Group RAF

No. 11 Squadron RAF

No. 111 Squadron RAF

No. 112 Squadron RAF

No. 113 Squadron RAF

No. 118 Squadron RAF

No. 119 Squadron RAF

No. 12 Group RAF

No. 12 Squadron RAF

No. 120 Squadron RAF

No. 122 Squadron RAF

No. 13 Group RAF

No. 131 Radar Station RAAF

No. 133 Squadron RAF

No. 138 Squadron RAF

No. 14 Group RAF

No. 14 Squadron RAF

No. 141 Squadron RAF

No. 145 Squadron RAF

No. 148 Squadron RAF

No. 149 Squadron RAF

No. 151 Squadron RAF

No. 152 Squadron RAF

No. 155 Squadron RAF

No. 158 Squadron RAF

No. 159 Squadron RAF

No. 16 Squadron RAF

No. 160 Squadron RAF

No. 161 Squadron RAF

No. 164 Squadron RAF

No. 169 Squadron RAF

No. 175 Squadron RAF

No. 18 Squadron RAF

No. 189 Squadron RAF

No. 190 Squadron RAF

No. 191 Squadron RAF

No. 192 Squadron RAF

No. 193 Squadron RAF

No. 2 Construction Battalion

No. 2 Fighter Sector RAAF

No. 2 Squadron RAF

No. 20 Squadron RAF

No. 200 Squadron RAF

No. 201 Squadron RAF

No. 202 Squadron RAF

No. 203 Squadron RAF

No. 204 Squadron RAF

No. 205 Squadron RAF

No. 206 Squadron RAF

No. 208 Squadron RAF

No. 21 Squadron RAF

No. 210 Squadron RAF

No. 211 Squadron RAF

No. 212 Squadron RAF

No. 213 Squadron RAF

No. 214 Squadron RAF

No. 215 Squadron RAF

No. 216 Squadron RAF

No. 22 Squadron RAF

No. 220 Squadron RAF

No. 222 Squadron RAF

No. 224 Squadron RAF

No. 225 Squadron RAF

No. 228 Squadron RAF

No. 23 Squadron RAF

No. 230 Squadron RAF

No. 233 Squadron RAF

No. 235 Squadron RAF

No. 239 Squadron RAF

No. 241 Squadron RAF

No. 242 Squadron RAF

No. 245 Squadron RAF

No. 246 Squadron RAF

No. 247 Squadron RAF

No. 249 Squadron RAF

No. 251 Squadron RAF

No. 253 Squadron RAF

No. 257 Squadron RAF

No. 26 Squadron RAF

No. 261 Squadron RAF

No. 262 Squadron RAF

No. 263 Squadron RAF

No. 264 Squadron RAF

No. 265 Squadron RAF

No. 266 Squadron RAF

No. 27 Squadron RAF

No. 271 Squadron RAF

No. 28 Squadron RAF

No. 280 Squadron RAF

No. 281 Squadron RAF

No. 282 Squadron RAF

No. 283 Squadron RAF

No. 284 Squadron RAF

No. 29 Squadron RAF

No. 297 Squadron RAF

No. 298 Squadron RAF

No. 299 Squadron RAF

No. 3 Fighter Sector RAAF

No. 3 Squadron RAF

No. 30 Squadron RAF

No. 300 Polish Bomber Squadron

No. 301 Polish Bomber Squadron

No. 302 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 303 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 304 Polish Bomber Squadron

No. 305 Polish Bomber Squadron

No. 306 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 307 Polish Night Fighter Squadron

No. 31 Squadron RAF

No. 310 Squadron RAF

No. 311 Squadron RAF

No. 312 Squadron RAF

No. 313 Squadron RAF

No. 315 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 316 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 317 Polish Fighter Squadron

No. 32 (The Royal) Squadron RAF

No. 322 Squadron RAF

No. 33 Squadron RAF

No. 330 Squadron RNoAF

No. 331 Squadron RAF

No. 332 Squadron RAF

No. 34 Squadron RAF

No. 341 Squadron RAF

No. 353 Squadron RAF

No. 354 Squadron RAF

No. 355 Squadron RAF

No. 356 Squadron RAF

No. 357 Squadron RAF

No. 358 Squadron RAF

No. 36 Squadron RAF

No. 360 Squadron RAF

No. 37 Squadron RAF

No. 38 Squadron RAF

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No. 5 Squadron RNZAF

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Nobuaki "Warren" Iwatake

Nobuo Fujita

Nobutaka Shiōden

Nobutake Kondō

Nobuyoshi Mutō

Nobuyuki Abe

Nobuzo Tohmatsu

Noctilien

Noel Agazarian

Noel Beresford-Peirse

Noel Gayler

Noel Irwin

Noel Mason-Macfarlane

Noel Purcell (water polo player)

