Alfredo Rocco

Alfredo Rocco (born 9 September 1875 in Naples – died 28 August 1935) was an Italian politician and jurist. He was Professor of Commercial Law at the University of Urbino (1899–1902) and in Macerata (1902–1905), then Professor of Civil Procedure in Parma, of Business Law in Padua, and later of Economic Legislation at "La Sapienza" University of Rome, of which he was rector from 1932 to 1935.

Rocco, as an economist-minded politician, developed the early concept of the economic and political theory of corporatism[1] which, later adapted, would become part of the ideology of the National Fascist Party.

Rocco began his political career as a Marxist in the Radical Party but eventually turned to the "proletarian nationalism" of the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI), a political party that he had major influences on.[2][3] Rocco was critical of Italy's weak material and economic power which he said was responsible for Italian dependence on the European "plutocracies" of France, Germany, and the United Kingdom.[4] Rocco also denounced the European powers for imposing foreign culture on Italy and criticized the European powers for endorsing too much individualism.[5] In 1920 he became director of the newspaper L'Idea nazionale, official organ of the Nationalist Association.[6] He later joined the National Fascist Party once they merged with the Italian Nationalist Association.[7] In a 1925 speech Rocco interpreted the ideology of fascism as the means by which the individual is sacrificed for the good of society, declaring: "For Liberalism, the individual is the end and society the means… For Fascism, society is the end, individuals the means, and its whole life consists in using individuals as instruments for its social ends."[8]

Elected in 1921 at the Chamber of Deputies, of which he was President in 1924, from 1925 to 1932 he was Minister of Justice and promoted the criminal codification, by signing in 1930 the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure (with the help of Vincenzo Manzini), and reconciling Classical and Positivist school with the system of so-called "double track". From 1925 to 1935, Rocco was the italian representative in the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations.[9] From 1932 to 1935 Rocco was rector of the University "La Sapienza" of Rome.

Alfredo Rocco
Alfredo Rocco
President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies
In office
24 May 1924 – 5 January 1925
Preceded byEnrico De Nicola
Succeeded byAntonio Casertano
Italian Minister of Justice
In office
5 January 1925 – 20 July 1932
Prime MinisterBenito Mussolini
Preceded byAldo Oviglio
Succeeded byPietro De Francisci
Personal details
Born9 September 1875
Napoli, Italy
Died28 August 1935 (aged 59)
Rome, Italy
Political partyRadical Party
(until 1910)
Italian Nationalist Association
National Fascist Party


  1. ^ Payne, Stanley G. 1996. A History of Fascism, 1914–1945. Routledge. Pp. 64
  2. ^ Dylan Riley, The Civic Foundations for Fascism in Europe: Italy, Spain and Romania 1870-1945, London and New York, Verso, 2010, p. 227
  3. ^ Allan Todd, Sally Waller, Jean Bottaro, History for the IB Diploma, Paper 3: European States in the Inter-War Years, 1918-1939, Cambridge University Press, 2016, p. 194
  4. ^ Gregor, James A. 2005. Mussolini's Intellectuals: Fascist Social and Political Thought.Princeton: Princeton University Press. p42
  5. ^ Gregor. p42-43
  6. ^ Fonzo, Erminio (2017). Storia dell'Associazione nazionalista italiana (1910–1923). Napoli: Edizioni scientifiche italiane. ISBN 978-88-495-3350-7.
  7. ^ Chilton, Stephen (22 April 2005). "Notes on Ball & Dagger reader; Alfredo Rocco (1925 [trans. 1926])"The Political Theory of Fascism"" (Web). Selections from The Political Doctrine of Fascism. The University of Minnesota. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  8. ^ Alfredo Rocco, “The Political Doctrine of Fascism,” speech delivered at Perugia, 30 August 1925. Speech printed in A Primer of Italian Fascism, Jeffrey T. Schnapp, edit., University of Nebraska Press, 2000, p. 112 [1]
  9. ^ Grandjean, Martin (2018). Les réseaux de la coopération intellectuelle. La Société des Nations comme actrice des échanges scientifiques et culturels dans l'entre-deux-guerres [The Networks of Intellectual Cooperation. The League of Nations as an Actor of the Scientific and Cultural Exchanges in the Inter-War Period] (in French). Lausanne: Université de Lausanne.
Political offices
Preceded by
Enrico De Nicola
President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies
Succeeded by
Antonio Casertano
Preceded by
Aldo Oviglio
Italian Minister of Justice
Succeeded by
Pietro De Francisci
1911 in Italy

See also:

1910 in Italy,

other events of 1911,

1912 in Italy.

Events from the year 1911 in Italy.

Antonio Casertano

Antonio Casertano (20 December 1863 – 13 December 1938) was an Italian politician. He was born in Capua.

He was President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies from 1925 to 1929.

After his tenure as speaker of the lower chamber, he was named senator by King Vittorio Emanuele III.

