Alfred Kubin

Alfred Leopold Isidor Kubin (10 April 1877 – 20 August 1959) was an Austrian printmaker, illustrator, and occasional writer. Kubin is considered an important representative of Symbolism and Expressionism.

Alfred Kubin
Nicola Perscheid - Alfred Kubin 1904b
Alfred Leopold Isidor Kubin

10 April 1877
Died20 August 1959 (aged 82)
Zwickledt, Wernstein am Inn
EducationMunich Academy
Known forPainting
MovementSymbolism, Expressionism



Kubin was born in Bohemia in the town of Leitmeritz, Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Litoměřice). From 1892 to 1896, he was apprenticed to the landscape photographer Alois Beer, although he learned little.[1] In 1896, he attempted suicide on his mother's grave, and his short stint in the Austrian army the following year ended with a nervous breakdown.[1] In 1898, Kubin began a period of artistic study at a private academy run by the painter Ludwig Schmitt-Reutte, before enrolling at the Munich Academy in 1899, without finishing his studies there. In Munich, Kubin discovered the works of Odilon Redon, Edvard Munch, James Ensor, Henry de Groux, and Félicien Rops. He was profoundly affected by the prints of Max Klinger, and later recounted: "Here a new art was thrown open to me, which offered free play for the imaginative expression of every conceivable world of feeling. Before putting the engravings away I swore that I would dedicate my life to the creation of similar works".[2] The aquatint technique used by Klinger and Goya influenced the style of his works of this period, which are mainly ink and wash drawings of fantastical, often macabre subjects.[1] Kubin produced a small number of oil paintings in the years between 1902 and 1910, but thereafter his output consisted of pen and ink drawings, watercolors, and lithographs. In 1911, he became associated with the Blaue Reiter group, and exhibited with them in the Galerie Der Sturm in Berlin in 1913.[2] After that time, he lost contact with the artistic avant-garde.

Kubin is considered an important representative of Symbolism and Expressionism and is noted for dark, spectral, symbolic fantasies, often assembled into thematic series of drawings. Like Oskar Kokoschka and Albert Paris Gütersloh, Kubin had both artistic and literary talent. He illustrated the works of Edgar Allan Poe, E.T.A. Hoffmann, and Fyodor Dostoevsky, among others. Kubin also illustrated the German fantasy magazine Der Orchideengarten.[3][4] The best known of Kubin's own books is Die andere Seite (The Other Side) (1909), a fantastic novel set in an oppressive imaginary land. The Other Side has an atmosphere of claustrophobic absurdity reminiscent of the writings of Franz Kafka, who admired Die andere Seite.[4][5] The illustrations for Die andere Seite were originally intended for The Golem by Gustav Meyrink, but as that book was delayed Kubin instead worked his illustrations into his own novel.[3]

From 1906 until his death, he lived a withdrawn life in a small castle on a 12th-century estate in Zwickledt, Upper Austria.[4] In 1938, at the Anschluss of Austria and Nazi Germany, his work was declared entartete Kunst or "degenerate art,"[6] but he managed to continue working during World War II.

Honours and awards

Literary works

  • The Other Side (1909)
  • The Looking Box (1925)
  • Of the Desk of a Draughtsman (1939)
  • Adventure of an Indication Feather/Spring (1941)
  • Sober Balladen (1949)
  • Evening-red (1950)
  • Fantasies in the Boehmerwald (1951)
  • Daemons and Night Faces (1959) (autobiography)


Alfred Kubin - Dolmen, c. 1900-1902 - Google Art Project

Dolmen (c. 1900-1902)

Jede nacht besucht uns ein traum

Jede nacht besucht uns ein traum (1900)

The past forgotten swallowed

The Past Forgotten Swallowed (1901)

Angst by Alfred Kubin

Angst (1903)

See also


  1. ^ a b c Oxford Art Online
  2. ^ a b Arnason & Wheeler 1986, p. 88.
  3. ^ a b Siegfried Schödel, Studien zu den phantastischen Erzählungen Gustav Meyrinks, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 1965, (p.27).
  4. ^ a b c Rosenberg, Karen. 15 October 2008. Mapping the Shadowy Corners of the Subconscious. The New York Times. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
  5. ^ Franz Rottensteiner, The Fantasy Book:an illustrated history from Dracula to Tolkien (p. 143) Collier Books, 1978. ISBN 0-02-053560-0
  6. ^ Karl-Heinz Meissner, Alfred Kubin, Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus München, Edition Spangenberg, 1990 (p.114).


