Algis Budrys

Algirdas Jonas "Algis" Budrys (January 9, 1931 – June 9, 2008) was a Lithuanian-American science fiction author, editor, and critic. He was also known under the pen names Frank Mason, Alger Rome (in collaboration with Jerome Bixby), John A. Sentry, William Scarff, and Paul Janvier.

Algis Budrys
Budrys at the 1985 Clarion Science Fiction Writing Workshop
Budrys at the 1985 Clarion Science Fiction Writing Workshop
BornJanuary 9, 1931
Königsberg, East Prussia
DiedJune 9, 2008 (aged 77)
Evanston, Illinois, United States
OccupationNovelist, Short-story writer, editor, Critic
GenreScience fiction
Notable worksThe Falling Torch, Rogue Moon, Who?
Dynamic science fiction 195310
Budrys's "Snail's Pace" was the cover story for the October 1953 issue of Dynamic Science Fiction
Fantastic universe 195411
Budrys's novelette "Shadow on the Stars" was cover-featured on the November 1954 issue of Fantastic Universe.
Planet stories 1955spr
Budrys's short story "Cage of a Thousand Wings" took the cover of the penultimate issue of Planet Stories in 1955.
If 195506
Budrys's novelette "The Strangers" was the cover story for the June 1955 issue of If.
Science fiction quarterly 195602
Budrys's novelette "Why Should I Stop?" took the cover of the February 1956 issue of Science Fiction Quarterly.
Fantastic 195712
Budrys wrote "Resurrection on Fifth Avenue" for Fantastic under his pseudonym "Gordon Jaulyn".


Budrys was born in Königsberg in the then East Prussia. His father Jonas Budrys was the consul general of Lithuania; as a child he saw Adolf Hitler in a parade in the city. In 1936, when Budrys was five years old, Jonas was appointed as the consul general in New York, instead of Paris as he had hoped.[1][2] After the Soviet Union's occupation of Lithuania the Budrys family ran a chicken farm in New Jersey[2] while Jonas remained part of the exile Lithuanian Diplomatic Service, since the United States continued to recognize the pre-World War II Lithuanian government-in-exile and subsidized the service. During most of his adult life, Budrys held a captain's commission in the Free Lithuanian Army.

Incorporating his family's experience, Budrys's fiction depicts isolated and damaged people and themes of identity, survival, and legacy. He taught himself English at the age of six by reading Robinson Crusoe. From Flash Gordon comic strips, Budrys read H. G. Wells's The Time Machine; Astounding Science Fiction caused him at the age of 11 to want to become a science fiction writer.[2] Budrys was educated at the University of Miami, and later at Columbia University in New York. His first published science fiction story was "The High Purpose", which appeared in Astounding in 1952. Beginning in 1952 Budrys worked as editor and manager for such science fiction publishers as Gnome Press and Galaxy Science Fiction. Some of Budrys's science fiction in the 1950s was published under the pen name "John A. Sentry", a reconfigured Anglification of his Lithuanian name. Among his other pseudonyms in the SF magazines of the 1950s and elsewhere, several revived as bylines for vignettes in his magazine Tomorrow Speculative Fiction, is "William Scarff". Budrys also wrote several stories under the names "Ivan Janvier" or "Paul Janvier", and used "Alger Rome" in his collaborations with Jerome Bixby.

Budrys's 1960 novella Rogue Moon was nominated for a Hugo Award, and was later anthologized in The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Volume Two (1973). His Cold War science fiction novel Who? was adapted for the screen in 1973. In addition to numerous Hugo Award and Nebula Award nominations, Budrys won the Science Fiction Research Association's 2007 Pilgrim Award for lifetime contributions to speculative fiction scholarship. In 2009, he was the recipient of one of the first three Solstice Awards presented by the SFWA in recognition of his contributions to the field of science fiction.[3]

Having published about 100 stories and a half-dozen novels, with a wife and children to support, after 1960 Budrys wrote less fiction and worked in publishing, editing, and advertising. He became better known as among science fiction's best critics than as writer,[2] reviewing for Galaxy Science Fiction[4] and The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, a book editor for Playboy, a longtime teacher at the Clarion Writers Workshop and an organizer and judge for the Writers of the Future awards. In addition, he worked as a publicist; in a famous publicity stunt, he erected a giant pickle on the proposed site of the Chicago Picasso during the time the newly arriving sculpture was embroiled in controversy.[5]