Bicocca (district of Milan)

Bicocca is a district ("quartiere") of Milan, Italy, part of the Zone 9 administrative division. It was incorporated in the city in 1841. The main historic landmark of the district is the 15th century Villa Arcimboldi. In the last decades of the 20th century, the district has been subject to a major requalification project that led to the construction of important facilities such as the University of Milan Bicocca seats and the Teatro degli Arcimboldi theatre.

Carlo Costamagna

Carlo Costamagna (born 21 September 1881 in Quiliano – died 1 March 1965 in Pietra Ligure) was an Italian lawyer and academic noted as a theorist of corporatism. He worked closely with Benito Mussolini and his fascist movement.

Domenico Pellegrini Giampietro

Domenico Pellegrini Giampietro (August 30, 1899 in Brienza, in Basilicata – June 18, 1970 in Montevideo) was an Italian academic, economist, lawyer, politician, and (in his final years) journalist.

As a young man living in Caserta, Pellegrini Giampietro founded a nationalist legion named Sempre pronti ("Always Ready"). He was a decorated infantry lieutenant in World War I, and joined the Fascist movement in 1922, as a member of the Benito Mussolini's Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF), and took part in the March on Rome. In the period, Pellegrini Giampietro became associated with certain clubs of the Freemasonry.

A major figure of Campanian-elected fascists (together with Alfredo Rocco, Bruno Spampanato, and the economist Alberto Beneduce), he received a diploma in Law in 1926, and became lawyer for the next eight years. He was one who took Fascism into academia, lecturing on Comparative public law and doctrinary history of Fascism at Naples University. He also worked in several credit unions.

Pellegrini Giampietro was a volunteer infantry captain on Francisco Franco's side in the Spanish Civil War, and was twice decorated. Upun his return, he received numerous political appointments - notably, he was a counsellor for the Corporazioni and the Fasci, and deputy-secretary in the Ministry of Finance in 1943.

He joined Mussolini in Northern Italy after the latter's ousting and Italy's commitment to the Allies in World War II, becoming an official of the Nazi German-controlled Italian Social Republic (the "republic of Salò"). As Finance minister, he also set up, in 1944, its infamous Brigate Nera paramilitary force. At the end of the war, Pellegrini Giampietro was arrested and charged with collaborating with the enemy. He escaped and in 1949, he took refuge in Brazil, then Argentina, and finally Uruguay. He kept on working as a banker, and edited the magazine Sintesi.

Domenico Pellegrini Giampietro wrote on the theory of Fascism: his 1941 volume Aspetti spirituali del fascismo ("Spiritual Aspects of Fascism") dealt with the more mystical qualities of the dogma, while L'oro di Salò ("The Gold of Salò") attempted to explain his actions as planner for the Republic's economy (notably, in early 1945 he had printed only 10,881 million although the print of 137,840 million had been authorized), as well as launching accusations at people who would have been responsible for plundering the wealth ammased by Mussolini's government.

Enrico Corradini

Enrico Corradini (20 July 1865 – 10 December 1931) was an Italian novelist, essayist, journalist and nationalist political figure.

Enrico De Nicola

Enrico De Nicola, (Italian pronunciation: [enˈriːko de niˈkɔːla] (listen); 9 November 1877 – 1 October 1959) was an Italian jurist, journalist, politician, and provisional Head of State of republican Italy from 1946 to 1948. Afterwards, he became the first President of Italy on 1 January 1948.


Fascism () is a form of radical, right-wing, authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, and strong regimentation of society and of the economy, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I before it spread to other European countries. Opposed to liberalism, Marxism, and anarchism, fascism is placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.Fascists saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war, society, the state, and technology. The advent of total war and the total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilians and combatants. A "military citizenship" arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war. The war had resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines and providing economic production and logistics to support them, as well as having unprecedented authority to intervene in the lives of citizens.Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete and regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties. Such a state is led by a strong leader—such as a dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party—to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Fascism rejects assertions that violence is automatically negative in nature and views political violence, war, and imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky (national economic self-sufficiency) through protectionist and interventionist economic policies.Since the end of World War II in 1945, few parties have openly described themselves as fascist, and the term is instead now usually used pejoratively by political opponents. The descriptions neo-fascist or post-fascist are sometimes applied more formally to describe parties of the far-right with ideologies similar to, or rooted in, 20th-century fascist movements.

Grand Council of Fascism

The Grand Council of Fascism (Italian: Gran Consiglio del Fascismo) (aka: Fascist Grand Council) was the main body of Mussolini's Fascist government in Italy. A body which held and applied great power to control the institutions of government, it was created as a body of the National Fascist Party in 1923 and became a state body on 9 December 1928. The council usually met at the Palazzo Venezia, Rome, which was also the seat of head of the Italian government.

