Alfred Goldscheider

Johannes Karl Eugen Alfred Goldscheider (4 August 1858 – 10 April 1935) was a German neurologist born into a Jewish family[1] in Sommerfeld (today Lubsko, Poland).

He studied medicine at Friedrich-Wilhelm Medical-Surgical Institute in Berlin (promotion 1881), and subsequently spent the next seven years as a military physician. During this period of time, he also served as an assistant to physiologist Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896). He later became a professor at the University of Berlin.

In Berlin, he served as directing physician at the Krankenhaus Moabit (from 1894) and at the Virchow-Krankenhaus (from 1906). In 1910 he succeeded Hermann Senator at the polyclinic.[2]

Alfred Goldscheider
Alfred Goldscheider (1858-1935)


Goldscheider is best known for his work with the somatosensory system, in particular, research of the body's thermoreceptors in regards to localized "coolness" and "warmness" spots. He also performed research of localized tactile skin sensitivity that included tests involving "pain" and "tickle" sensations. The eponymous terms; "Goldscheider's test" and "Goldscheider's percussion" are derived from his research. During this time period (the early 1880s), Swedish physician Magnus Blix (1849-1904) of the University of Uppsala was performing similar tests, independent of Goldscheider.

In the late 1890s, with neurologist Edward Flatau (1868-1932), Goldscheider performed studies on the structure of nerve cells and their changes under different stimuli. Also, he is credited with describing the skin disorder, epidermolysis bullosa, a condition sometimes called "Goldscheider's disease".[3]

Goldscheider died in Berlin.

Selected works

  • Die lehre von den specifischen energieen der sinnesnerven, 1881 – The doctrine associated with specific energies of the sensory nerves.
  • Eine neue Methode der Temperatursinnprüfung, 1887 – A new method of temperature sensory testing.
  • Diagnostik der nervenkrankheiten, 1893 – Diagnosis of diseases involving the nervous system.
  • Gesammelte abhandlungen, 1898 – Collected memoirs.
  • Physiologie der Hautsinnesnerven, 1898 – Physiology of skin sensory nerves.
  • Normale und pathologische Anatomie der Nervenzellen auf Grund der neueren Forschungen, 1898 (with Edward Flatau) – Normal and pathological anatomy of nerve cells on the basis of recent research.
  • Anleitung zur Übungs-Behandlung der Ataxie, 1899 – Instructions for exercise treatment of ataxia.
  • Das Schmerzproblem, 1920 – Problems pertaining to pain.[4]


  1. ^ Paul Lerner, "From Traumatic Neurosis to Male Hysteria, The Decline and Fall of Hermann Oppenheim, 1889-1919" in Mark S. Micale & Paul Lerner (ed.), Traumatic Pasts: History, Psychiatry, and Trauma in the Modern Age, 1870-1930, Cambridge University Press (2001), p. 146
  2. ^ Goldscheider, Johann Karl August Eugen Alfred in: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 6, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1964
  3. ^ Norrsell U, Finger S and Lajonchere C. Cutaneous sensory spots and the "law of specific nerve energies": history and development of ideas [PDF]. Brain Research Bulletin. 1999 [archived September 30, 2011];48(5):457-465. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(98)00067-7. PMID 10372506.
  4. ^ OCLC Classify published works
Edward Flatau

Edward Flatau (27 December 1868, Płock – 7 June 1932, Warsaw) was a Polish neurologist and psychiatrist. He was a co-founder of the modern Polish neurology, an authority on the physiology and pathology of meningitis, co-founder of medical journals Neurologia Polska and Warszawskie Czasopismo Lekarskie, andmember of Polish Academy of Learning. His name in medicine is linked to Redlich-Flatau syndrome, Flatau-Sterling torsion dystonia (type 1), Flatau-Schidler disease, and Flatau's law. His publications greatly influenced the developing field of neurology. He published a human brain atlas (1894), wrote a fundamental book on migraine (1912), established the localization principle of long fibers in the spinal cord (1893), and with Sterling published an early paper (1911) on progressive torsion spasm in children and suggested that the disease has a genetic component.