Budrys was married to Edna Duna; they had four sons. He last resided in Evanston, Illinois. He died at home, from metastatic malignant melanoma on June 9, 2008.[6]



  • False Night (1954)
  • Man of Earth (1956)
  • Who? (1958)
  • The Falling Torch (1959)
  • Rogue Moon (1960)
  • Some Will Not Die (1961) (an expanded and restored version of False Night)
  • The Iron Thorn (1967) (as serialized in If; revised and published in book form as The Amsirs and the Iron Thorn). On a bleak forbidding planet, humans hunt Amsirs – flightless humanoid birds – and vice versa. After one young hunter makes his first kill, he's initiated into the society's secrets. Still, he figures there are secrets the human race has forgotten altogether, and begins to hunt for answers.
  • Michaelmas (1977)
  • Hard Landing (1993)
  • The Death Machine (2001) (originally published as Rogue Moon against Budrys's wishes)

Collections (Fiction, Essays, and mixed)

  • The Unexpected Dimension (1960)
  • Budrys' Inferno (1963)
  • The Furious Future (1963)
  • Blood and Burning (1978)
  • Benchmarks: Galaxy Bookshelf (1985)
  • Writing to the Point (1994)
  • Outposts: Literatures of Milieux (1996)
  • Entertainment (1997)
  • The Electric Gene Machine (2000)
  • Benchmarks Continued: F&SF "Books" Columns 1975-1982 (2012)
  • Benchmarks Revisited: F&SF "Books" Columns 1983-1986 (2013)
  • Benchmarks Concluded: F&SF "Books" Columns 1987-1993 (2013)

Short stories

Audio recording

  • 84.2 Minutes of Algis Budrys (1995), Unifont (Budrys's own company). Released on cassette, this featured Budrys reading his short stories "The Price", "The Distant Sound of Engines", "Never Meet Again", and "Explosions!".



  • Tomorrow Speculative Fiction (1993–2000); initially edited by Budrys and published by Pulphouse Publishing, with its second issue it was published and edited by Budrys with assistance from Kandis Elliott under the Unifont rubric. It ceased publication as a paper and ink magazine and became a webzine late in the decade.


  • L. Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future, Vol. III (1987)
  • L. Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future, Vol. 6 (1990)
  • L. Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future, Vol 12 (1996)
  • L. Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future Vol. 16 (2000)
  • L. Ron Hubbard Presents Writers of the Future, Vol 19 (2003)


  1. ^ Clute, John. "Obituaries Algis Budrys: Science-fiction writer and editor". The Independent. Independent Co. UK. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d Pontin, Mark Williams (November–December 2008). "The Alien Novelist". MIT Technology Review.
  3. ^ Nebula Awards Ceremony 2009. Los Angeles, CA: SFWA. 2009. p. 13.
  4. ^ Pohl, Frederik. (2010-05-12). "Robert A. Heinlein, Algis Budrys and me". The Way the Future Blogs. Archived from the original on August 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
  5. ^ Zeldes, Leah A. (2010-07-26). "The Picasso put Chicago in a pickle". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
  6. ^ Jensen, Trevor (June 11, 2008). "Tapped human side of science fiction". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-11.
  7. ^ "Stories, Listed by Author". Locus. Archived from the original on February 25, 2010. Retrieved February 24, 2010.

6. Williams, Mark. "The Alien Novelist." Technology Review 111, 6. (Nov/Dec 2008). pp. 80–84

External links

55th World Science Fiction Convention

The 55th World Science Fiction Convention (Worldcon), was LoneStarCon 2, also known as "The Second Occasional LoneStarCon Science Fiction Convention & Chili Cook-off". The convention was held August 28–September 1, 1997, at the Marriott Rivercenter, Marriott Riverwalk, and the Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center in San Antonio, Texas, United States. The first LoneStarCon, held in Austin, Texas, had been the North American Science Fiction Convention (NASFiC) in 1985, when the 43rd Worldcon was held in Australia.The supporting organization was the Austin Literary Arts Maintenance Organization (ALAMO). The chairman was Karen Meschke. The Guests of Honor were Algis Budrys (pro), Michael Moorcock (pro), Don Maitz (artist), and Roy Tackett (fan). The toastmaster was Neal Barrett, Jr. Total attendance was 4,634, of 5,614 paid memberships.

