Alinda

Alinda (Ancient Greek: Ἄλινδα) was an inland city and bishopric in ancient Caria, in Asia Minor (Anatolia). Modern scholars identify Alinda with the Hellenistic foundation of Alexandria ad Latmum (Ἀλεξάνδρεια πρὸς τῷ Λάτμῳ) noted by Stephanus of Byzantium.[1][2][3]

Alinda
Ἄλινδα
Alinda Agora
Agora of Alinda
Alinda is located in Turkey
Alinda
Shown within Turkey
LocationNear Karpuzlu, Aydın Province, Turkey
RegionCaria
Coordinates37°33′30″N 27°49′25″E / 37.55833°N 27.82361°ECoordinates: 37°33′30″N 27°49′25″E / 37.55833°N 27.82361°E
TypeSettlement

Location and remains

It is situated near Demircideresi, on a hilltop which commands the modern-day town of Karpuzlu, Aydın Province, in western Turkey, and overlooks a fertile plain.

The non-restored but very well preserved ruins are much visited, especially within the circuit of organized tours (locally called "safaris") with departure from either the international tourism center of Bodrum or from Milas and reaching Karpuzlu through a mountain road from the south.

In 2018, four kilometers of the ancient stone road, which connects the ancient cities of Alinda and Latmus, were destroyed by villagers to make way for their olive groves.[4]

History

Alinda has perhaps been an important city since the second millennium BC and has been associated with Ialanti that appear in Hittite sources (J. Garstang, p. 179)

It was this fortress which was held by the exiled Carian Queen Ada. She greeted Alexander the Great here in 334 BC. When Alexander captured Caria, he granted Ada to be the ruler of the whole region.[5]

The city was apparently renamed "Alexandria by the Latmos" (Greek: Αλεξάνδρεια στη Λάτμο) shortly afterwards, and was recorded as thus by Stephanus of Byzantium, although sources disagree as to the exact location of the settlement of that name. The prior name of Alinda was restored by 81 BC at the latest. It appears as "Alinda" in Ptolemy's Geographia (Book V, ch. 2) of the 2nd century AD.

Alinda remained an important commercial city, minting its own coins from the third century BC to the 3rd century AD.[6] Stephanus records that the city had a temple of Apollo containing a statue of Aphrodite by Praxiteles.

Alinda has a necropolis of Carian tombs and has been partially excavated. Alinda also had a major water system including a Roman aqueduct, a nearly-intact market place, a 5,000-seat Roman amphitheater in relatively good condition, and remains of numerous temples and sarcophagi.[7]

Ecclesiastical history

Alinda appears on Byzantine lists of bishoprics. It was a suffragan of the Metropolitan of Stauropolis, the capital of the Roman province of Caria, but was to fade.

Residential Bishops

(incomplete)

Titular Bishopric

It was nominally restored as a Latin titular see of the Roman Catholic Church but has been vacant since the death of the last bishop in 1976, having had the following incumbents, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :

  • Alexandre-Louis-Victor-Aimé Le Roy, Holy Ghost Fathers (C.S.Sp.) (1892.07.03 – 1921.05.13), as Apostolic Vicar of Gabon (Gabon) (1892.07.03 – 1896.05.24), later Superior General of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit (Spiritans, Holy Ghost Fathers) (1896.07 – 1926), Titular Archbishop of Caria (see) (1921.05.13 – 1938.04.21)
  • Edward Komar (1921.06.16 – 1943.09.29)
  • Juan Hervás y Benet (1944.01.13 – 1947.12.22)
  • Eris Norman Michael O’Brien (1948.02.05 – 1951.01.11) as Auxiliary Bishop of Sydney (Australia) (1948.02.05 – 1951.01.11); later Titular Archbishop of Cyrrhus (1951.01.11 – 1953.11.16), Coadjutor Archbishop of Canberra and Goulburn (Australia) (1951.01.11 – 1953.11.16), succeeding as Archbishop of Canberra and Goulburn (1953.11.16 – 1966.11.20), emeritate as Titular Archbishop of Apamea in Syria (1966.11.20 – 1974.02.28)* Gabriel Manek, Divine Word Missionaries (S.V.D.) (1951.03.08 – 1961.01.03) as Apostolic Vicar of Larantuka (Indonesia) (1951.03.08 – 1961.01.03), later Metropolitan Archbishop of Endeh (Indonesia) (1961.01.03 – 1968.12.19), emeritate as Titular Archbishop of Bavagaliana (1968.12.19 – 1976.05.15)
  • Charles Alexander Grant (1961.02.06 – 1967.03.14)
  • Robert Lebel (1974.03.11 – 1976.03.26)
  • Juan Hervás y Benet (1976.09.30 – 1982.06.06)

