Alfred Friendly (December 30, 1911 – November 7, 1983) was an American journalist, editor and writer for the Washington Post. He began his career as a reporter with the Post in 1939 and became Managing Editor in 1955. In 1967 he covered the Mideast War for the Post in a series of articles for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting in 1968. He is credited with bringing the Post from being a local paper to having a position of national prominence.
In 1933, Friendly came to Washington, DC, to look for work. A former professor who worked in the Commerce Department hired him, but his appointment to a high position at such a young age earned him criticism in the press and he resigned. For the next year he traveled the country in the middle of the Depression, eventually returning to become a reporter at The Washington Daily News, writing a column for government employees. Less than two years later he was hired to write the same kind of column for the Post, where he was soon assigned to cover war mobilization efforts and anti-war strikes.
When World War II broke out he entered the Army Air Force, rising to the rank of major before leaving in 1945. While in the military he was involved in cryptography and intelligence operations, finally becoming the second in command at Bletchley Park, and the highest ranking American officer there. After the war he remained in Europe as press aide to W. Averell Harriman, supervisor of the Marshall Plan.
A year later he returned to Washington and to the Post, where he became assistant managing editor in 1952 and managing editor in 1955. In 1966 he became an associate editor and a foreign correspondent based out of London. Hearing rumors of war in 1967 he headed to the Middle East where he was present throughout the 1967 War and wrote his series of award winning articles. He retired from the Post in 1971, though he continued writing occasional editorials and book reviews.
In 1983, at age 71, Friendly, who had developed both lung and throat cancer, committed suicide by shooting himself.
After his death, the Alfred Friendly Foundation was established. It administers the Alfred Friendly Press Partners to bring foreign journalists to the United States for internships at prominent news organizations. The Archives and Special Collections at Amherst College holds a collection of his papers.
During his retirement, Friendly wrote several books:
The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1968.Ahmed Sékou Touré
Ahmed Sékou Touré (var. Ahmed Sheku Turay) (January 9, 1922 – March 26, 1984) was a Guinean political leader who was the first President of Guinea, serving from 1958 until his death in 1984. Touré was among the primary Guinean nationalists involved in gaining independence of the country from France.
A devouted Muslim from the Mandinka ethnic group, Sékou Touré was the great grandson of the powerful Mandinka Muslim cleric Samori Toure who established an independent Islamic rule in part of West Africa.
In 1960, he declared his Democratic Party of Guinea (Parti démocratique de Guinée, PDG) the only legal party in the state, and ruled from then on as a virtual dictator. He was re-elected unopposed to four seven-year terms in the absence of any legal opposition. He imprisoned or exiled his strongest opposition leaders. It is estimated that 50,000 people were killed under his regime.Alfred Friendly Foundation
The Alfred Friendly Foundation is an American nonprofit foundation that awards Alfred Friendly Press Fellowships to journalists from nations in the developing world. The program is offered annually to approximately ten professional print journalists between the ages of 25 and 35, giving them a six-month, in-depth, practical introduction to the professional and ethical standards of the U.S. print media.
The fellowships were created in 1984 by Alfred Friendly, a Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter and former managing editor of the Washington Post. Convinced that healthy democracies need strong, free media, Friendly conceived a fellowship program that would both impart American journalistic traditions and respond to worldwide interest in the dissemination of fair and accurate news.
The Daniel Pearl Foundation joined with AFPF in 2003 to offer special fellowships to honor the life and work of journalist Daniel Pearl. Daniel Pearl Fellows have been placed with the Washington, D.C. bureau of the Wall Street Journal, Los Angeles Times, the Berkshire Eagle and North Adams Transcript. Applicants for the Daniel Pearl Fellowships must come from areas where Daniel Pearl worked as a journalist – including South Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa.Betty Abah
Betty Abah (born March 6, 1974) is a Nigerian journalist, author and a women and children's rights activist. She is the founder and Executive Director of CEE HOPE, a girl-child rights and development non-profit organization based in Lagos State.Carl Foreman
Carl Foreman, CBE (July 23, 1914 – June 26, 1984) was an American screenwriter and film producer who wrote the award-winning films The Bridge on the River Kwai and High Noon, among others. He was one of the screenwriters who were blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s because of their suspected communist sympathy or membership in the Communist Party.