Nogi Maresuke

Noisy-le-Sec (Paris RER)

Nomasu Nakaguma

Non-British personnel in the RAF during the Battle of Britain

Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League

None but the Brave

None Shall Escape

Noor Inayat Khan

Nora Levin

Norbert Čapek

Norbert Barlicki

Norbert Brainin

Norbert Eschmann

Norbert Jokl

Norbert Rillieux

Norbert Wollheim

Norberto Ceresole

Nordahl Grieg

Norden bombsight

Nordic race

Nordic Reich Party

Nordin Jbari

Nordstrom Sisters

Norfolk County Division

Norihiro Yasue

Norm Van Brocklin

Norman Augustus Finch

Norman Baillie-Stewart

Norman Bethune

Norman Birkett, 1st Baron Birkett

Norman Bottomley

Norman C. Skogstad

Norman Cleaveland

Norman Cohn

Norman Cota

Norman Cyril Jackson

Norman Dike

Norman Fell

Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.

Norman Francis Vandivier

Norman Harvey

Norman Howard Cliff

Norman Igo

Norman Jewison

Norman Jones (politician)

Norman Lear

Norman Lowell

Norman Mailer

Norman Mineta

Norman Miscampbell

Norman Pritchard

Norman Rockwell's Four Freedoms paintings

Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr.

Norman Scott

Norman Slater

Norman Smith (record producer)

Norman Sylla

Norman Taylor

Norman Wisdom

Norman Wodehouse

Norman Wylie

Norman Yardley

Normandie-Niemen

Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial

Normandy Landings

Norodom Sihanouk

Norris Bradbury

North African Campaign timeline

North African Campaign

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North Carolina-class battleship

North Caucasian Front

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Northeastern Army

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Northeastern Volunteer Righteous & Brave Fighters

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Northwestern Front

Norton Air Force Base

Norton Fitzwarren

Norton Knatchbull, 6th Baron Brabourne

Nortraship

Norway Debate

Norwegian Campaign order of battle

Norwegian Campaign

Norwegian Center for Studies of Holocaust and Religious Minorities

Norwegian heavy water sabotage

Norwegian Independent Company 1

Norwegian POW Museum

Norwegian Resistance Movement

Norwegian resistance movement

Norwegian Righteous Among the Nations

Norwood Russell Hanson

Notable real and alleged Ku Klux Klan members in national politics

Notre-Dame-de-Lorette (Paris Métro)

Notre-Dame-des-Champs (Paris Métro)

Notre Dame de Paris

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November 9th Society

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Nowogródzka Cavalry Brigade

Nowy Kurier Warszawski

Nozu Michitsura

Noël Bas

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Noël Hallé

Noël Lee

Noëlle Cordier

NR-40

NRA Battalion

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Number 13-class battleship

Number of deaths in Buchenwald

Number the Stars

Numbered Air Force

Nur für Deutsche

Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy

Nuremberg Code

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Nuremberg Trials (film)

Nuremberg Trials

Nurken Abdirov

Nyoko-dō Hermitage

Nyssa Raatko

Népomucène Lemercier

Néstor Fabbri

Néstor Guillén

Liberals (Sweden)

The Liberals (Swedish: Liberalerna, L) is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Sweden. It was a part of the Alliance centre-right coalition government led by Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt from 2006 to 2014. The party is the seventh-largest party in the Swedish Riksdag. Until 22 November 2015 it was known as the Liberal People's Party (Folkpartiet liberalerna). The party is a member of the Liberal International and Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe.

While the party historically was positioned in the centre of the Swedish political landscape, willing to cooperate with both the political left and the right, it has since the leaderships of Lars Leijonborg and Jan Björklund in the 2000s positioned itself more towards the right. The party's policies include action toward a free market economy and pushing for Sweden to join NATO and the Eurozone, as well as investing in nuclear power; it also focuses on gender equality, the school system and quality education.

List of democratic socialist parties and organizations

This is a list of parties and organizations that are either explicitly democratic socialist or include significant numbers of democratic socialist members (although many do not specifically include the term "Democratic Socialist" in their name).

List of fascist movements by country N–T

A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.

List of right-wing political parties

The following is a list of right-wing political parties. It includes parties from the centre-right to the far and ultra right.

List of shipwrecks in February 1825

The list of shipwrecks in February 1825 includes some ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during February 1825.