Fear (Hubbard novella)

Fear is a psychological thriller-horror novella by L. Ron Hubbard first appearing in Unknown Fantasy Fiction in July 1940. While previous editions followed the magazine text, the 1991 Bridge edition reportedly restores the author's original manuscript text. The novella is ranked 10th on Modern Library 100 Best Novels - The Reader's List.


A fix-up (or fixup) is a novel created from several short fiction stories that may or may not have been initially related or previously published. The stories may be edited for consistency, and sometimes new connecting material, such as a frame story or other interstitial narration, is written for the new work. The term was coined by the science fiction writer A. E. van Vogt, who published several fix-ups of his own, including The Voyage of the Space Beagle, but the practice (if not the term) exists outside of science fiction. The use of the term in science fiction criticism was popularised by the first (1979) edition of the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, edited by Peter Nicholls, which credited Van Vogt with the creation of the term.

The name comes from the modifications that the author needs to make in the original texts to make them fit together as though they were a novel. Foreshadowing of events from the later stories may be jammed into an early chapter of the fix-up, and character development may be interleaved throughout the book. Contradictions and inconsistencies between episodes are usually worked out.

Some fix-ups in their final form are more of a short story cycle or composite novel rather than a traditional novel with a single main plotline. Examples are Ray Bradbury's The Martian Chronicles and Isaac Asimov's I, Robot, both of which read as a series of short stories which may share plot threads and characters but which still act as self-contained stories. By contrast, van Vogt's The Weapon Shops of Isher is structured like a continuous novel although it incorporates material from three previous Van Vogt short stories.

Fix-ups became an accepted practice in the 1950s, when science fiction and fantasy—once published only in magazines—began appearing in book form. Large book publishers like Doubleday and Simon & Schuster entered the market, greatly increasing demand for fiction. Authors created new manuscripts from old stories to sell to publishers. Algis Budrys in 1965 described fixups as a consequence of the lack of good supply during the "bad years for quality" of the mid-1950s, although citing The Martian Chronicles and Clifford D. Simak's City as among exceptions.

Help! (magazine)

Help! is an American satire magazine that was published by James Warren from 1960 to 1965. It was Harvey Kurtzman's longest-running magazine project after leaving Mad and EC Publications, and during its five years of operation it was chronically underfunded, yet innovative.

In starting Help!, Kurtzman brought along several artists from his Mad collaborations, including Will Elder, Jack Davis, John Severin and Al Jaffee.

Kurtzman's assistants included Charles Alverson, Terry Gilliam and Gloria Steinem; the latter was helpful in gathering the celebrity comedians who appeared on the covers and the fumetti strips the magazine ran along with more traditional comics and text pieces. Among the then little-known performers in the fumetti were John Cleese, Woody Allen and Milt Kamen; better-known performers such as Orson Bean were also known to participate. Some of the fumetti were scripted by Bernard Shir-Cliff.

At Help!, Gilliam met Cleese for the first time, resulting in their collaboration years later on Monty Python's Flying Circus. Cleese appeared in a Gilliam fumetto written by David Crossley, "Christopher's Punctured Romance". The tale concerns a man who is shocked to learn that his daughter's new "Barbee" doll has "titties"; however, he falls in love with the doll and has an affair. Gilliam appeared on two covers of Help! and along with the rest of the creative team, appeared in crowd scenes in several fumetti.

The magazine introduced young talents who went on to influential careers in underground comix as well as the mainstream: among them Robert Crumb, Gilbert Shelton and Jay Lynch. Algis Budrys and other science fiction writers were regular contributors of prose and scripts to the magazine.

Working with a minimal budget, Kurtzman relied on a combination of cheap up-and-coming talent, favors called in to "name" friends (such as cover poses by Jackie Gleason, Mort Sahl or Jerry Lewis) and inexpensive page-fillers (such as inserting dialogue balloons into news photos and publicity stills).

Somewhat more adult and risque than Mad, Help! was nonetheless less sexually explicit or taboo-breaking than the contemporaneous The Realist or the later underground comix and National Lampoon were or would be. Nonetheless, it had its moments and served as a locus and starting point for a wide range of talent.

A total of 26 issues were printed before the magazine folded in 1965. Volume one (Aug. 1960–Sept. 1961) had 12 issues, and 14 issues comprised the second volume (Feb. 1962–Sept. 1965).