He once said his most common theme was "the struggle of the individual against a society that for one reason or another is hostile." He elaborated that "the stories that work best for me involve a loner, out of step or in direct conflict with a group of people."David Nalle
Not to be confused with the political writer, game author and font designer, Dave Nalle.David Nalle (November 2, 1924 – August 2, 2013) was an American diplomat, writer, lecturer, and the former editor of Central Asia Monitor.Deepak Adhikari
Deepak Adhikari is a Nepali freelance journalist based in Kathmandu. He worked with AFP, Kantipur Daily and Nepal Magazine and has written for TIME, The Guardian, The Caravan, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Anadolu Agency, Al Jazeera English, Outside Magazine, The New York Times, Himal Southasian, among others. He has extensively written on Nepal’s political transition, evolution of the Maoists and human rights issues surrounding the Maoist insurgency.Francis Beaufort
Rear Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, KCB, FRS, FRGS, FRAS, MRIA (; 27 May 1774 – 17 December 1857) was an Irish hydrographer and officer in the Royal Navy. Beaufort was the creator of the Beaufort Scale for indicating wind force.Friendly (surname)
Friendly is the surname of:
Alfred Friendly (1911-1983), American journalist and editor
David T. Friendly (born 1956), American film producer
Ed Friendly (1922-2007), American TV producer
Fred W. Friendly, former president of CBS News
Henry Friendly, judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
Michael Friendly (born 1945), a professor of psychology at York University in Ontario, CanadaHenrietta Beaufort
Henrietta Beaufort (1778–1865), earlier Harriet Beaufort, was a botanist born of Anglo-French parents in Ireland. Her Dialogues on Botany for the Use of Young Persons was published in 1819 and aimed to teach plant biology to young readers.Januarius Jingwa Asongu
Januarius Jingwa (JJ) Asongu is an American philosopher, scholar, journalist, author, entrepreneur, and activist. Born in the small city of Lewoh, in the former British Southern Cameroons, Africa, he moved to the United States in the mid-1990s, where he is now a naturalized citizen.
In the United States, he continued as a human rights and political activist, while also engaged in academics. His academic career culminated in his becoming a professor of business and in 2012 he founded an American-style international university in Cameroon called Saint Monica University (SMU). With headquarters in the United States, SMU now has campuses in the Cameroons and upcoming campuses in Cambodia, Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria.John Grobler
John Grobler is a Namibia veteran investigative journalist who has written for several Namibian and international newspapers such as South Africa’s Mail & Guardian, as well as The New York Times, Al Jazeera, The Guardian, and Le Monde Diplomatique. Grobler is a co-founder of the Forum for African Investigative Reporters, an association of investigative journalists in Africa established in 2004.
He has won several awards over the years, most notably a CNN Africa Media award in 2008 for exposing the Mafia's hand in the Namibian diamond industry, as well as in 2016 for exposing the role of the Chinese and local business in the organised poaching of black rhinos in Namibia's Kunene Region.