  • Arnason, H. H., & Wheeler, D. (1986). History of modern art: Painting, sculpture, architecture, photography. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice -Hall. ISBN 9780133903607
  • Assman, Peter Alfred Kubin 1877–1959 Exhibition catalogue Brussels (Ixelles) 1997
  • Alfred Kubin Exhibition catalogue Neue Galerie New York 2008
  • Romana Schuler Alfred Kubin, Aus meinem Reich Exhibition catalogue Leopold Museum Vienna 2003
  • Traumgestalten. 100 Meisterwerke aus dem Besitz der Graphischen Sammlung Albertina Vienna 1990

External links

1959 in art

The year 1959 in art involved some significant events and new works.

Bryten Goss

Bryten Edward Goss (August 23, 1976 – October 26, 2006), a native Californian, was a self-taught contemporary American figurative painter. He began having exhibitions in Los Angeles at the age of 16.

His works include the Triumph of Death series, Alex on Pig, Two Women Riding Pigs, The Little Pope, The Blind Leading the Blind, and his burning building pieces such as Tribecca. When asked about being an artist in Los Angeles instead of New York, Goss said, "If I was a shoemaker, would I go to a town where everybody had shoes or to a town where nobody was wearing them?."According to Goss, his influences include Alfred Kubin, Pieter Bruegel, Caravaggio, Lucian Freud, Edgar Degas, Egon Schiele, Alberto Giacometti, Balthus, Stanley Spencer, and his mother, Rose.Some celebrities who have owned paintings by Goss include Nicolas Cage, Jason Lee, Nancy Cartwright. Also, Kevin Smith commissioned Goss to paint a portrait of Smith's wife, Jennifer.The Bryten Goss Foundation for the Arts was established in order to organize, catalog, and promote his work.

Café Stefanie

The Café Stefanie was a coffeehouse in Munich which around the 1900s till the 1920s was the leading artist's meeting place in the city, similar to the Café Größenwahn atmosphere of the Café des Westens in Berlin and the Café Griensteidl in Vienna.

The cafe was located on the corner of Amalienstraße and Theresienstraße in the Maxvorstadt not far from the Simplicissimus cabaret and de:Die Elf Scharfrichter. At the time it was one of the few establishments in Munich which stayed open till 3:00 in the morning.

Regular patrons and visitors included Johannes R. Becher, Hanns Bolz, Hans Carossa, Theodor Däubler, Kurt Eisner, Hanns Heinz Ewers, Leonhard Frank, Otto Gross, Emmy Hennings, Arthur Holitscher, Eduard von Keyserling, Paul Klee, Alfred Kubin, Gustav Landauer, Heinrich Mann, Gustav Meyrink, Erich Mühsam, Erwin Piscator, Alexander Roda Roda, Ernst Toller, B. Traven and Frank Wedekind.

Der Orchideengarten

Der Orchideengarten ('The Orchids-garden'; subtitled Phantastische Blätter or 'Fantastic Pages') was a German magazine that was published for 51 issues from January 1919 until November 1921.

Hans Erich Apostel

Hans Erich Apostel (22 January 1901 – 30 November 1972) was a German-born Austrian composer of classical music.From 1916 to 1919 he studied piano, conducting and music theory in Karlsruhe with Alfred Lorenz. In 1920 he was Kapellmeister and Répétiteur at the Badisches Landestheater in Karlsruhe. He studied in Vienna with Arnold Schoenberg from 1921–1925, and from 1925–35 with Alban Berg, two prominent members of the Second Viennese School. At the same time, he taught piano, composition and music theory privately.

Some of his compositions demonstrate his particular affinity with expressionist painting—he was friends with Emil Nolde, Oskar Kokoschka and Alfred Kubin. During the Nazi period his music was proscribed as "degenerate", but he continued to live in Vienna until his death in 1972.