Jerome Bixby

Drexel Jerome Lewis Bixby (January 11, 1923 – April 28, 1998) was an American short story writer and scriptwriter. He wrote the 1953 story "It's a Good Life" which was the basis for a 1961 episode of The Twilight Zone and which was included in Twilight Zone: The Movie (1983). He also wrote four episodes for the Star Trek series: "Mirror, Mirror", "Day of the Dove", "Requiem for Methuselah", and "By Any Other Name". With Otto Klement, he co-wrote the story upon which the science fiction movie Fantastic Voyage (1966), television series, and novel by Isaac Asimov were based. Bixby's final produced or published work so far was the screenplay for the 2007 science fiction film The Man from Earth.

He also wrote many westerns and used the pseudonyms Jay Lewis Bixby, D. B. Lewis, Harry Neal, Albert Russell, J. Russell, M. St. Vivant, Thornecliff Herrick and Alger Rome (for one collaboration with Algis Budrys).

Judas (short story)

"Judas" is a short story by John Brunner from Harlan Ellison's anthology Dangerous Visions. The story examines a modern allegory of the Biblical figure of Judas.

Algis Budrys called it "sophomoric".

List of Clarion Writers Workshop Instructors

This is a list of past instructors in the Clarion Workshop, an annual writers' workshop for science fiction, fantasy, and speculative literature writers.

Instructors marked with an asterisk are also graduates of the Clarion or Clarion West workshops.

Saladin Ahmed

Eleanor Arnason

Steven Barnes

Christopher Barzak*

Elizabeth Bear

Michael Bishop

Terry Bisson

Holly Black

Ben Bova

Edward Bryant*

Algis Budrys

Octavia Butler*

Orson Scott Card

Suzy McKee Charnas

Ted Chiang*

Cassandra Clare

Robert Crais*

Ellen Datlow

Samuel R. Delany

Gordon Dickson

Thomas Disch

Cory Doctorow*

Gardner Dozois

Tananarive Due

Andy Duncan*

David Anthony Durham

Scott Edelman

Phyllis Eisenstein

Harlan Ellison

Carol Emshwiller

Charles Coleman Finlay

Jeffrey Ford

Karen Joy Fowler

James Frenkel

Gregory Frost*

Neil Gaiman

Lisa Goldstein

Martin Greenberg

Joe Haldeman

Elizabeth Hand

Harry Harrison

Patrick Nielsen Hayden

Nina Kiriki Hoffman

Nalo Hopkinson*

N.K. Jemisin

K.W. Jeter

Kij Johnson*

Gwyneth Jones

James Patrick Kelly*

John Kessel

Damon Knight

Nancy Kress

Michael Kube-McDowell

Ellen Kushner

Larissa Lai

Margo Lanagan*

Geoffrey A. Landis*

Fritz Leiber

Jonathan Lethem

Kelly Link*

Elizabeth Lynn

George R.R. Martin

Shawna McCarthy

Judith Merril

Maureen McHugh

Kim Mohan

Mary Anne Mohanraj*

James Morrow

Pat Murphy

Paul Park

Frederick Pohl

Tim Powers

Marta Randall

Kit Reed

Mike Resnick

Kim Stanley Robinson*

Spider and Jeanne Robinson

Kristine Kathryn Rusch*

Joanna Russ

Richard Russo

Geoff Ryman

John Scalzi

Lucius Shepard*

Delia Sherman

Dean Wesley Smith

Norman Spinrad

Sean Stewart

Theodore Sturgeon

Michael Swanwick

Judith Tarr

Robert Thurston*

Mary A. Turzillo*

Catherynne Valente

Gordon Van Gelder*

Ann VanderMeer

Jeff VanderMeer*

Joan Vinge

Howard Waldrop

Leslie What*

Kate Wilhelm

Sheila Williams

Walter Jon Williams

Connie Willis

Robin Scott Wilson

Gene Wolfe

Patricia Wrede

Glenn Wright

Man of Earth

Man of Earth is a science fiction novel by American writer Algis Budrys, first published in 1958 by Ballantine Books. "The Man from Earth", a "greatly different" earlier version of the story, was published in the debut issue of Satellite Science Fiction in 1956.

Michaelmas (novel)

Michaelmas (1977) is a science fiction novel by American writer Algis Budrys.

Nobody Bothers Gus

"Nobody Bothers Gus" is a 1955 science fiction short story by Algis Budrys. It was first published in Astounding Science-Fiction.

There were two sequel stories: "The Peasant Girl" (1956), and "And Then She Found Him" (1957).