Grobler is a 1996 Alfred Friendly Fellowship recipient.Kyiv Post
The Kyiv Post is Ukraine's oldest English language newspaper.Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative passed in 1948 to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion (nearly $100 billion in 2016 US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. Replacing the previous Morgenthau Plan, it operated for four years beginning on April 3, 1948. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-torn regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, improve European prosperity, and prevent the spread of Communism. The Marshall Plan required a lessening of interstate barriers, a dropping of many regulations, and encouraged an increase in productivity, as well as the adoption of modern business procedures.The Marshall Plan aid was divided amongst the participant states roughly on a per capita basis. A larger amount was given to the major industrial powers, as the prevailing opinion was that their resuscitation was essential for general European revival. Somewhat more aid per capita was also directed towards the Allied nations, with less for those that had been part of the Axis or remained neutral. The largest recipient of Marshall Plan money was the United Kingdom (receiving about 26% of the total), followed by France (18%) and West Germany (11%). Some eighteen European countries received Plan benefits. Although offered participation, the Soviet Union refused Plan benefits, and also blocked benefits to Eastern Bloc countries, such as Hungary and Poland. The United States provided similar aid programs in Asia, but they were not part of the Marshall Plan.Its role in the rapid recovery has been debated. Most reject the idea that it alone miraculously revived Europe, since the evidence shows that a general recovery was already under way. The Marshall Plan's accounting reflects that aid accounted for less than 3% of the combined national income of the recipient countries between 1948 and 1951, which means an increase in GDP growth of only 0.3%.After World War II, in 1947, industrialist Lewis H. Brown wrote at the request of General Lucius D. Clay, A Report on Germany, which served as a detailed recommendation for the reconstruction of post-war Germany, and served as a basis for the Marshall Plan. The initiative was named after United States Secretary of State George Marshall. The plan had bipartisan support in Washington, where the Republicans controlled Congress and the Democrats controlled the White House with Harry S. Truman as President. The Plan was largely the creation of State Department officials, especially William L. Clayton and George F. Kennan, with help from the Brookings Institution, as requested by Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Marshall spoke of an urgent need to help the European recovery in his address at Harvard University in June 1947. The purpose of the Marshall Plan was to aid in the economic recovery of nations after WWII and to reduce the influence of Communist parties within them. To combat the effects of the Marshall Plan, the USSR developed its own economic plan, known as the Molotov Plan, in spite of the fact that large amounts of resources from the Eastern Bloc countries to the USSR were paid as reparations, for countries participating in the Axis Power during the war.
The phrase "equivalent of the Marshall Plan" is often used to describe a proposed large-scale economic rescue program.María Cristina Caballero
María Cristina Caballero is a Colombian journalist known for her coverage of organized crime, corruption, and paramilitary forces. In 1999, she was awarded the International Press Freedom Award of the Committee to Protect Journalists.Murray Feshbach
Murray Feshbach (born August 8, 1929) is an American scholar focusing on the demographics of the Soviet Union and demographics of Russia (population, health, and environment). Currently, he is a Senior Scholar at the Woodrow Wilson Center where he conducts research on the policy implications of the demographic, health and environmental crises in Russia.
Feshbach was born in New York. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in history from Syracuse University, his Master of Arts in European diplomatic history from Columbia University, and his Ph.D. in economics from American University.
"He served as Chief of the USSR Population, Employment and Research and Development Branch of the Foreign Demographic Analysis Division (now the Center for International Research) of the Census Bureau from 1957 to 1981. In 1979-1980 he was a Fellow of the Kennan Institute. After his retirement from the U.S. government in 1981, he worked as a Research Professor at Georgetown University until 2000, when he retired as Professor Emeritus. At the request of the Department of State, in 1986-1987 he served as the first (experimental) Sovietologist-in-Residence, in the Office of the Secretary General of NATO".Operation Mockingbird
Operation Mockingbird is an alleged large-scale program of the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) that began in the early 1950s and attempted to manipulate news media for propaganda purposes. It funded student and cultural organizations and magazines as front organizations.According to writer Deborah Davis, Operation Mockingbird recruited leading American journalists into a propaganda network and oversaw the operations of front groups. CIA support of front groups was exposed after a 1967 Ramparts magazine article reported that the National Student Association received funding from the CIA. In the 1970s, Congressional investigations and reports also revealed Agency connections with journalists and civic groups. None of these reports, however, mentions by name an Operation Mockingbird coordinating or supporting these activities.
A Project Mockingbird is mentioned in the CIA Family Jewels report, compiled in the mid-1970s. According to the declassified version of the report released in 2007, Project Mockingbird involved the wire-tapping of two American journalists for several months in the early 1960s.Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting
This Pulitzer Prize has been awarded since 1942 for a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, including United Nations correspondence. In its first six years (1942–1947), it was called the Pulitzer Prize for Telegraphic Reporting - International.Salameh Nematt
Salameh Nematt (Arabic: سلامه نعمات) (born 2 October 1962) is a Jordanian journalist and analyst with over 25 years of experience in economic and political reporting, research and analysis of developments in the broader Middle East, Europe and the United States. He has worked extensively on Arab-Israeli political, economic, security and human rights issues, and has done in-depth reporting on conflicts throughout the Middle East, the Gulf, and North Africa.