References

  1. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Ἀλεξάνδρειαι.
  2. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 61, and directory notes accompanying.
  3. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
  4. ^ Ancient road destroyed to make way for villagers’ olive groves in Aydın
  5. ^ Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, §1.23.8
  6. ^ Cobb Institute of Archaeology. "Museum object: Coin". Mississippi State University. Archived from the original on 2006-09-01.
  7. ^ Professor Fikret Yegül. "Roman Building Technology and Architecture: Water supply systems: Cisterns, reservoirs, aqueducts". University of California. Archived from the original on 2005-11-20.
  8. ^ Fergus Millar, A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief under Theodosius II (408–450) (University of California Press, 2006) p100.
  9. ^ Richard Price, Michael Gaddis, The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Volume 1 (Liverpool University Press, 1 Jan. 2005) p451
  10. ^ Biographical Index of the Middle Ages / Biographischer Index des Mittelalters / Index Biographique du Moyen-Âge (Walter de Gruyter,2008) p1068.

See also

Sources and external links

  • George E. Bean (1971). Turkey beyond the Maeander. Frederick A. Praeger, London. ISBN 0-87471-038-3.
  • J. Garstang, The Hittite Empire (University Press, Edinburgh, 1930), p. 179.
(8201) 1994 AH2

(8201) 1994 AH2 is a highly eccentric, rare-type asteroid, classified as near-Earth object of the Apollo group of asteroids, approximately 2 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 5 January 1994, by Australian amateur astronomer Gordon Garradd during the AANEAS survey at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia. It has an Earth minimum orbit intersection distance of 0.1 AU (15 million km) and is associated with the Beta Taurids daytime meteor shower.

1915 Quetzálcoatl

1915 Quetzálcoatl, provisional designation 1953 EA, is a very eccentric, stony asteroid classified as near-Earth object, about half a kilometer in diameter. It was discovered on 9 March 1953, by American astronomer Albert George Wilson at Palomar Observatory, California. It was named for Quetzalcoatl from Aztec mythology.

2019 MO

2019 MO, temporarily designated A10eoM1, was a small, harmless 3-meter near-Earth asteroid that impacted Earth on 22 June 2019 at 21:25 UT. It was detected by infrasound and generated a 5-kt bolide off the south coast of Puerto Rico. The strewn field would be spread over the Caribbean Sea.The Apollo asteroid was inbound approaching a late July perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) when it impacted Earth at 14.9 km/s.

3360 Syrinx

3360 Syrinx (originally designated 1981 VA) is an Apollo and Mars crosser asteroid discovered in 1981. It approaches Earth to within 40 Gm three times in the 21st century: 33 Gm in 2039, 40 Gm in 2070, and 24 Gm in 2085.

On 2012-Sep-20 it passed 0.4192 AU (62,710,000 km; 38,970,000 mi) from the Earth at apparent magnitude 17.0. In opposition on 23 Nov 2012, it brightened to magnitude 16.0.It is a member of the Alinda group of asteroids with a 3:1 resonance with Jupiter that has excited the eccentricity of the orbit over the eons. As an Alinda asteroid it makes approaches to Jupiter, Earth, and Venus.For a time, it was the lowest numbered asteroid that had not been named. Since November 2006, this distinction has been held by (3708) 1974 FV1.

4179 Toutatis

4179 Toutatis ( too-TAH-tis), provisional designation 1989 AC, is an elongated, stony asteroid and slow rotator, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo and Alinda group, approximately 2.5 kilometers in diameter. Discovered by French astronomer Christian Pollas at Caussols in 1989, the asteroid was named after Toutatis from Celtic mythology.Toutatis is also a Mars-crosser asteroid with a chaotic orbit produced by a 3:1 resonance with the planet Jupiter, a 1:4 resonance with the planet Earth, and frequent close approaches to the terrestrial planets, including Earth. In December 2012, Toutatis passed within about 18 lunar distances of Earth. The Chinese lunar probe Chang'e 2 flew by the asteroid at a distance of 3.2 kilometers and a relative velocity of 10.73 km/s. Toutatis approached Earth again in 2016, but will not make another notably close approach until 2069.

6489 Golevka

6489 Golevka is an Apollo, Mars-crosser, and Alinda asteroid discovered in 1991 by Eleanor F. Helin.

Its name has a complicated origin. In 1995, Golevka was studied simultaneously by three radar observatories across the world: Goldstone in California, Yevpatoria RT-70 radio telescope in Ukraine (Yevpatoria is sometimes romanized as Evpatoria) and Kashima in Japan. 'Golevka' comes from the first few letters of each observatory's name; it was proposed by the discoverer following a suggestion by Alexander L. Zaitsev.