Goldscheider is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Alfred Goldscheider (1858–1935), German neurologist

Friedrich Goldscheider (1845–1897), Austrian manufacturer of the Goldscheider ceramics

Ludwig Goldscheider (1896–1973), Austrian-English art historian

Alexander Goldscheider (born 1950), Czech composer and music producer

History of pain theory

As long as humans have experienced pain, they have given explanations for its existence and sought soothing agents to dull or cease the painful sensation. Archaeologists have uncovered clay tablets dating back as far as 5,000 BC which reference the cultivation and use of the opium poppy to bring joy and cease pain. In 800 BC, the Greek writer Homer wrote in his epic, The Odyssey, of Telemachus, a man who used opium to soothe his pain and forget his worries. While some cultures researched analgesics and allowed or encouraged their use, others perceived pain to be a necessary, integral sensation. Physicians of the 19th century used pain as a diagnostic tool, theorizing that a greater amount of personally perceived pain was correlated to a greater internal vitality, and as a treatment in and of itself, inflicting pain on their patients to rid the patient of evil and unbalanced humors. This article focuses both on the history of how pain has been perceived across time and culture, but also how malleable an individual's perception of pain can be due to factors like situation, their visual perception of the pain, and previous history with pain.

Johannes Gad

Johannes Wilhelm Gad (30 June 1842 – 1926) was a German neurophysiologist who was a native of Posen. He was father-in-law to psychiatrist Oskar Kohnstamm (1871-1917).

He was an assistant to Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818–1896) at the physiological institute at the University of Berlin, and later worked under Adolf Fick (1829–1901) at the University of Würzburg. In 1893–1894 he was a visiting lecturer of physiology at Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and after returning to Germany, became departmental head at the physiological institute in Berlin. In 1895 he succeeded Ewald Hering (1834–1918) as manager of the department of physiology at the University of Prague.

Gad is known from his work in experimental physiology. He performed numerous investigations involving electrophysiology, spinal cord functionality, the relationship between lactic acid to muscle contraction, et al. With Edward Flatau (1868–1932), he conducted experiments that were critical of Bastian-Bruns Law in regards to the loss of function following spinal cord injury.

Among his written works was a textbook on human physiology that he co-authored with pharmacologist Jean-François Heymans, called Kurzes Lehrbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, and a treatise on skin sensation that he published with Alfred Goldscheider (1858–1935), titled Ueber die Summation von Hautreizen. In 1887, with Sigmund Exner, he founded the periodical Centralblatt für Physiologie.

Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Cemetery

The Protestant Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Cemetery (German: Der evangelische Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtnis-Friedhof) is a burial ground in the Westend district of Berlin with a size of 3.7 hectares. The cemetery is under monument and cultural heritage protection.

The cemetery is located on Fürstenbrunner way, adjacent to the cemetery Luisenfriedhof III and is connected by two paths.


Lubsko [ˈlupskɔ] (German: Sommerfeld, Lower Sorbian: Žemŕ) is a town in Żary County in the Lubusz Voivodeship in western Poland. It is the administrative seat of the Gmina Lubsko and has a population of 15,370 as of February 1, 2005.

Magnus Blix

Magnus Gustaf Blix (25 December 1849 – 14 February 1904) was a Swedish physiologist born in the parish Säbrå, presently located in Härnösand Municipality. He is the grandfather of UN weapons inspector Hans Blix.

During his career he was a professor at the Universities of Uppsala and Lund. Blix was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1892.

Blix is best known for his work in the 1880s involving somatic sensation. He discovered that electrical stimulation on different points on the surface of the skin caused distinct warm or cool sensations. Subsequently he built a "temperature stimulator" which showed that a decreased skin temperature produced cool sensations from localized spots at separate skin locations. He also discovered that increased temperature induced warm sensations from different cutaneous locations. In addition he performed tests that involved localized tactile sensitivity.

In 1881–82 Blix published his findings in two important documents. During this time frame, German neurologist Alfred Goldscheider (1858–1935), and American physician Henry Herbert Donaldson (1857–1938) of Johns Hopkins University were performing similar experiments, independent of Blix.

Blix is also credited for conducting extensive research on the physiology of muscles.

He died in Lund.


Proprioception ( PROH-pree-o-SEP-shən), is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense".In humans, it is provided by proprioceptors in skeletal striated muscles (muscle spindles) and tendons (Golgi tendon organ) and the fibrous membrane in joint capsules. It is distinguished from exteroception, by which one perceives the outside world, and interoception, by which one perceives pain, hunger, etc., and the movement of internal organs.

The brain integrates information from proprioception and from the vestibular system into its overall sense of body position, movement, and acceleration. The word kinesthesia or kinæsthesia (kinesthetic sense) strictly means movement sense, but has been used inconsistently to refer either to proprioception alone or to the brain's integration of proprioceptive and vestibular inputs.

Proprioception has also been described in other animals such as vertebrates, and in some invertebrates such as arthropods. More recently proprioception has also been described in flowering land plants (angiosperms).

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