Apostel was active as a pianist, accompanist, and conductor of contemporary music in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. After the war, he was prominent in the Austrian branch of the Gesellschaft für Neue Musik, of which he was president from 1947 to 1950.

He was an editor for the Universal Edition, and was responsible for new editions of the operas of Alban Berg, Wozzeck (published in 1955) and Lulu (published in 1963).

Although he won numerous prizes for his compositions (including the Grand Austrian State Prize in 1957), his works have rarely been performed. He is buried in the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna, Group 32C, No. 57.

Hans Fronius

Hans Fronius (12 September 1903 - 21 March 1988) was an Austrian painter and illustrator.

He was born in Sarajevo, which was then a territory of Austria-Hungary (now Bosnia and Hercegovina). His father was descended from an old, aristocratic Transylvanian Saxon family [see Fronius]. As a young boy, he witnessed the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, an event that would later form the subject of his book, Attentat in Sarajevo (English: Assassination in Sarajevo).

After the First World War, Fronius's family moved to Graz in Austria. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. From 1930 to 1960, he taught art and projective geometry at a grammar school in Fürstenfeld, Styria. His leftist sympathies put his teaching position in jeopardy after the Anschluss, and in 1943 he was drafted into the German army.

The art historian Otto Benesch called Fronius "the most significant Austrian illustrator since Alfred Kubin." His work is considered an example of 'Expressive Realism', with subjects that include portraits, street scenes, and literary interpretations. He was one of the first illustrators of the stories of Franz Kafka, and contributed illustrations to works by Edgar Allan Poe.He remained a prolific artist until his death at age 84 in 1988.


The Lenbachhaus (German: [ˈlɛnbaxˌhaʊs]) is a building housing an art museum in Munich's Kunstareal.

Letters to Family, Friends, and Editors

Letters to Family, Friends, and Editors is a book collecting some of Franz Kafka's letters from 1900 to 1924. The majority of the letters in the volume are addressed to Max Brod. Originally published in Germany in 1959 as Briefe 1902-1924, the collection was first published in English by Schocken Books in 1977. It was translated by Richard and Clara Winston.


The Mandlstraße is a street in Munich's Schwabing district. It runs west of the Englischer Garten from the corner of Maria-Josepha-Straße / Königinstraße to the corner of Gunezrainerstraße / Biedersteiner Straße and forms the eastern edge of the protected building complex Alt-Schwabing. The street was named after Johann Freiherr von Mandl-Deutenhofer (* 1588; † 12 August 1666), chancellor and president of the court chamber in the service of the Bavarian elector Ferdinand Maria.The Prestel Publishing is located in Mandlstraße 26, Mandlstraße 14 is the marital room of the Munich branch, and Mandlstraße 23 is the Catholic Academy in Bavaria. There is also an office building of the Munich Re, completed in March 2013, who’s construction was very controversial. Since 2011, a tree-shaped sculpture (discrepancy) made of stainless steel created by American artist Roxy Paine was placed in front of the building.Lujo Brentano lived at Mandlstraße 5. Albert Langen and Josephine Rensch lived at Mandlstraße 8, as well as Olaf Gulbransson, draftsman of the satirical magazine Simplicissimus from April 1905. In 1902 the painter Max Nonnenbruch acquired the house at Mandlstraße 10. In today's Mandlstraße 26 lived Alfred Kubin, the graphic artist, from 1904 to 1906, and Alexander Eliasberg lived in the house number 24. The inhabitants of Mandlstraße from late May to late November 1942, included Sophie Scholl as well as Willi Graf and his sister Anneliese. The Austrian conductor Felix Weingartner also lived on Mandlstraße.A total of fifteen historically-protected objects are located along the 350-meter-long road, including the route to the Ensembleschutz Altschwabing (E-1-62-000-4).

Marcelo Grassmann

Marcelo Grassmann (September 23, 1925 – June 21, 2013) was a Brazilian engraver and draughtsman.