Golevka is a small object, measuring 0.6 × 1.4 km. The radar observations revealed that it has a very strange, angular shape that looks different depending on the direction. In 2003 the Yarkovsky effect was first observed at work by high-precision radar observations of Golevka. Between 1991 and 2003, the small force of the Yarkovsky effect caused a shift of 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) from what would be expected based on only gravitational interactions. This helped evaluate the asteroid's bulk density (2.7 ± 0.5 g/cm³) and mass (2.10×1011 kg).

Golevka approaches Earth to 0.05 AU (7,500,000 km; 4,600,000 mi) in 2046, 0.10 AU in 2069, and 0.11 AU in 2092. On the other hand, Golevka's collision probability with any planet is negligible for at least the next nine centuries. Its orbit is strikingly similar to that of 4179 Toutatis in eccentricity, semi-major axis, and inclination. However, Toutatis is better known due to a close approach to Earth in 2004.

7092 Cadmus

7092 Cadmus, provisional designation 1992 LC, is a highly eccentric asteroid and near-Earth object of the Apollo group, approximately 3 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 4 June 1992, by American astronomer couple Carolyn and Eugene Shoemaker at Palomar Observatory in California, United States. The asteroid was named after Cadmus from Greek mythology.

887 Alinda

887 Alinda ( ə-LIN-də) is a very eccentric, near-Earth asteroid with an Earth minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID) of 0.092 AU. It is the namesake for the Alinda group of asteroids and measures about 4 kilometers in diameter. The stony S-type asteroid was discovered by German astronomer Max Wolf at Heidelberg Observatory on 3 January 1918.

Due to its high eccentricity and semi-major axis of 0.57 and 2.5 AU, respectively, it is a typical Amor III asteroid. It has both, a 1:3 orbital resonance with Jupiter and a close to 4:1 resonance with Earth. As a result of the resonance with Jupiter that has excited the eccentricity of the orbit over the eons, the asteroid's orbit has evolved to spend time outside of the main-belt. It is the namesake for the Alinda group of asteroids.

Alinda makes close approaches to Earth, including a pass in January 2025, where it comes within 0.0821 AU (12,280,000 km; 7,630,000 mi) of Earth.The asteroid's name had been proposed by H. Kobol. It is uncertain whether it refers to the ancient city of Alinda in modern western Turkey, or to a mythological figure of the Australian aboriginals.

Ada of Caria

Ada of Caria (Ancient Greek: Ἄδα) (fl. 377 – 326 BC) was a member of the House of Hecatomnus (the Hecatomnids) and ruler of Caria during the mid-4th century BC, first as Persian Satrap and later as Queen under the auspices of Alexander III (the Great) of Macedon.

Alinda (gastropod)

Alinda is a subgenus (of Balea) or genus of small air-breathing land snails, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Clausiliidae, the door snails. The name Alinda Adams & Adams, 1855 cannot be used because the older name Plicaphora Hartmann, 1841 has as type species a junior synonym of Alinda's type species Turbo biplicatus Montagu, 1803.

Alinda asteroid

The Alinda asteroids are a dynamical group of asteroids with a semi-major axis of about 2.5 AU and an orbital eccentricity approximately between 0.4 and 0.65. The namesake is 887 Alinda, discovered by Max Wolf in 1918.

These objects are held in this region by the 1:3 orbital resonance with Jupiter, which results in their being close to a 4:1 resonance with Earth. An object in this resonance has its orbital eccentricity steadily increased by gravitational interactions with Jupiter until it eventually has a close encounter with an inner planet that breaks the resonance.

Some Alindas have perihelia very close to Earth's orbit, resulting in a series of close encounters at almost exactly four-year intervals, due to the 4:1 near resonance.

One consequence of this is that if an Alinda asteroid happens to be in an unfavorable position for viewing at the time of its close approach to Earth (for instance, at a small elongation from the Sun), then this situation can persist for decades. Indeed, as of 2010, the Alinda asteroid 1915 Quetzálcoatl had been observed only once since 1985.

Another consequence is that some of these asteroids make repeated relatively close approaches to Earth, making them good subjects for study by Earth-based radar. Examples are 4179 Toutatis and 6489 Golevka, as well as 2019 MO, which impacted Earth in June 2019.

Alinda biplicata

Alinda biplicata, also known as Balea biplicata, common name the two lipped door snail or Thames door snail, is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Clausiliidae, the door snails, all of which have a clausilium.

Alinda of the Loch

Alinda of the Loch is a children's fantasy novel written by Oonagh Jane Pope and Julie Ann Brown. The story is a fairy tale about the daughter of Sleeping Beauty, named Alinda. The result of a collaboration between a British primary school teacher and an American college professor, the novel was published by Across the Pond Publishing in 2009.

Aydın Archaeological Museum

Aydın Archaeological Museum (Turkish: Aydın Arkeoloji Müzesi) is in Aydın, western Turkey. Established in 1959, it contains numerous statues, tombs, columns and stone carvings from the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman periods, unearthed in ancient cities such as Alinda, Alabanda, Amyzon, Harpasa, Magnesia on the Maeander, Mastaura, Myus, Nisa, Orthosia, Piginda, Pygela and Tralleis. The museum also has a section devoted to ancient coin finds.

