Alicudi

Alicudi (Italian pronunciation: [aliˈkuːdi]) is the westernmost of the eight islands that make up the Aeolian archipelago, a volcanic island chain north of Sicily. The island is about 40 km (25 mi) west of Lipari, has a total area of 5.2 km2 (2.0 sq mi), and is roughly circular. It is located at 38°32′45″N 14°21′00″E / 38.54583°N 14.35000°E.

Alicudi
A view of Alicudi and Filicudi
A view of Alicudi and Filicudi
Alicudi is located in Italy
Alicudi
Alicudi
Location in Italy
Coordinates: 38°32′38″N 14°21′07″E / 38.543943°N 14.352078°ECoordinates: 38°32′38″N 14°21′07″E / 38.543943°N 14.352078°E
Country Italy
ProvinceMessina
ComuneLipari
Area
 • Total5.2 km2 (2.0 sq mi)
Population
 • Total120
 • Density23/km2 (60/sq mi)
Alicudi puerto, Islas Eolias, Sicilia, Italia, 2015
Alicudi port.

History

The island was formed by the long-extinct Montagnola volcano, roughly 150,000 years ago. It has been suggested that the last evolutive act of the island took place only 27,000 years ago.[1]

The island was first populated as long ago as 17th century BC, as some archaeological evidence from this period has been found. Roman ceramic fragments, dating from many centuries later, can be found on the eastern coast of the island.

The modern name of "Alicudi" is a corruption of the island's Ancient Greek name of Ἐρείκουσα Ereikousa, derived from the plant known as erica, more commonly known as heather, which still grows on the island’s slopes. For many centuries, Alicudi was the target of frequent incursions by pirates. Consequently, the island’s population was forced to find shelter in small houses constructed on high terraces and also meant that simple agriculture and cultivation of the peach were the foundations of the modest island economy.

In more recent times, the island became known for its alleged witches and sorcerers whose explanation has come to be attributed to ergotism in local grain-based foodstuff which was consumed regardless due to scarcity.

Demography

Today there are around 120 inhabitants who mostly live off fishing, or the small agriculture of the island. There is only one restaurant on the island and the menu depends greatly on what fish the local fishermen have caught, or what food supplies the hydrofoil brings.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Alicudi". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  • Giunta, Ezio (2005). "Alicudi". Estateolie 2005 - The Essential Guide: 98–99.

External links

Aeolian Islands

The Aeolian Islands () (Italian: Isole Eolie, pronounced [ˈiːzole eˈɔːlje], Sicilian: Ìsuli Eoli, Greek: Αιολίδες Νήσοι, Aiolides Nisoi) are a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea north of Sicily, named after the demigod of the winds Aeolus. The islands' inhabitants are known as Aeolians (Italian: Eoliani). The Aeolian Islands are a popular tourist destination in the summer and attract up to 200,000 visitors annually.

The largest island is Lipari and the islands are sometimes referred to as the Lipari Islands or Lipari group. The other islands include Vulcano, Salina, Stromboli, Filicudi, Alicudi, Panarea and Basiluzzo.

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Filicudi

Filicudi (Italian pronunciation: [filiˈkuːdi]) is one of eight islands that make up the Aeolian archipelago, situated 30–50 km (19–31 mi) northeast of the island of Sicily, southern Italy. It is a frazione of the comune of Lipari.

Franco-Dutch War

The Franco-Dutch War, often just the Dutch War (French: Guerre de Hollande, Dutch: Hollandse Oorlog), was a conflict that lasted from 1672 to 1678 between the Dutch Republic and France, each supported by allies. France had the support of England and Sweden, while the Dutch were supported by Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark.

The war began in May 1672 when France invaded the Netherlands and nearly overran it, an event still referred to as het Rampjaar or 'Disaster Year'. By late July, the Dutch position had stabilised, with support from Emperor Leopold, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain; this was formalised in the August 1673 Treaty of the Hague, joined by Denmark in January 1674.

Faced by a financial crisis, Sweden agreed to remain neutral in return for French subsidies, but became involved in the 1675–1679 Scanian War with its regional rivals Denmark and Brandenburg. On balance, the cost of funding the Swedish army made its support largely negative for France.