Initially interested in sculpture, Grassmann became a wood engraver in the 1940s and in the 1950s became famous as a metal engraver and draughtsman. He won several international first prizes, as in the I Salon of Modern Art of Rio de Janeiro (1953), the III Biennale of São Paulo (1955), the XXXI Biennale of Venice (1958)- prize for sacred art, III Biennale for Graphic Arts - Florence (1972).

Influenced by Austrian artist Alfred Kubin and Brazilian engravers Oswaldo Goeldi and Livio Abramo, Grassmann soon developed his own style of dreamlike figures including knights, maidens, death, horses, crabs and other fantastic creatures. Grassmann has also produced a large number of drawings. His works figure, among others, in the collections of the MoMA in New York, the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, the Museum of Fine Arts in Dallas and the Pinacoteca do Estado in São Paulo.

Musée-Galerie de la Seita

The Musée-Galerie de la Seita was a museum of tobacco-related objects located in the 7th arrondissement of Paris at 12, rue Surcouf, Paris, France. It opened in 1979 and closed in June 2000.The museum opened in 1979 on the site where Gros Caillou tobaccos were once manufactured. It displays collections acquired from 1937 onwards by the Societe Nationale d'Exploitation Industrielle des Tabacs et Allumettes (SEITA), the former state-owned manufacturer of French tobacco products including Gitanes and Gauloises.

The museum displays about 400 tobacco-related objects from Europe and elsewhere, selected from a total collection of about 3000 pieces. Its exhibits explain the plant and its botanical features, early factories, ritual and social uses, and methods of consuming tobacco. The museum contains a fine collection of wooden, ceramic, and meerschaum pipes, including hookahs and Native American ceremonial pipes, as well as items from the Musée de l'Homme reflecting the origins of tobacco in pre-Columbian America.

Its gallery has displayed temporary art exhibitions by artists including Jean-Michel Basquiat, Otto Dix, Alexej von Jawlensky, Alfred Kubin, and Marianne von Werefkin.

Neue Galerie New York

The Neue Galerie New York (German for: "New Gallery") is a museum of early twentieth-century German and Austrian art and design located in the William Starr Miller House at 86th Street and Fifth Avenue in New York City. Established in 2001, it is one of the most recent additions to New York City's famed Museum Mile, which runs from 83rd to 105th streets on Fifth Avenue in the Upper East Side of Manhattan.

Oswaldo Goeldi

Oswaldo Goeldi (31 October 1895 – 16 February 1961) was a Brazilian artist and renowned engraver. He was the son of Swiss naturalist Émil Goeldi.

Goeldi was born in born in Rio de Janeiro, but lived in Belém, in the state Pará, until he was 6 years old. His father was based there as director of the Museu de História Natural e Etnografia do Pará (presently the Emílio Goeldi Museum). In 1910 his family returned to Switzerland and he started his studies in Bern, and later in Zurich. After serving for a brief period in the army during the First World War, Goeldi moved to Geneva, where he was accepted at the École des Arts et Métiers. Frustrated with the academic environment, he abandoned the school after his father’s death in 1917 and began studying with artists Serge Pahnke (1875-1950) and Henri van Muyden (1860-s.d.), and later with Hermann Kümmerly, with whom he learned lithography.

In 1919 Goeldi returned to Rio de Janeiro and began a career of engraver and illustrator for popular magazines. He became attached to a group of vanguardist artists and intellectuals, such as Beatrix Reynal, Aníbal Machado (1894-1964), Otto Maria Carpeaux (1900-1978), Manuel Bandeira (1884-1968), Álvaro Moreyra (1888-1964), Ronald de Carvalho (1893-1935), Emiliano Di Cavalcanti (1897-1976) and Rachel de Queiroz (1910-2003). During this period, he worked intensely as an artist and did his first individual exposition, which was, however, poorly received by the art critics. Wounded by the criticisms, Goeldi withdrew from the artistic scene and isolated himself in the city of Niterói. Solitary, he supported himself more and more as a well known illustrator for book editions and magazines, working mainly with xylogravures. He also became estranged from his family in 1922, refusing their appeal to return to Europe. He took part in the Week of Modern Art in São Paulo that year. His first album, “10 Gravuras em Madeira” was edited in 1930, allowing Goeldi to save enough money to return to Europe en 1931. He exposed in Bern and Berlin, and visited again his great inspirators, Alfred Kubin and Hermann Kümmerli.

