Alfred Nobel

Alfred Bernhard Nobel (/noʊˈbɛl/; Swedish: [ˈalfrɛd nʊˈbɛlː] (listen); 21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist.

Known for inventing dynamite, Nobel also owned Bofors, which he had redirected from its previous role as primarily an iron and steel producer to a major manufacturer of cannon and other armaments. Nobel held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. After reading a premature obituary which condemned him for profiting from the sales of arms, he bequeathed his fortune to institute the Nobel Prizes.[1][2] The synthetic element nobelium was named after him.[3] His name also survives in modern-day companies such as Dynamit Nobel and AkzoNobel, which are descendants of mergers with companies Nobel himself established.

Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel3
Alfred Nobel
Born
Alfred Bernhard Nobel

21 October 1833
Died10 December 1896 (aged 63)
Resting placeNorra begravningsplatsen, Stockholm, Sweden
59°21′24.52″N 18°1′9.43″E / 59.3568111°N 18.0192861°E
OccupationChemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, philanthropist
Known forBenefactor of the Nobel Prize, inventor of dynamite
Signature
Alfred Nobel Signature

Life and career

Alfred Nobel young
Alfred Nobel at a young age

Born in Stockholm, Alfred Nobel was the third son of Immanuel Nobel (1801–1872), an inventor and engineer, and Carolina Andriette (Ahlsell) Nobel (1805–1889).[4] The couple married in 1827 and had eight children. The family was impoverished, and only Alfred and his three brothers survived past childhood.[4][5] Through his father, Alfred Nobel was a descendant of the Swedish scientist Olaus Rudbeck (1630–1702),[6] and in his turn the boy was interested in engineering, particularly explosives, learning the basic principles from his father at a young age. Alfred Nobel's interest in technology was inherited from his father, an alumnus of Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm.[7]

Following various business failures, Nobel's father moved to Saint Petersburg in 1837 and grew successful there as a manufacturer of machine tools and explosives. He invented veneer lathe and started work on the torpedo.[8] In 1842, the family joined him in the city. Now prosperous, his parents were able to send Nobel to private tutors and the boy excelled in his studies, particularly in chemistry and languages, achieving fluency in English, French, German and Russian.[4] For 18 months, from 1841 to 1842, Nobel went to the only school he ever attended as a child, the Jacobs Apologistic School in Stockholm.[5]

As a young man, Nobel studied with chemist Nikolai Zinin; then, in 1850, went to Paris to further the work. There he met Ascanio Sobrero, who had invented nitroglycerin three years before. Sobrero strongly opposed the use of nitroglycerin, as it was unpredictable, exploding when subjected to heat or pressure. But Nobel became interested in finding a way to control and use nitroglycerin as a commercially usable explosive, as it had much more power than gunpowder. At age 18, he went to the United States for one year to study,[9] working for a short period under Swedish-American inventor John Ericsson, who designed the American Civil War ironclad USS Monitor. Nobel filed his first patent, an English patent for a gas meter, in 1857, while his first Swedish patent, which he received in 1863, was on 'ways to prepare gunpowder'.[5][10][4][11]

The family factory produced armaments for the Crimean War (1853–1856), but had difficulty switching back to regular domestic production when the fighting ended and they filed for bankruptcy.[4] In 1859, Nobel's father left his factory in the care of the second son, Ludvig Nobel (1831–1888), who greatly improved the business. Nobel and his parents returned to Sweden from Russia and Nobel devoted himself to the study of explosives, and especially to the safe manufacture and use of nitroglycerin. Nobel invented a detonator in 1863, and in 1865 designed the blasting cap.[4]

On 3 September 1864, a shed used for preparation of nitroglycerin exploded at the factory in Heleneborg, Stockholm, killing five people, including Nobel's younger brother Emil.[5] Dogged and unfazed by more minor accidents, Nobel went on to build further factories, focusing on improving the stability of the explosives he was developing.[5] Nobel invented dynamite in 1867, a substance easier and safer to handle than the more unstable nitroglycerin. Dynamite was patented in the US and the UK and was used extensively in mining and the building of transport networks internationally.[4] In 1875 Nobel invented gelignite, more stable and powerful than dynamite, and in 1887 patented ballistite, a predecessor of cordite.[4]

Nobel was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1884, the same institution that would later select laureates for two of the Nobel prizes, and he received an honorary doctorate from Uppsala University in 1893.