International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation

The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (sometimes League of Nations Committee on Intellectual Cooperation) was an advisory organization for the League of Nations which aimed to promote international exchange between scientists, researchers, teachers, artists and intellectuals. Established in 1922, it counted such figures as Henri Bergson, Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Gonzague de Reynold and Robert A. Millikan among its members. The Committee was the predecessor to UNESCO, and all of its properties were transferred to that organisation in 1946.

Italian Nationalist Association

The Italian Nationalist Association (Associazione Nazionalista Italiana, ANI) was Italy's first nationalist political movement founded in 1910, under the influence of Italian nationalists such as Enrico Corradini and Giovanni Papini. Upon its formation, the ANI supported the repatriation of Austrian held Italian-populated lands to Italy and was willing to endorse war with Austria-Hungary to do so. The party had a paramilitary wing called the Blueshirts. The authoritarian nationalist faction of the ANI would be a major influence for the National Fascist Party of Benito Mussolini formed in 1921. In 1922 the ANI participated in the March on Rome, with an important role, but it was not completely aligned with Benito Mussolini' party. Nevertheless, the ANI merged into the Fascist Party in 1923.

L'Idea Nazionale

L'Idea Nazionale (Italian for "The National Idea") was an Italian political newspaper associated with the Italian Nationalist Association (ANI), which merged with the National Fascist Party in 1923. The paper was published between 1911 and 1926.

List of Presidents of the Chamber of Deputies (Italy)

This is a list of the Presidents of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy from the Kingdom of Sardinia to present. The President is the presiding officer of the Chamber of Deputies and also serves as presiding officer of joint sessions of the Italian Parliament, when the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate vote together.

The President is the speaker of the lower house of the Italian Parliament, the Chamber of Deputies. It is the third-highest ranking office of the Republic of Italy, after the President of the Republic and the President of the Senate. Since 24 March 2018, the role has been held by Roberto Fico, who was elected on the fourth vote with an absolute majority of the voting members.

Maurizio Maraviglia

Maurizio Maraviglia (15 January 1878, Paola, Calabria – 26 September 1955, Rome) was an Italian politician and academic.

Mussolini Cabinet

The Mussolini Cabinet is longest-serving government in the history of united Italy. The Fascist dictator ruled the country from 31 October 1922 to 25 July 1943 for a total of 7572 days, or 20 years, 8 months and 25 days.On taking office, the government was composed by members from National Fascist Party, Italian People's Party, Italian Social Democratic Party, Italian Liberal Party, Italian Nationalist Association and other independent politicians. However, since 1 July 1924, all other parties were purged and the government was composed exclusively of Fascists, except for a few military officers.

The Adventures of Pinocchio (unfinished film)

The Adventures of Pinocchio (Italian: Le avventure di Pinocchio) was an Italian animated film directed by Raoul Verdini and Umberto Spano. Created and produced by Cartoni Animati Italiani Roma (CAIR) and distributed by De Vecchi, this cartoon was based on the famous children's book The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi. The film was intended to be the first animated feature film from Italy, but was never completed; if the film was finished, it also would have been the first cel animated feature film ever, beating Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, and the first animated film adaptation based on the novel of the same name, It is now considered lost: only the original script and a couple of still frames are all that survived of the film.

The Assassination of Matteotti

The Assassination of Matteotti (Italian: Il delitto Matteotti) is a 1973 Italian historical drama film directed by Florestano Vancini. The film tells the events that led to the tragic end of Giacomo Matteotti and to the establishment of the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini in Italy. It was awarded with the Special Jury Prize at the 8th Moscow International Film Festival.

Zanardelli Code

The Italian Penal Code of 1889, commonly known as Zanardelli Code (Italian: Codice Zanardelli), was the penal code in effect in the Kingdom of Italy from 1890 to 1930, and it is still in effect in Vatican City. The Zanardelli code gets its name from Giuseppe Zanardelli, then Minister of Justice, who lobbied for the code's approval. It unified penal legislation in Italy, abolished capital punishment and recognised the right to strike.

Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Italy
Italian Republic
Head of government and duce of Fascism
Minister of the Air Force
(since 1925)
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Minister of agriculture
(abolished in 1923)
Minister of Agriculture and Forestry
(since 1929)
Minister of the Colonies
(abolished in 1937)
Minister of Italian Africa
(since 1937)
Minister of Communications
(since 1924)
Minister of Corporations
(since 1926)
Ministry of People's Culture
(since 1937)
Minister of the Interior
Minister of domestic economy
Minister of domestic education
Minister of Finance
Minister of Justice and Affairs of Religion
Minister of Industry and Commerce
Minister of Public Works
Minister of War
Minister of Labour and Social Security
Minister of Posts and Telegraphs
Minister of War Production
(since 6 February 1943)
Minister of Public Education
Minister of Trades and Currencies
Minister of Press and Propaganda
Minster of Freed Territories from enemies
(abolished on 5 February 1923)
Minister of Treasure
(merged into Ministry of Finance on 31 December 1922)

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