In the following decades, after returning to Brazil, Goeldi’s artistic prestige was strengthened, and he was accepted at the 25th Venice Bienal in 1950. He became nationally and internationally known and got his first prize, in the First International Art Bienal of São Paulo, in 1951. From 1952 until his death, Goeldi became a respected and influential art teacher in the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes.

He died on February 15, 1961, alone in his small apartment in Rio.

Goeldi's work has been exposed post-humously in more than a hundred expositions in Brazil, Argentina, France, Portugal, Switzerland and Spain.

Philipp Mainländer

Philipp Mainländer (October 5, 1841 – April 1, 1876) was a German poet and philosopher. Born Philipp Batz, he later changed his name to "Mainländer" in homage to his hometown, Offenbach am Main.

In his central work Die Philosophie der Erlösung (The Philosophy of Redemption or The Philosophy of Salvation) — according to Theodor Lessing, "perhaps the most radical system of pessimism known to philosophical literature" — Mainländer proclaims that life is absolutely worthless, and that "the will, ignited by the knowledge that non-being is better than being, is the supreme principle of morality."

Salomo Friedlaender

Salomo Friedlaender (4 May 1871 in Gollantsch – 9 September 1946 in Paris) was a German-Jewish philosopher, poet, satirist and author of grotesque and fantastic literature. He published his literary work under the pseudonym Mynona, which is the German word for “anonymous” spelled backward. He is known for his philosophical ideas on dualism drawing on Immanuel Kant, and his avant garde poetry and fiction. Almost none of his work has been translated into English.


Human self-reflection is the capacity of humans to exercise introspection and the willingness to learn more about their fundamental nature, purpose and essence. The earliest historical records demonstrate the great interest which humanity has had in itself.

Human self-reflection is related to the philosophy of consciousness, the topic of awareness, consciousness in general and the philosophy of mind.


Simplicissimus is also a name for the 1668 novel Simplicius Simplicissimus and its protagonist.

Simplicissimus (German: [zɪmplɪˈtsɪsɪmʊs]) was a satirical German weekly magazine started by Albert Langen in April 1896 and published until 1967, with a hiatus from 1944-1954. It became a biweekly in 1964. It took its name from the protagonist of Grimmelshausen's 1668 novel Der Abenteuerliche Simplicissimus Teutsch. The headquarters were in Munich.Combining brash and politically daring content, with a bright, immediate, and surprisingly modern graphic style, Simplicissimus published the work of writers such as Thomas Mann and Rainer Maria Rilke. Its most reliable targets for caricature were stiff Prussian military figures, and rigid German social and class distinctions as seen from the more relaxed, liberal atmosphere of Munich. Contributors included Hermann Hesse, Gustav Meyrink, Fanny zu Reventlow, Jakob Wassermann, Frank Wedekind, Heinrich Kley, Alfred Kubin, Otto Nückel, Robert Walser, Heinrich Zille, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Heinrich Mann, Lessie Sachs, and Erich Kästner.

Although the magazine satyrical nature was largely indulged by the German government, an 1898 cover mocking Kaiser Wilhelm's pilgrimage to Palestine resulted in the issue being confiscated. Langen, the publisher, spent five years' exile in Switzerland and was fined 30,000 German gold marks. A six-month prison sentence was given to the cartoonist Heine, and seven months to the writer Frank Wedekind. All the defendants were charged with ″insulting a royal majesty″. Again in 1906 the editor Ludwig Thoma was imprisoned for six months for attacking the clergy. These controversies only served to increase circulation, which peaked at about 85,000 copies. Upon Germany's entry into World War I, the weekly dulled its satirical tone, began supporting the war effort and considered closing down. Thereafter, the strongest political satire expressed in graphics became the province of artists George Grosz and Käthe Kollwitz (who were both contributors) and John Heartfield.

The editor Ludwig Thoma joined the army in a medical unit in 1917, and lost his taste for satire, denouncing his previous work at the magazine, calling it immature and deplorable. He left the magazine in the 1920s.