Nobel's death mask
Alfred Nobel's death mask, at Bjorkborn, Nobel's residence in Karlskoga, Sweden.

Nobel's brothers Ludvig and Robert exploited oilfields along the Caspian Sea and became hugely rich in their own right. Nobel invested in these and amassed great wealth through the development of these new oil regions. During his life Nobel was issued 355 patents internationally and by his death his business had established more than 90 armaments factories, despite his apparently pacifist character.[4][12]

In 1888, the death of his brother Ludvig caused several newspapers to publish obituaries of Alfred in error. One French newspaper published an obituary titled "Le marchand de la mort est mort" ("The merchant of death is dead"). Nobel read the obituary and was appalled at the idea that he would be remembered in this way. His decision to posthumously donate the majority of his wealth to found the Nobel Prize has been credited at least in part to him wanting to leave a behind a better legacy.[13][4]

Death

Accused of “high treason against France” for selling Ballistite to Italy, Nobel moved from Paris to Sanremo, Italy in 1891.[14][15] On December 10, 1896, Alfred Nobel succumbed to a lingering heart ailment, suffered a stroke, and died.[15] Unbeknownst to his family, friends or colleagues, he had left most of his wealth in trust, in order to fund the awards that would become known as the Nobel Prizes.[4] He is buried in Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm.

Personal life

Through baptism and confirmation Alfred Nobel was Lutheran and during his Paris years he regularly attended the Church of Sweden Abroad, led by pastor Nathan Söderblom, who himself received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1930.[16][17] He became an agnostic in youth and was an atheist later in life.[18][19][20]

Nobel travelled for much of his business life, maintaining companies in various countries in Europe and North America and keeping a permanent home in Paris from 1873 to 1891.[5] He remained a solitary character, given to periods of depression. [4][21] Though Nobel remained unmarried, his biographers note that he had at least three loves. Nobel's first love was in Russia with a girl named Alexandra, who rejected his proposal. In 1876 Austro-Bohemian Countess Bertha Kinsky became Alfred Nobel's secretary, but after only a brief stay she left him to marry her previous lover, Baron Arthur Gundaccar von Suttner. Though her personal contact with Alfred Nobel had been brief, she corresponded with him until his death in 1896, and it is believed that she was a major influence in his decision to include a peace prize among those prizes provided in his will. As Baroness Bertha von Suttner she was awarded the 1905 Nobel Peace prize, 'for her sincere peace activities'.[22]

Nobel's third and longest-lasting relationship was with Sofie Hess from Vienna, whom he met in 1876.[5] The liaison lasted for 18 years.[5] After his death, according to his biographers Evlanoff, Fluor and Fant, Nobel's letters were locked within the Nobel Institute in Stockholm. They were released only in 1955, to be included with other biographical data.[23]

Despite the lack of formal secondary and tertiary level education, Nobel gained proficiency in six languages: Swedish, French, Russian, English, German and Italian. He also developed sufficient literary skill to write poetry in English. His Nemesis, a prose tragedy in four acts about Beatrice Cenci, partly inspired by Percy Bysshe Shelley's The Cenci, was printed while he was dying. The entire stock except for three copies was destroyed immediately after his death, being regarded as scandalous and blasphemous. The first surviving edition (bilingual Swedish–Esperanto) was published in Sweden in 2003. The play has been translated into Slovenian via the Esperanto version and into French.[24]

Inventions

AlfredNobel adjusted
Portrait of Nobel by Gösta Florman (1831–1900)

Nobel found that when nitroglycerin was incorporated in an absorbent inert substance like kieselguhr (diatomaceous earth) it became safer and more convenient to handle, and this mixture he patented in 1867 as "dynamite".[25] Nobel demonstrated his explosive for the first time that year, at a quarry in Redhill, Surrey, England. In order to help reestablish his name and improve the image of his business from the earlier controversies associated with the dangerous explosives, Nobel had also considered naming the highly powerful substance "Nobel's Safety Powder", but settled with Dynamite instead, referring to the Greek word for "power" (δύναμις).