National Alliance (Sweden)

The National Alliance (Swedish: Nationella Alliansen) is a neo-Nazi organisation run by Robert Vesterlund. Previously known as SUNS (Stockholms Unga NationalSocialister) and formed by Vesterlund at the same time as he ran Sverigedemokratisk Ungdom, they published the magazine Info 14. The group changed its name in 1996 and Christopher Rangne was appointed leader.

Red-Greens (Sweden)

The Red-Greens (Swedish: De rödgröna) is an umbrella term which refers to the three left-wing political parties of Sweden; the Social Democrats, the Left Party and the Green Party.

The term 'red-greens' originates from the launch of a left-wing political and electoral alliance between the parties on 7 December 2008. This alliance, which was largely based on the Norwegian Red-Green Coalition, consisted of the Social Democrats, the Green Party and the Left Party which were in opposition to the centre-right Alliance coalition government. The three component parties of the Red-Greens, which faced the voters as three separate parties in the 2010 general election, aimed to reach agreements on significant areas of policy before the election. The parties aimed to achieve a majority in the following Swedish general election on 19 September 2010, in an unsuccessful bid to form a coalition government. The Red-Green pact was put to a pause on 26 October 2010, and was completely dissolved (according to a spokesperson for the Green Party) on 26 November.

Red–green coalition (Norway)

For other red–green coalitions, see red-green allianceThe red–green coalition was a centre-left coalition of parties in Norway, constituting the Labour Party (Ap), the Socialist Left Party (SV), and the Centre Party (Sp). Unlike many other Red-Green coalitions, the "green" here was the colour of a centrist eurosceptic Nordic agrarian party rather than an actual green political movement. It governed from 2005 until Labour Party leader Jens Stoltenberg resigned his cabinet on 16 October 2013 following the coalition's defeat in the 2013 elections.

Opponents of the Red-Green Coalition sometimes referred to the coalition by other names. The Norwegian centre-right parties, comprising Conservatives, Progress Party, Christian Democrats and Liberal Party usually called it a "socialist coalition". The Red Electoral Alliance feels that "red" is not a descriptive colour for this coalition and therefore uses "pale red". Similarly, the Green Party and the Liberal Party, which also use green as their color, claim that the three parties do not deserve the green color. After the 2013 election defeat, the "red-green parties" has continued to be used informally as a moniker for the former coalition partners, although the alliance between the parties has been formally dissolved.

Siege of Maastricht (1676)

The 1676 Siege of Maastricht was a failed attempt by William III of Orange to take the city, which had been occupied by the French since 1673. The siege took place during the Franco-Dutch war of 6 July to 27 August 1676.

Super Smash Bros. in esports

Professional Super Smash Bros. competition involves professional gamers competing in the Super Smash Bros. series of crossover fighting games published by Nintendo. Competition began in 2002 with multiple tournaments held for Super Smash Bros. Melee, released for the GameCube in 2001. Later tournaments also featured the original Super Smash Bros. (1999), Super Smash Bros. Brawl (2008), and Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and for Wii U (2014). Major Smash tournaments include Community Effort Orlando, DreamHack, Evolution Championship Series, Genesis, Super Smash Con and The Big House. From 2004 to 2006, Major League Gaming (MLG) included Melee in its Pro Circuit, and then supported the MLG Smash Series in 2007. In 2010, MLG had Brawl in its Pro Circuit. The MLG Anaheim 2014 and MLG World Finals 2015 championship also featured Melee and Wii U events. Super Smash Bros. games also have a large, widespread grassroots scene that supports tournaments at the amateur and local level. Several top players have been recruited by eSports organizations.

Treaty of Stettin (1630)

The Treaty of Stettin (Swedish: Traktaten or Fördraget i Stettin) or Alliance of Stettin (German: Stettiner Allianz) was the legal framework for the occupation of the Duchy of Pomerania by the Swedish Empire during the Thirty Years' War. Concluded on 25 August (O.S.) or 4 September 1630 (N.S.), it was predated to 10 July (O.S.) or 20 July 1630 (N.S.), the date of the Swedish Landing. Sweden assumed military control, and used the Pomeranian bridgehead for campaigns into Central and Southern Germany. After the death of the last Pomeranian duke in 1637, forces of the Holy Roman Empire invaded Pomerania to enforce Brandenburg's claims on succession, but they were defeated by Sweden in the ensuing battles. Some of the Pomeranian nobility had changed sides and supported Brandenburg. By the end of the war, the treaty was superseded by the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the subsequent Treaty of Stettin (1653), when Pomerania was partitioned into a western, Swedish part (Western Pomerania, thenceforth Swedish Pomerania), and an eastern, Brandenburgian part (Farther Pomerania, thenceforth the Brandenburg-Prussian Province of Pomerania).

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