During the Weimar era the magazine continued to publish and took a strong stand against extremists on the left and on the right. As the National Socialists gradually came to power, they issued verbal accusations, attacks, threats and personal intimidation against the artists and writers of Simplicissimus, but they did not ban it. The editor Thomas Theodor Heine, a Jew, was forced to resign and went into exile. Other members of the team, including Karl Arnold, Olaf Gulbransson, Edward Thöny, Erich Schilling and Wilhelm Schulz remained and toed the Nazi party line, for which they were rewarded by the Nazis. It continued publishing, in declining form, until finally ceasing publication in 1944. It was revived from 1954-1967.

Other graphic artists associated with the magazine included Bruno Paul, Josef Benedikt Engl, Rudolf Wilke, Ferdinand von Reznicek, Joseph Sattler, and Jeanne Mammen.

Symbolism (arts)

Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.

In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal. The works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired greatly and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers. The name "symbolist" itself was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas, who invented the term to distinguish the Symbolists from the related Decadents of literature and of art.

Distinct from, but related to, the style of literature, symbolism in art is related to the gothic component of Romanticism and Impressionism.

The Yellow Sound

The Yellow Sound (in German, Der Gelbe Klang) is an experimental theater piece originated by the Russian artist Wassily Kandinsky. Created in 1909, the work was first published in The Blue Rider Almanac in 1912.The Yellow Sound was the "earliest and most influential" of four "color-tone dramas" that Kandinsky conceived for the theater between 1909 and 1914; the others were titled The Green Sound, Black and White, and Violet. Kandinsky's pieces were part of a larger trend of their era that addressed color theory and synesthesia in works that blended multiple art forms and media. Such works — Scriabin's Prometheus (1910) is arguably among the best known — utilized lighting techniques and other innovations to extend the normal range of artistic expression. Kandinsky had published his own theory on color and synesthesia in his Concerning the Spiritual in Art (1911).

Kandinsky never saw The Yellow Sound performed during his lifetime. He and his Blue Rider colleagues, including Franz Marc, August Macke, and Alfred Kubin, worked intensively on a planned 1914 Munich production, but it was cancelled by the outbreak of World War I. (That original production was perhaps intended for Georg Fuchs's Künstlertheater, which had the lighting facilities required by the project.) Two subsequent German productions, one at the Bauhaus, also failed to materialize.

The work had its belated world premiere on 12 May 1972 at the Guggenheim Museum and has since been staged (in various levels of authenticity and completeness) at the Theatre des Champs-Élysées, Paris (4 March 1976) and on 9 February 1982, at the Marymount Mahattan Theatre in New York City. There has also been productions at the Alte Oper, Frankfurt am Main (7–8 September 1982) the Theatre im National, Bern Switzerland (12–15 February 1987) and the NIA Centre, Manchester U.K. on 21 March 1992. Productions of The Yellow Sound have been mounted with three musical scores in three countries. The American production employed a rearrangement based on ideas from the lost original score (composed by Thomas de Hartmann) by Gunther Schuller, while a French production used a score by Anton Webern, and a Russian production one by Alfred Schnittke. The show was remounted with puppets in New York City in November, 2010, by Target Margin Theatre Co. at The Brick Theater. On 10 April 2011 The Yellow Sound has been performed in Lugano (Palazzo dei Congressi) with the original score composed by Carlo Ciceri. November 2011 also saw a full production of the stage composition with fragments of original score performed at Tate Modern, London, UK. This was commissioned as part of the Blaue Reiter Centenary Celebrations. The Yellow Sound is a one-act opera without dialogue or conventional plot, divided into six "pictures." A child in white and an adult performer in black represent life and death; other figures are costumed in single colors, including five "intensely yellow giants (as large as possible)" and "vague red creatures, somewhat suggesting birds...."

Drawing on elements of Symbolism and Expressionism (while and anticipating Surrealism), Kandinsky's work had a strong influence on German theater innovator Lothar Schreyer, who "built a whole theory of performance on the expressive process first suggested in The Yellow Sound."

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.