Nobel later combined nitroglycerin with various nitrocellulose compounds, similar to collodion, but settled on a more efficient recipe combining another nitrate explosive, and obtained a transparent, jelly-like substance, which was a more powerful explosive than dynamite. 'Gelignite', or blasting gelatin, as it was named, was patented in 1876; and was followed by a host of similar combinations, modified by the addition of potassium nitrate and various other substances.[25] Gelignite was more stable, transportable and conveniently formed to fit into bored holes, like those used in drilling and mining, than the previously used compounds and was adopted as the standard technology for mining in the Age of Engineering bringing Nobel a great amount of financial success, though at a significant cost to his health. An offshoot of this research resulted in Nobel's invention of ballistite, the precursor of many modern smokeless powder explosives and still used as a rocket propellant.

Nobel Prizes

Nobel Prize
Front side of one of the Nobel Prize medals

In 1888 Alfred's brother Ludvig died while visiting Cannes and a French newspaper erroneously published Alfred's obituary.[4] It condemned him for his invention of dynamite and is said to have brought about his decision to leave a better legacy after his death.[4][26] The obituary stated, Le marchand de la mort est mort ("The merchant of death is dead")[4] and went on to say, "Dr. Alfred Nobel, who became rich by finding ways to kill more people faster than ever before, died yesterday."[27] Alfred (who never had a wife or children) was disappointed with what he read and concerned with how he would be remembered.[28]

On 27 November 1895, at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Nobel signed his last will and testament and set aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prizes, to be awarded annually without distinction of nationality.[25] After taxes and bequests to individuals, Nobel's will allocated 94% of his total assets, 31,225,000 Swedish kronor, to establish the five Nobel Prizes. This converted to £1,687,837 (GBP) at the time.[29][30][31][32] In 2012, the capital was worth around SEK 3.1 billion (US$472 million, EUR 337 million), which is almost twice the amount of the initial capital, taking inflation into account.[30]

The first three of these prizes are awarded for eminence in physical science, in chemistry and in medical science or physiology; the fourth is for literary work "in an ideal direction" and the fifth prize is to be given to the person or society that renders the greatest service to the cause of international fraternity, in the suppression or reduction of standing armies, or in the establishment or furtherance of peace congresses.[25]

The formulation for the literary prize being given for a work "in an ideal direction" (i idealisk riktning in Swedish), is cryptic and has caused much confusion. For many years, the Swedish Academy interpreted "ideal" as "idealistic" (idealistisk) and used it as a reason not to give the prize to important but less romantic authors, such as Henrik Ibsen and Leo Tolstoy. This interpretation has since been revised, and the prize has been awarded to, for example, Dario Fo and José Saramago, who do not belong to the camp of literary idealism.

There was room for interpretation by the bodies he had named for deciding on the physical sciences and chemistry prizes, given that he had not consulted them before making the will. In his one-page testament, he stipulated that the money go to discoveries or inventions in the physical sciences and to discoveries or improvements in chemistry. He had opened the door to technological awards, but had not left instructions on how to deal with the distinction between science and technology. Since the deciding bodies he had chosen were more concerned with the former, the prizes went to scientists more often than engineers, technicians or other inventors.

In 2001, Alfred Nobel's great-great-nephew, Peter Nobel (b. 1931), asked the Bank of Sweden to differentiate its award to economists given "in Alfred Nobel's memory" from the five other awards. This request added to the controversy over whether the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel is actually a legitimate "Nobel Prize".[33]

Monuments

The Monument to Alfred Nobel (Russian: Памятник Альфреду Нобелю, 59°57′39″N 30°20′06″E / 59.960787°N 30.334905°E) in Saint Petersburg is located along the Bolshaya Nevka River on Petrogradskaya Embankment. It was dedicated in 1991 to mark the 90th anniversary of the first Nobel Prize presentation. Diplomat Thomas Bertelman and Professor Arkady Melua initiators of creation of the monument (1989). Professor A. Melua has provided funds for the establishment of the monument (J.S.Co. "Humanistica", 1990–1991). The abstract metal sculpture was designed by local artists Sergey Alipov and Pavel Shevchenko, and appears to be an explosion or branches of a tree.[34] Petrogradskaya Embankment is the street where the Nobel's family lived until 1859.[35]