The period of English participation as an ally of France is also known as the Third Anglo-Dutch War; the alliance was always unpopular and domestic opposition led to its exit in the February 1674 Treaty of Westminster. In November 1677, William of Orange married his cousin Mary, niece to Charles II of England and England agreed a defensive alliance with the Dutch in March 1678.

Under the Peace of Nijmegen, France returned Charleroi to Spain. In return, it received the Franche-Comté and cities in Flanders and Hainaut, essentially establishing modern France's northern border. However, it also marked the highpoint of French expansion under Louis and William's arrival as leader of an anti-French coalition, which would hold together in the 1688–1697 Nine Years War and 1701–1714 War of the Spanish Succession.

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Lipari

Lipari (Italian pronunciation: [ˈliːpari], Sicilian: Lìpari, Latin: Lipara, Ancient Greek: Μελιγουνίς Meligounis or Λιπάρα Lipara) is the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy; it is also the name of the island's main town and comune, which is administratively part of the Metropolitan City of Messina. Its population is 12,734, but during the May to September tourist season, the total population may reach up to 20,000.

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List of islands in the Mediterranean

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List of volcanoes in Italy

This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in Italy.

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Panarea

Panarea (Italian pronunciation: [panaˈrɛːa]; Ancient Greek: Εὐώνυμος Euōnymos) is the second smallest (after Basiluzzo) of the eight Aeolian Islands, a volcanic island chain north of Sicily, southern Italy. It is a frazione of the comune of Lipari. There are currently about 280 residents living on the island year-round; however the population increases dramatically in summer with the influx of tourists. In recent years, the island has become known internationally for its celebrity visitors.

Salina, Sicily

Salina (Italian pronunciation: [saˈliːna]) is one of the Aeolian Islands north of Sicily, southern Italy. It is the second largest island in the archipelago.

Salina is divided between three comuni: Santa Marina on the eastern coast, Malfa to the north, and Leni to the south-west. From Leni down towards the sea is the village of Rinella. Above the village of Leni is Valdichiesa in the center of the island. The other smaller villages are Capo Faro, Pollara and Lingua.

There are currently approximately 4,000 residents living on the island.

Silene hicesiae

Silene hicesiae is a species of plant in the Caryophyllaceae family. It is endemic to Panarea and Alicudi, which form part of the Aeolian archipelago, a commune of Sicily, Italy. Its natural habitats are Mediterranean-type shrubby vegetation and rocky areas. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Siremar

Siremar (Sicilia Regionale Marittima) is an Italian shipping company, until 2011 a subdivision of state-owned Tirrenia di Navigazione and now privatized, which operates in routes from Sicily to Aeolian Islands, Aegadian Islands, Ustica, Pantelleria, Linosa and Lampedusa. It also connects Milazzo, Naples and the Eolie Islands.

Stromboli

Stromboli (Italian pronunciation: [ˈstromboli]; Sicilian: Struògnuli, Ancient Greek: Στρογγύλη, Strongúlē) is a small island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, off the north coast of Sicily, containing one of the three active volcanoes in Italy. It is one of the eight Aeolian Islands, a volcanic arc north of Sicily. This name is derived from the Ancient Greek name Strongúlē, which was derived from στρογγύλος (strongúlos, "round"), after the volcano's round, conical appearance when seen from a distance. The island's population is about 500. The volcano has erupted many times and is constantly active with minor eruptions, often visible from many points on the island and from the surrounding sea, giving rise to the island's nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean".Stromboli's most recent major eruption was on April 13, 2009. Stromboli stands 926 m (3,038 ft) above sea level,

and over 2,700 m (8,860 ft) on average above the sea floor. There are three active craters at the peak. A significant geological feature of the volcano is the Sciara del Fuoco ("stream of fire"), a big horseshoe-shaped depression generated in the last 13,000 years by several collapses on the northwestern side of the cone. Approximately 2 km (1.2 mi) to the northeast lies Strombolicchio, the volcanic plug remnant of the original volcano.

Vulcano

Vulcano (Sicilian: Vurcanu) or "Vulcan" is a small volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 25 km (16 mi) north of Sicily and located at the southernmost end of the eight Aeolian Islands. The island is 21 km2 (8 sq mi) in area, rises to 501 m (1,644 ft) above sea level, and it contains several volcanic caldera, including one of the four active volcanoes in Italy that are not submarine.

The word "volcano", and its equivalent in several European languages, derives from the name of this island, which in turn derives from Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

Main islands
Islets and skerries

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