In law, an alien is a person who is not a citizen or national of a given country, though definitions and terminology differ to some degree depending on the continent or region of the world. The term "alien" basically means a foreign national.
Different countries around the world use varying terms for aliens. The following are several types of aliens:
An "alien" in English law denoted any person born outside of the monarch's dominions and who did not owe allegiance to the monarch. Aliens were not allowed to own land and were subject to different taxes to subjects. This idea was passed on in the Commonwealth to other common law jurisdictions.
In Australia, citizenship is defined in the Australian nationality law. Non-citizens in Australia are either permanent residents; temporary residents; or illegal residents (technically called "unlawful non-citizens"). Most non-citizens (including those who lack citizenship documents) traveling to Australia must obtain a visa prior to travel. The only exceptions to this rule are holders of New Zealand passports and citizenship, who may apply for a visa on arrival according to the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement.
In Canada, the term "alien" is not used in federal statues. Instead, the term "foreign national" serves as its equivalent and is found in legal documents. The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act defines "foreign national" as "a person who is not a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident, and includes a stateless person."
In the United Kingdom, the British Nationality Act of 1981 defines an alien as a person who is not a British citizen, a citizen of Ireland, a Commonwealth citizen, or a British protected person. The Aliens Act of 1905, the British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act of 1914 and the Aliens Restriction (Amendment) Act of 1919 were all products of the turbulence in the early part of the 20th century.
Under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of the United States, "[t]he term 'alien' means any person not a citizen or national of the United States." Every foreign national, including a refugee or an asylum seeker, is considered as an alien unless his or her status has been lawfully upgraded.
A lawful permanent resident (LPR) of the United States is not a foreign national but explicitly referred to as a legal immigrant, especially if he or she was previously admitted as a refugee under 8 U.S.C. § 1157(c). Longtime LPRs can at any time claim to be nationals of the United States (i.e., Americans), which requires a case-by-case analysis and depends mainly on the number of continuous years such LPRs have physically spent in the United States.
The usage of the term "alien" dates back to 1798, when it was used in the Alien and Sedition Acts. Although the INA provides no overarching explicit definition of the term "illegal alien", it is mentioned in a number of provisions under title 8. Several provisions even mention the term "unauthorized alien". According to PolitiFact, the term "illegal alien" occurs in federal law, but does so scarcely. PolitiFact notes that, "where the term does appear, it’s undefined or part of an introductory title or limited to apply to certain individuals convicted of felonies."
Because the U.S. law says that a corporation is a person, the term alien is not limited to natural humans because what are colloquially called foreign corporations are technically called alien corporations. Because corporations are creations of local state law, a foreign corporation is an out-of-state corporation.
There are a multitude of unique and highly complex U.S. domestic tax laws and regulations affecting the U.S. tax residency of foreign nationals, both nonresident aliens and resident aliens, in addition to income tax and social security tax treaties and Totalization Agreements.
In the Arab states of the Persian Gulf (United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, etc.), many non-natives (foreigners) have lived in the region since birth or since independence. However, these Arab states of the Persian Gulf do not easily grant citizenship to the non-natives.
On Latvian passports, the mark nepilsoņi (alien) refers to non-citizens or former citizens of the Soviet Union (USSR) who do not have voting rights for the parliament of Latvia but have rights and privileges under Latvian law and international bilateral treaties, such as the right to travel without visas to both the European Union and Russia, where latter is not possible for Latvian citizens.
A person who resides within the borders of a country but is not a citizen or subject of that country; a person not owing allegiance to a particular nation. - In the United States, an alien is a person who was born outside the jurisdiction of the United States, who is subject to some foreign government, and who has not been naturalized under U.S. law.
Our efforts to combat illegal immigration must not violate the privacy and civil rights of legal immigrants and U.S. citizens.
17th Annual GLAAD Media Awards (2006) were presented at four separate ceremonies: March 27 in New York City; April 8 at the Kodak Theatre in Los Angeles; May 25 in Miami; and June 10 in San Francisco. The awards were presented to honor "fair, accurate and inclusive" representations of gay individuals in the media.Alienism
Alienism may refer to:
An obsolete term for psychiatry, the study and treatment of mental illnesses
Alien (law), a person who resides within the borders of a country and is not a national of that countryArizona SB 1070
The Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act (introduced as Arizona Senate Bill 1070 and thus often referred to simply as Arizona SB 1070) is a 2010 legislative Act in the U.S. state of Arizona that at the time of passage in 2010 was the broadest and strictest anti-illegal immigration measure passed in the United States. It has received international attention and has spurred considerable controversy.U.S. Federal law requires aliens older than 18 to possess proper identification at all times; violation of this requirement is a federal misdemeanor crime. The Arizona act additionally made it a state misdemeanor crime for an alien to be in Arizona without carrying the required documents, required that state law enforcement officers attempt to determine an individual's immigration status during a "lawful stop, detention or arrest", when there is reasonable suspicion that the individual is an illegal immigrant. The law barred state or local officials or agencies from restricting enforcement of federal immigration laws, and imposed penalties on those sheltering, hiring and transporting unregistered aliens. The paragraph on intent in the legislation says it embodies an "attrition through enforcement" doctrine.Critics of the legislation say it encourages racial profiling, while supporters say the law prohibits the use of race as the sole basis for investigating immigration status. The law was modified by Arizona House Bill 2162 within a week of its signing with the goal of addressing some of these concerns. There have been protests in opposition to the law in over 70 U.S. cities, including boycotts and calls for boycotts of Arizona.The Act was signed into law by Governor Jan Brewer on April 23, 2010. It was scheduled to go into effect on July 29, 2010, ninety days after the end of the legislative session. Legal challenges over its constitutionality and compliance with civil rights law were filed, including one by the United States Department of Justice, that also asked for an injunction against enforcement of the law. The day before the law was to take effect, a federal judge issued a preliminary injunction that blocked the law's most controversial provisions. In June 2012, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on the case Arizona v. United States, upholding the provision requiring immigration status checks during law enforcement stops but striking down three other provisions as violations of the Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution.Citizens’ Rights Directive
The Citizens’ Rights Directive 2004/38/EC (also sometimes called the "Free Movement Directive") defines the right of free movement for citizens of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the member states of the European Union (EU) and the three European Free Trade Association (EFTA) members Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. Switzerland, which is a member of EFTA but not of the EEA, is not bound by the Directive but rather has a separate bilateral agreement on free movement with the EU.