Criticism

Criticism of Nobel focuses on his leading role in weapons manufacturing and sales, and some question his motives in creating his prizes, suggesting they were intended to improve his reputation.[36]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel's Fortune". The Norwegian Nobel Committee. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  2. ^ "Alfred Nobel's Will". The Norwegian Nobel Committee. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  3. ^ "Nobelium". Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Alfred Nobel". Britannica.com. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Encyclopedia of Modern Europe: Europe 1789–1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire, "Alfred Nobel", 2006 Thomson Gale.
  6. ^ Schück, Henrik, Ragnar Sohlman, Anders Österling, Carl Gustaf Bernhard, the Nobel Foundation and Wilhelm Odelberg, eds. Nobel: The Man and His Prizes. 1950. 3rd ed. Coordinating Ed., Wilhelm Odelberg. New York: American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc., 1972, p. 14. ISBN 0-444-00117-4, ISBN 978-0-444-00117-7. (Originally published in Swedish as Nobelprisen 50 år: forskare, diktare, fredskämpar.)
  7. ^ http://www.svantelindqvist.com/anobel_inventor.pdf
  8. ^ "The Man Who Made It Happen — Alfred Nobel". 3833. Archived from the original on 30 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  9. ^ "Alfred B Nobel - Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon". sok.riksarkivet.se.
  10. ^ Carlisle, Rodney (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries, p. 256. John Wiley & Songs, Inc., New Jersey. ISBN 0-471-24410-4.
  11. ^ "Patents – Alfred Nobel". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  12. ^ "Alfred Nobel (1833–1896)". BBC. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  13. ^ Schultz, Colin. "Blame Sloppy Journalism for the Nobel Prizes". Smithsonian.
  14. ^ Nobel, Alfred. "Alfred Nobel's House in Paris". Nobel Media AB. Nobel Media AB.
  15. ^ a b Nobel, Alfred. "Alfred Nobel's Final Years in Sanremo". Nobel Media AB.
  16. ^ "Nobel of Peace Laureates". March 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013. – For seven years, from 1894 to 1901, Söderblom preached in Paris, where his congregation included Alfred Nobel
  17. ^ "Alfred Nobel, hans far och hans bröder". March 2013. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013. (swe: Genom dop och konfirmation var Alfred Nobel lutheran -en: Alfred Nobel was through baptism and confirmation a Lutheran)
  18. ^ "Alfred Nobel – St. Petersburg, 1842-1863". NobelPrize.org.
  19. ^ Michael Evlanoff; Marjorie Fluor (1969). Alfred Nobel, the loneliest millionaire. W. Ritchie Press. p. 88. "He declared himself an agnostic in his youth, an atheist later, but at the same time, bestowed generous sums to the church..."
  20. ^ Cobb, Cathy, and Harold Goldwhite. Creations of Fire: Chemistry's Lively History from Alchemy to the Atomic Age. New York: Plenum, 1995. Print. "But Nobel, both atheist and a socialist..."
  21. ^ "Alfred Nobel | Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  22. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1905". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  23. ^ Michael Evlanoff; Marjorie Fluor (1969). Alfred Nobel, the loneliest millionaire. W. Ritchie Press
  24. ^ Alfred Nobel (2008). Némésis: tragédie en quatre actes. Belles lettres. ISBN 978-2-251-44342-3. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  25. ^ a b c d  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Nobel, Alfred Bernhard" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  26. ^ The History Channel, Modern Marvels, episode 038 (originally aired 21 June 1999)
  27. ^ Golden, Frederic (16 October 2000). "The Worst And The Brightest". Time.
  28. ^ Braswell, Sean. "The Newspaper Error That Sparked the Nobel Prize". OZY.
  29. ^ At exchange rate of 18.5:1 in SEK:GBP
  30. ^ a b Lobell, Håkan (2010). Historical Monetary and Financial Statistics for Sweden Exchange rates, prices, and wages, 1277–2008. S V E R I G E S R I K S B A N K. p. 291. ISBN 978-91-7092-124-7.
  31. ^ Abrams, Irwin (2001). The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates. Watson Publishing International. p. 7. ISBN 0-88135-388-4.
  32. ^ Fant, Kenne (Ruuth, Marianne, transl.) (1991). Alfred Nobel: a biography. New York: Arcade Publishing ISBN 1-55970-328-8, p. 327
  33. ^ (Ntb-Afp). "Alfred Nobels familie tar avstand fra økonomiprisen". Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  34. ^ "Monument to Alfred Nobel". Saint-Petersburg.com. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  35. ^ Lemmel, Birgitta. "Alfred Nobel – St. Petersburg, 1842–1863". Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  36. ^ Article by Daven Hiskey at Today I Found Out 2011-01-03