Pilgrim Award

The Pilgrim Award is presented by the Science Fiction Research Association for Lifetime Achievement in the field of science fiction scholarship. It was created in 1970 and was named after J. O. Bailey’s pioneering book Pilgrims Through Space and Time. Fittingly, the first award was presented to Bailey.

1970 – J. O. Bailey (USA)

1971 – Marjorie Hope Nicolson (USA)

1972 – Julius Kagarlitski (USSR)

1973 – Jack Williamson (USA)

1974 – I. F. Clarke (UK)

1975 – Damon Knight (USA)

1976 – James E. Gunn (USA)

1977 – Thomas D. Clareson (USA)

1978 – Brian W. Aldiss (UK)

1979 – Darko Suvin (Canada)

1980 – Peter Nicholls (Australia)

1981 – Sam Moskowitz (USA)

1982 – Neil Barron (USA)

1983 – H. Bruce Franklin (USA)

1984 – Everett F. Bleiler (USA)

1985 – Samuel R. Delany (USA)

1986 – George E. Slusser (USA)

1987 – Gary K. Wolfe (USA)

1988 – Joanna Russ (USA)

1989 – Ursula K. Le Guin (USA)

1990 – Marshall Tymn (USA)

1991 – Pierre Versins (France)

1992 – Mark R. Hillegas (USA)

1993 – Robert Reginald (USA)

1994 – John Clute (UK)

1995 – Vivian Sobchack (USA)

1996 – David Ketterer (Canada)

1997 – Marleen Barr (USA)

1998 – L. Sprague de Camp (USA)

1999 – Brian Stableford (UK)

2000 – Hal W. Hall (USA)

2001 – David N. Samuelson (USA)

2002 – Mike Ashley (UK)

2003 – Gary Westfahl (USA)

2004 - Edward James (UK)

2005 - Gérard Klein (France)

2006 - Fredric Jameson (USA)

2007 - Algis Budrys (USA)

2008 - Gwyneth Jones (UK)

2009 - Brian Attebery (USA)

2010 - Eric Rabkin (USA)

2011 - Donna Haraway (USA)

2012 - Pamela Sargent (USA)

2013 - N. Katherine Hayles (USA)

2014 - Joan Gordon (USA)

2015 – Henry Jenkins (USA)

2016 – Mark Bould (UK)

2017 – Tom Moylan (Ireland)

2018 – Carl Freedman (USA)

Rogue Moon

Rogue Moon is a short science fiction novel by American writer Algis Budrys, published in 1960. It was a 1961 Hugo Award nominee. A substantially cut version of the novel was originally published in F&SF; this novella-length story was included in The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Volume Two, edited by Ben Bova. It was adapted into a radio drama by Yuri Rasovsky in 1979.

Rogue Moon is largely about the discovery and investigation of a large alien artifact found on the surface of the Moon. The object eventually kills its explorers in various ways—more specifically, investigators "die in their effort to penetrate an alien-built labyrinth where one wrong turn means instant death", but their deaths slowly reveal the funhouse-like course humans must take in moving through it.

Science Fiction Adventures (1952 magazine)

Science Fiction Adventures was an American digest-size science fiction magazine, published from 1952 to 1954 by Science Fiction Publications. It was edited by Lester del Rey, under the pseudonym "Philip St. John", and was targeted at a younger audience than its companion magazine, Space Science Fiction. Contributors included Algis Budrys, Raymond Z. Gallun, Robert Sheckley, and del Rey himself, who published his novel Police Your Planet under the pseudonym "Erik van Lhin". Damon Knight contributed a book review column beginning with the fifth issue. Cyril M. Kornbluth's novel The Syndic was serialized in 1954. Artwork was provided by H.R. van Dongen, Kelly Freas, and Paul Orban, among others.

Lester del Rey left at the end of 1953, and his place was taken by Harry Harrison, but the magazine lasted for only three more issues.

Science Fiction Adventures (1956 magazine)

Science Fiction Adventures was an American digest-size science fiction magazine, published from 1956 to 1958 by Royal Publications as a companion to Infinity Science Fiction, which had been launched the previous year. It was edited by Larry T. Shaw throughout its short run. Science Fiction Adventures focused on longer fiction than appeared in Infinity; these were often labelled as novels, though they were rarely longer than 20,000 words. Shaw declared in his first editorial that he wanted to bring back a "sense of wonder", and he printed straightforward action adventure stories. Robert Silverberg was a prolific contributor, under his own name and under the pseudonym "Calvin M. Knox", and he also collaborated with Randall Garrett, under the name "Robert Randall", on a story in the first issue. Other well-known writers occasionally appeared, including Cyril M. Kornbluth, Algis Budrys, and Harry Harrison. The magazine was cancelled because of disappointing sales; the final issue was dated June 1958.