Eurytela alinda

Eurytela alinda, the forest golden piper, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is found in Nigeria (the southern part of the country and the Cross River loop), Cameroon, Bioko, the Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The habitat consists of clearings and secondary growth near forests.

The larvae feed on Tetracarpidium conophorum.

Karpuzlu

Karpuzlu is a town and district of Aydın Province, in the Aegean region of Turkey, 56 km (35 mi) from the city of Aydın. It became a district centre after separation from Çine in 1990.

Karpuzlu is reached by turning off the road from Aydın to Çine. There is infrequent public transport (by minibus) from both towns to Karpuzlu, which can also be reached by the mountain road from Bodrum or Milas. This latter route is popular with tourists on "jeep safaris" coming to see the ruins of Alinda.

The town is partially situated on the slopes of a hill on the top of which can be seen the well-preserved ruins of the ancient acropolis of Alinda.

The modern district of Karpuzlu covers part of the Çine plain that is part of the southern reaches of the fertile Menderes River (Meander) valley. The main crops are cotton, corn and many other grains and vegetables.

Karpuzlu (former Demircidere) itself is a very small town of 2,300 people.

Kirkwood gap

A Kirkwood gap is a gap or dip in the distribution of the semi-major axes (or equivalently of the orbital periods) of the orbits of main-belt asteroids. They correspond to the locations of orbital resonances with Jupiter.

For example, there are very few asteroids with semimajor axis near 2.50 AU, period 3.95 years, which would make three orbits for each orbit of Jupiter (hence, called the 3:1 orbital resonance). Other orbital resonances correspond to orbital periods whose lengths are simple fractions of Jupiter's. The weaker resonances lead only to a depletion of asteroids, while spikes in the histogram are often due to the presence of a prominent asteroid family (see List of asteroid families).

The gaps were first noticed in 1866 by Daniel Kirkwood, who also correctly explained their origin in the orbital resonances with Jupiter while a professor at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania.Most of the Kirkwood gaps are depleted, unlike the mean-motion resonances (MMR) of Neptune or Jupiter's 3:2 resonance, that retain objects captured during the giant planet migration of the Nice model. The loss of objects from the Kirkwood gaps is due to the overlapping of the ν5 and ν6 secular resonances within the mean-motion resonances. The orbital elements of the asteroids vary chaotically as a result and evolve onto planet-crossing orbits within a few million years. The 2:1 MMR has a few relatively stable islands within the resonance, however. These islands are depleted due to slow diffusion onto less stable orbits. This process, which has been linked to Jupiter and Saturn being near a 5:2 resonance, may have been more rapid when Jupiter's and Saturn's orbits were closer together.More recently, a relatively small number of asteroids have been found to possess high eccentricity orbits which do lie within the Kirkwood gaps. Examples include the Alinda and Griqua groups. These orbits slowly increase their eccentricity on a timescale of tens of millions of years, and will eventually break out of the resonance due to close encounters with a major planet.

The most prominent Kirkwood gaps are located at mean orbital radii of:

2.06 AU (4:1 resonance)

2.5 AU (3:1 resonance), home to the Alinda group of asteroids

2.82 AU (5:2 resonance)

2.95 AU (7:3 resonance)

3.27 AU (2:1 resonance), Hecuba gap, home to the Griqua group of asteroids.Weaker and/or narrower gaps are also found at:

1.9 AU (9:2 resonance)

2.25 AU (7:2 resonance)

2.33 AU (10:3 resonance)

2.71 AU (8:3 resonance)

3.03 AU (9:4 resonance)

3.075 AU (11:5 resonance)

3.47 AU (11:6 resonance)

3.7 AU (5:3 resonance).

Pseudobunaea alinda

Pseudobunaea alinda is a species of very large moths in the family Saturniidae. The species was first described by Dru Drury in 1782, and is found in Angola, Cameroon, Congo, DR Congo, Gabon, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania.

South Staffordshire Water

South Staffordshire Water plc known as South Staffs Water is a UK water supply company owned by a privately owned utilities company serving parts of Staffordshire the West Midlands as well as small areas of surrounding counties in England. South Staffordshire Water plc is part of South Staffordshire plc. It purchased Cambridge Water in 2011. In 2013, KKR & Co. L.P., a company registered in the United States of America, acquired South Staffordshire Water from Alinda Infrastructure Fund. As of April 2018, KKR & Co. L.P., has agreed to sell its 75% equity stake in South Staffordshire plc to Arjun Infrastructure Partners (AIP). This deal will include South Staffs Water (SSW) and its non-regulated businesses, SSI Services and Echo Managed Services.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.