Further reading

  • Schück, H, and Sohlman, R., (1929). The Life of Alfred Nobel. London: William Heineman Ltd.
  • Alfred Nobel US Patent No 78,317, dated 26 May 1868
  • Evlanoff, M. and Fluor, M. Alfred Nobel – The Loneliest Millionaire. Los Angeles, Ward Ritchie Press, 1969.
  • Sohlman, R. The Legacy of Alfred Nobel, transl. Schubert E. London: The Bodley Head, 1983 (Swedish original, Ett Testamente, published in 1950).
  • Jorpes, J.E. Alfred Nobel. British Medical Journal, 3 January 1959, 1(5113): 1–6.

External links

Alfred Nobel University

Alfred Nobel University, Ukraine (Ukrainian: Університет імені Альфреда Нобеля) is a higher educational institution with the IV level of accreditation.

It is committed to enhancing innovative technologies in teaching and it helps to strengthen the country's position in the international arena, which is reflected in its mission.

The university creates up-to-date education and scientific values that correspond to the demands of the 21st century and are geared towards dynamic development of the economy and society, towards European and global integration of Ukraine.

Ballistite

Ballistite is a smokeless propellant made from two high explosives, nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. It was developed and patented by Alfred Nobel in the late 19th century.

Committee for the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel

The Committee for the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel is the prize committee for the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, and fills the same role as the Nobel Committees does for the Nobel Prizes. This means that the Committee is responsible for proposing laureates for the Prize. The Committee for the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel is appointed by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. It usually consists of Swedish professors of economics or related subjects who are members of the Academy, although the Academy in principle could appoint anyone to the Committee. Two of the members of the founding committee as well as later members of the committee had also been associated with the Mont Pelerin Society.The Committee is a working body without decision power, and the final decision to award the Prize is taken by the entire Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, after having a first discussion in the Academy's Class for Social Sciences.

Dynamit Nobel

Dynamit Nobel AG is a German chemical and weapons company whose headquarters is in Troisdorf, Germany. It was founded in 1865 by Alfred Nobel.

Dynamite

Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht, and patented in 1867. It rapidly gained wide-scale use as a more powerful alternative to black powder.

Today, dynamite is mainly used in the mining, quarrying, construction, and demolition industries. Dynamite is still the product of choice for trenching applications, and as a cost-effective alternative to cast boosters. Dynamite is occasionally used as an initiator or booster for AN and ANFO explosive charges.

Gelignite

Gelignite (), also known as blasting gelatin or simply jelly, is an explosive material consisting of collodion-cotton (a type of nitrocellulose or gun cotton) dissolved in either nitroglycerine or nitroglycol and mixed with wood pulp and saltpetre (sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate).

It was invented in 1875 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, who also invented dynamite. Unlike dynamite, gelignite does not suffer from the dangerous problem of sweating, the leaking of unstable nitroglycerine from the solid matrix. Its composition makes it easily moldable and safe to handle without protection, as long as it is not near anything capable of detonating it. One of the cheapest explosives, it burns slowly and cannot explode without a detonator, so it can be stored safely.In the United Kingdom, an explosives certificate, issued by the local Chief Officer of Police, is required for possession of gelignite. Due to its widespread civilian use in quarries and mining, it has historically been often used by irregular or paramilitary groups such as the Irish Republican Army and, less frequently, by British loyalists.