It consolidated older regulations and directives, and extended the rights of unmarried couples. It gives EEA citizens the right of free movement and residence across the European Economic Area, as long as they are not an undue burden on the country of residence and have comprehensive health insurance. This right also extends to close family members that are not EEA citizens.
After five years, the right of residence becomes permanent, which means it does not depend on any precondition any longer.Enemy alien
In customary international law, an enemy alien is any native, citizen, denizen or subject of any foreign nation or government with which a domestic nation or government is in conflict and who are liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured and removed. Usually, but not always, the countries are in a state of declared war.Expatriate
An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, either independently or sent abroad by their employers, who can be companies, universities, governments, or non-governmental organisations. Effectively migrant workers, they usually earn more than they would at home, and more than local employees. However, the term 'expatriate' is also used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country. Historically, it has also referred to exiles.Foreign born
Foreign-born (also non-native) people are those born outside of their country of residence. Foreign born are often non-citizens, but many are naturalized citizens of the country in which they live, and others are citizens by descent, typically through a parent.
The term foreign born encompasses both immigrants and expatriates but is not synonymous with either. Foreign born may, like immigrants, have committed to living in a country permanently or, like expatriates, live abroad for a significant period with the plan to return to their birth-country eventually.
The status of foreign born — particularly their access to citizenship — differs globally. The large groups of foreign-born guest workers in Arab states of the Persian Gulf, for example, have no right to citizenship no matter the length of their residence. In Canada, Australia and the United States, by contrast, foreign born are often citizens or in the process of becoming citizens. Certain countries have intermediary rules: in Germany and Japan it is often difficult but not impossible for the foreign born to become citizens.Foreigner
Foreigner may refer to:
Alien (law), a person in a country who is not a citizen or permanent resident of that country. It does generally not include a stateless individual.Gaijin
Gaijin (外人, [ɡai(d)ʑĩɴ]; "outsider", "alien", "Non-Japanese") is a Japanese word for foreigners and non-Japanese. The word is composed of two kanji: gai (外, "outside") and jin (人, "person"). Similarly composed words that refer to foreign things include gaikoku (外国, "foreign country") and gaisha (外車, "foreign car"). The word can refer to nationality, race or ethnicity, concepts generally conflated in Japan.
Some feel the word has come to have a negative or pejorative connotation, while other observers maintain it is neutral or even positive. Gaikokújin (外国人, [gaikokɯꜜ(d)ʑĩɴ]; "foreign-country person") is a more neutral and somewhat more formal term widely used in the Japanese government and in media.Illegal Alien
Illegal Alien or Illegal Aliens may refer to:
Alien (law), legal concept of aliens
Illegal Aliens (film), a 2007 film starring Anna Nicole Smith and Chyna
Illegal Aliens (novel), a 1989 science fiction novel by Nick Pollotta and Phil Foglio
Illegal Alien (Sawyer novel), a 1997 science fiction novel by Robert J. Sawyer
Illegal Alien (Tucker and Perry novel), a 1997 Doctor Who novel by Mike Tucker & Robert Perry
Illegal Alien, a graphic novel published by Kitchen Sink and Dark Horse, by James Robinson
"Illegal Alien" (song), the 5th track on the album Genesis by Genesis (1983)Luis Guzmán
Luis Guzmán (born August 28, 1956) is a Puerto Rican actor, who is known for his character work. For much of Guzmán's career, he has played character roles largely as sidekicks, thugs, and policemen.
Guzmán starred in Steven Soderbergh's films Out of Sight, The Limey and Traffic. He also starred in Paul Thomas Anderson's films, Boogie Nights, Magnolia and Punch-Drunk Love. He starred in the HBO original series How to Make It in America and the Netflix series Narcos. He also starred in the CBS medical drama Code Black, where he portrayed senior nurse Jesse "Mama" Salander. He also co-starred on Cameron Crowe's Roadies, a comedy-drama on Showtime, as Gooch, a seasoned crew tour bus driver.Morosi
Morosi (or Moorosi; died 20 November 1879) was a Baphuthi chief in the wild southern part of Basutoland.
He led a revolt against the Cape Colony government in 1879, in defence of his independence south of the Orange River. The British refused to help the Cape Government. However, Letsie, the paramount chief and first son of Moshoeshoe, and many of the Sotho ruling establishment, rallied to support the Cape forces, and the rebellion was put down after several months of arduous fighting. He was beheaded and his body mutilated by Cape troops.Non-citizens (disambiguation)
Alien (law)Roper v. Simmons
Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005), was a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that it is unconstitutional to impose capital punishment for crimes committed while under the age of 18. The 5–4 decision overruled Stanford v. Kentucky, in which the court had upheld execution of offenders at or above age 16, and overturned statutes in 25 states.Vision (Aarkus)
This article is about the original 1940s Vision. For the modern-day comic-book character, see Vision (Marvel Comics).The Vision (Aarkus) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by the writer Joe Simon and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared during the Golden Age of comic books in Marvel Mystery Comics #13 (Nov. 1940), published by Marvel predecessor Timely Comics.