Simon McCaffery

Simon McCaffery (born 1963) is an American author of speculative fiction. Trained as a journalist and magazine editor, he was an Honorable Mention recipient in the L. Ron Hubbard Writers of the Future contest twice before he began publishing short fiction in a variety of professional science fiction, horror and mystery publications in the 1990s, including Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine, Tomorrow SF (edited by Algis Budrys), and Space and Time. He was a contributor in the anthology, Other Worlds Than These, edited by John Joseph Adams, alongside authors Stephen King and Ian McDonald. His fiction has also been collected in anthologies including the "Book of the Dead" series edited by Splatterpunk authors John Mason Skipp and Craig Spector (Still Dead and Mondo Zombie), 100 Wicked Little Witch Stories, ''Mondo Zombie", and The Haunted Hour.

He also served as president of the Oklahoma Science Fiction Writers in Tulsa, Okla., and edited the monthly newsletter, Son of GPIC, for a number of years.

T. L. Sherred

Thomas L. Sherred (August 27, 1915 – April 16, 1985) was an American science fiction writer.

Sherred was the author of a slim body of science fiction, consisting of a collection of stories, a novel, and the beginning of a novel that was completed by another author after Sherred's death in 1985. Sherred's stories were often set in Detroit and featured the down-to-earth laborers with whom the author was acquainted through his career in the automotive field, where he advanced from tool rooms to technical writing and public relations. He published few works of fiction, but his novella "E for Effort" (1947), about a time viewer, was voted into the Science Fiction Hall of Fame.

Algis Budrys wrote, "With one story, 'E for Effort', in the ASF [Astounding Science Fiction] of the wartime Forties, he handed the field such a knock that many old plinths are still loose in their sockets."Sherred published his only novel, Alien Island, in 1970. A darkly humorous tale, Alien Island revolves around the devastating events that occur when aliens covertly inhabit Earth. Budrys found it disappointing, saying "It reads padded, uncoordinated, and unintentionally whimsical."At his death in 1985, Sherred left an unfinished sequel to Alien Island, which author Lloyd Biggle, Jr. completed and published as Alien Main. Set on Earth some two hundred years after aliens had nearly destroyed life on the planet, the novel finds descendants of the aliens returning to atone for the atrocities committed by their ancestors. They find that the inhabitants of Earth are now living in tribes, with no connections except for a common belief in a goddess, whose return they await. While reviewer Gerald Jonas deemed Alien Main "not very ambitious," he nevertheless found the work offers a "pleasant blend of surprise and predictability," concluding: "Books such as this are the nourishing bread and butter of science fiction."His writing career ceased in 1971 after he suffered a mild stroke.

Tomorrow Speculative Fiction

Tomorrow Speculative Fiction was a science fiction magazine published in the United States from 1993 through 2000. Over this period, it had 24 bi-monthly issues as a print magazine from 1993 to 1997, then transitioned to become one of the first online science fiction publications until 2000, when it ceased publication. Established as a Pulphouse Publishing magazine, with Dean Wesley Smith as the publisher for magazine's launch at time of the 1992 Worldcon with Algis Budrys as editor, Budrys with the second issue took over as the magazine's publisher, doing business as UniFont. In addition to essays under his own name, Budrys contributed a number of short stories under a variety of his established pen names.

According to an editorial in the first issue, Budrys states that the magazine would publish "science fiction, fantasy, and horror with a fantasy element, at any length. There is a bit of a bias toward newer writers."During the course of its print run, Tomorrow published such notable authors as Gene Wolfe, Robert Reed, William Barton, Sarah Zettel, Harlan Ellison, and Ursula K. Le Guin. In 1995, Tomorrow was nominated for the Hugo Award for Best Semiprozine.

In the final print issue, Budrys announced "We are going electronic at WWW.TOMORROWSF.COM, and we will print no further issues. Also, the next three issues (#s 25, 26, 27) will be free."

Who? (film)

Who? is a 1974 film by Jack Gold based on the 1958 novel of the same name by Algis Budrys.

Who? (novel)

Who? (1958) is a science fiction novel by American writer Algis Budrys, set during the Cold War.

It was adapted into a 1974 film starring Elliott Gould.

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