List of Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially known as The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to researchers in the field of economic sciences. The first prize was awarded in 1969 to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years. In 1969, Frisch and Tinbergen were given a combined 375,000 SEK, which is equivalent to 2,871,041 SEK in December 2007. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.As of the awarding of the 2018 prize, 50 Nobel Memorial Prizes in Economic Sciences have been given to 81 individuals. Up to 2007, nine awards had been given for contributions to the field of macroeconomics, more than any other category. The institution with the most affiliated laureates in economic sciences is the University of Chicago, which has 30 affiliated laureates.

List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Princeton University

This list of Nobel laureates affiliated with Princeton University comprehensively shows the Princeton-affiliated individual winners of the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences since 1901. The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Another prize, the "Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel" (commonly known as the Nobel Economics Prize), was established in 1968 (first awarded in 1969) by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics.As of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University, and 43 of them are officially listed as "Princeton's Nobel Laureates" by Princeton University for being alumni or having "performed their award-winning work at Princeton, were employed by Princeton when they received their award, or are currently working at the University". Among the laureates, 18 are Princeton alumni (graduates and attendees), and 25 have been long-term academic members of the Princeton faculty. Subject-wise, 26 laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physics, more than any other subject. In addition, Woodrow Wilson, the former president of Princeton, was the first Princeton-affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. Four Nobel Prizes (same subject in the same year) were shared by Princeton laureates: James Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch won the 1980 Nobel Prize in Physics, Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. won the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics, David Gross and Frank Wilczek won the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics, and Thomas Sargent and Christopher Sims won the 2011 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.The university affiliations in this list are all official academic affiliations such as degree programs and official academic employment. Non-academic affiliations such as advisory committee and administrative staff are generally excluded. The official academic affiliations fall into three categories: 1) Alumni (graduate & attendee), 2) Long-term Academic Staff, and 3) Short-term Academic Staff. Graduates are defined as those who hold Bachelor's, Master's, Doctorate, or equivalent degrees from Princeton, while attendees are those who formally enrolled in a degree program at Princeton but did not complete the program; thus, honorary degrees, posthumous degrees, summer attendees, exchange students, and auditing students are excluded. The category of "Long-term Academic Staff" consists of tenure/tenure-track and equivalent academic positions, while that of "Short-term Academic Staff" consists of lecturers (without tenure), postdoctoral researchers (postdocs), visiting professors/scholars (visitors), and equivalent academic positions. At Princeton, the specific academic title solely determines the type of affiliation, regardless of the actual time the position was held by a laureate.

Further explanations on "visitors" under "Short-term Academic Staff" are presented as follows. 1) All informal/personal visits are excluded from the list; 2) all employment-based visiting positions, which carry teaching/research duties, are included as affiliations in the list; 3) as for award/honor-based visiting positions, this list takes a conservative view and includes the positions as affiliations only if the laureates were required to assume employment-level duty (teaching/research) or the laureates specifically classified the visiting positions as "affiliation" or similar in reliable sources such as their curriculum vita. To be specific, some award/honor-based visiting positions such as the "Belknap Visitor" program at Princeton University are awards/honors/recognition without employment-level duty. For example, Nadine Gordimer (Nobel Prize in Literature 1991), being a Belknap Visitor in 1969, is thus excluded from the list. In particular, attending meetings and giving public lectures, talks or non-curricular seminars at Princeton University is not a form of employment-level duty. Finally, summer visitors are generally excluded from the list unless summer work yielded significant end products such as research publications and components of Nobel-winning work, since summer terms are not part of formal academic years.

List of game theorists

This is a list of notable economists, mathematicians, political scientists, and computer scientists whose work has added substantially to the field of game theory. For a list of people in the field of video games rather than game theory, please see list of ludologists.

Derek Abbott - quantum game theory and Parrondo's games

Susanne Albers - algorithmic game theory and algorithm analysis

Kenneth Arrow - voting theory (Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1972)

Robert Aumann - equilibrium theory (Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005)

Robert Axelrod - repeated Prisoner's Dilemma

Tamer Başar - dynamic game theory and application robust control of systems with uncertainty

Cristina Bicchieri - epistemology of game theory

Olga Bondareva - Bondareva–Shapley theorem

Steven Brams - cake cutting, fair division, theory of moves

Jennifer Tour Chayes - algorithmic game theory and auction algorithms

John Horton Conway - combinatorial game theory

William Hamilton - evolutionary biology

John Harsanyi - equilibrium theory (Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994)

Monika Henzinger - algorithmic game theory and information retrieval

Naira Hovakimyan - differential games and adaptive control

Peter L. Hurd - evolution of aggressive behavior

Rufus Isaacs - differential games

Anna Karlin - algorithmic game theory and online algorithms

Michael Kearns - algorithmic game theory and computational social science

Sarit Kraus - non-monotonic reasoning

John Maynard Smith - evolutionary biology

Oskar Morgenstern - social organization

John Forbes Nash - Nash equilibrium (Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994)

John von Neumann - Minimax theorem, expected utility, social organization, arms race

J. M. R. Parrondo - games with a reversal of fortune, such as Parrondo's games

Charles E. M. Pearce - games applied to queuing theory

George R. Price - theoretical and evolutionary biology

Anatol Rapoport - Mathematical psychologist, early proponent of tit-for-tat in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma

Julia Robinson - proved that fictitious play dynamics converges to the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium in two-player zero-sum games

Alvin E. Roth - market design (Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences 2012)

Ariel Rubinstein - bargaining theory, learning and language

Thomas Jerome Schaefer - computational complexity of perfect-information games

Suzanne Scotchmer - patent law incentive models

Reinhard Selten - bounded rationality (Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994)

Claude Shannon - studied cryptography and chess; sometimes called "the father of information theory"

Lloyd Shapley - Shapley value and core concept in coalition games (Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences 2012)

Thomas Schelling - bargaining (Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005) and models of segregation

Myrna Wooders - coalition theory

Lycée Alfred Nobel

Lycée Alfred Nobel is the senior high school/sixth-form college in Clichy-sous-Bois, Seine-Saint-Denis, France, in the Paris metropolitan area. As of 2018 Nicole Ozeray is the head of the school.It has an agreement with the Institut d'études politiques de Paris (Sciences-Po) which allows applicants from the school to gain entrance to the university without taking the entrance examination. As of 2007 three students from the lycée had been admitted.The school also operates a vocational educational programme involving travel to Asia and Africa and transdisciplinary projects in association with Bouygues, IBM, and other major companies.

Nobel

Nobel can mean:

Nobel Prize, awarded annually since 1901, from the bequest of Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel

The Nobel family:

Alfred Nobel, (1833-1896), the inventor of dynamite, instituted the Nobel Prizes

Immanuel Nobel, (1801-1872), father of Ludvig and Alfred Nobel

Robert Nobel, (1829-1896), brother of Alfred Nobel, pioneer of the oil industry

Ludvig Nobel, (1831-1888), brother of Alfred Nobel, founder of Branobel and its first president

Emil Oskar Nobel, (1843-1864), brother of Alfred Nobel

Emanuel Nobel, (1859-1932), son of Ludvig Nobel and Branobel's second president

Marta Helena Nobel-Oleinikoff, (1881-1973), daughter of Ludvig Nobel

Claes Nobel, great grandnephew of Alfred

Nobel (company), a telecommunications company founded in 1998 by Thomas Knobel

Branobel, or The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, an oil industry founded by Ludvig Nobel

Nobelite, an employee of the Nobel family's companies

Nobelium, a synthetic element with the symbol No and atomic number 102, named after Alfred Nobel

Nobel Industries (Scotland), a UK chemicals company founded by Alfred Nobel

Nobel Industries (Sweden) - UK chemicals company founded by Alfred Nobel, merged in 1994 with Akzo.

Nobel Biocare, a bio-tech company, formerly a subsidiary of Nobel Industries

Akzo Nobel, the result of the merger between Akzo and Nobel Industries in 1994

Nobel, Ontario, a village located in Ontario, Canada.

Nobel (crater), a crater on the far side of the Moon.

6032 Nobel, a main-belt asteroid.

Nobel (automobile) a licence-built version of the German Fuldamobil, manufactured in the UK and Chile.

The Nobel School, a Secondary School in Stevenage, England.

The Nobel Ice (Fabergé egg)

Nobel (typeface), a geometric, sans-serif typeface.

Nobel (TV series), a Norwegian television series around the country's military involvement in Afghanistan

Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Swedish: Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. The Foundation is based on the last will of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite.It also holds Nobel Symposia on important breakthroughs in science and topics of cultural or social significance.

Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field. The award's official name is The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne).The prize was established in 1968 by a donation from Sweden's central bank the Riksbank to the Nobel Foundation to commemorate the bank's 300th anniversary. As it is not one of the prizes that Alfred Nobel established in his will in 1895, it is not a Nobel Prize. However, it is administered and referred to along with the Nobel Prizes by the Nobel Foundation. Laureates are announced with the Nobel Prize laureates, and receive the award at the same ceremony.Laureates in the Memorial Prize in Economics are selected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. It was first awarded in 1969 to the Dutch and Norwegian economists Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch, "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes".

Nobel Museum

The Nobel Museum (Swedish: Nobelmuseet) is located in the former Stock Exchange Building (Börshuset) on the north side of the square Stortorget in Gamla Stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. (The Swedish Academy and the Nobel Library are also in the same building.) The Nobel Museum showcases information about the Nobel Prize and Nobel prizewinners, as well as information about the founder of the prize, Alfred Nobel (1833–1896). The museum's permanent display includes many artifacts donated by Nobel Laureates, presented together with personal life stories.

Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually (with some exceptions) to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".As per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year. The prize was formerly awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law (1947–1989), the Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905–1946), and the Parliament (1901–1904).

Due to its political nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history, been the subject of controversies.

Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (, Swedish pronunciation: [nʊˈbɛlː]; Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

The will of the Swedish scientist Alfred Nobel established the five Nobel prizes in 1895. The prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in 1901. The prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in the fields of chemistry, literature, peace activism, physics, and physiology or medicine.In 1968, Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, which, although not a Nobel Prize, has become informally known as the "Nobel Prize in Economics".The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, the Nobel Prize in Physics, and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel; the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature; and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Nobel Peace Prize.

Between 1901 and 2018, the Nobel Prizes (and the Prizes in Economic Sciences, from 1969 on) were awarded 590 times to 935 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 27 organizations and 908 individuals. The prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden (with the exception of the Peace Prize ceremony, which is held in Oslo, Norway). Each recipient (known as a "laureate") receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money that has been decided by the Nobel Foundation. (As of 2017, each prize is worth 9,000,000 SEK, or about US$1,110,000, €944,000, £836,000 or ₹73,800,000.) Medals made before 1980 were struck in 23-carat gold, and later in 18-carat green gold plated with a 24-carat gold coating.

The prize is not awarded posthumously; however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize may still be presented. A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Swedish: Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

The first Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff, of the Netherlands, "for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions." From 1901 to 2018, the award has been bestowed on a total of 180 individuals.

Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in recognition of the extraordinary services he rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or x-rays). This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and widely regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in physics. It is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Through 2018, a total of 209 individuals have been awarded the prize.Only three women (1.4% of laureates) have won the Nobel Prize in Physics: Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert Mayer in 1963, and Donna Strickland in 2018.

Nobelium

Nobelium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol No and atomic number 102. It is named in honor of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite and benefactor of science. A radioactive metal, it is the tenth transuranic element and is the penultimate member of the actinide series. Like all elements with atomic number over 100, nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. A total of twelve nobelium isotopes are known to exist; the most stable is 259No with a half-life of 58 minutes, but the shorter-lived 255No (half-life 3.1 minutes) is most commonly used in chemistry because it can be produced on a larger scale.

Chemistry experiments have confirmed that nobelium behaves as a heavier homolog to ytterbium in the periodic table. The chemical properties of nobelium are not completely known: they are mostly only known in aqueous solution. Before nobelium's discovery, it was predicted that it would show a stable +2 oxidation state as well as the +3 state characteristic of the other actinides: these predictions were later confirmed, as the +2 state is much more stable than the +3 state in aqueous solution and it is difficult to keep nobelium in the +3 state.

In the 1950s and 1960s, many claims of the discovery of nobelium were made from laboratories in Sweden, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Although the Swedish scientists soon retracted their claims, the priority of the discovery and therefore the naming of the element was disputed between Soviet and American scientists, and it was not until 1997 that International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) credited the Soviet team with the discovery, but retained nobelium, the Swedish proposal, as the name of the element due to its long-standing use in the literature.

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